All-Ireland Senior Club Camogie Championship

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All Ireland Senior Club Camogie Championship
Irish Craobh Club Camógaíochta na hÉireann
Founded 1964
Trophy Bill & Agnes Carroll Cup
Title holders Slaughtneil (Derry) (1st title)
Most titles St Paul’s (Kilkenny) (8 titles)

The All-Ireland Club Camogie Championship is the most important competition for club teams in the Irish women’s field sport of camogie.[1] It is contested by the senior club champions of the leading counties and organised by An Cumann Camógaíochta.

Trophy[edit]

The trophy for the competition was donated by Bill Carroll, whose daughter, Ann was one of the outstanding players of the first decade of the competition, winning Championships with both St Patrick’s, Glengoole and St Paul’s, Kilkenny.[2]

History[edit]

The competition was established in 1964, six years before the equivalent competitions in hurling and gaelic football. Between 1971 and 1978 and since 2010 it was concluded in the spring following the county championships. On other years it was concluded within the calendar year in November and December.

Teams from Kilkenny have won the competition 12 times, Cork with 8, followed by Galway and Wexford with 7 victories each, Limerick with 6, Dublin with 5, Tipperary with 4, and Antrim with one victory.

A junior club championship was introduced in 2004 and won by Crossmaglen (Armagh). The intermediate club championship was introduced in 2010 and the first two titles were won by Eoghan Rua from Coleraine in Derry.

Senior Wins Listed By Club[edit]

Click on the year for details and team line-outs from each individual championship.
Club (County) Wins Years won Runners-up Years runners-up
St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 8 1968, 1969, 1970, 1974, 1976, 1987, 1988, 1989 4 1966, 1973-74, 1986, 1990
Buffers Alley (Wexford) 5 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984 2 1978, 1980
Pearses (Galway) 5 1996, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2002 0
Glen Rovers (Cork) 4 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993 2 1987, 1994
Milford (Cork) 3 2012-13, 2013–14, 2015–16 0
Granagh-Ballingarry (Limerick) 3 1998, 1999, 2003 2 1996, 2004
St Lachtain's, Freshford (Kilkenny) 3 2004, 2005, 2006 0
St Patrick's Glengoole (Tipperary) 2 1965, 1966 0
Austin Stacks (Dublin) 2 1971, 1972 0
Cashel (Tipperary) 2 2007, 2009 1 2001
Oulart the Ballagh (Wexford) 2 2011–12, 2014–15 0
Celtic (Dublin) 1 1964 0
Eoghan Ruadh (Dublin) 1 1967 0
Ballyagran (Limerick) 1 1978 0
Oranmore (Galway) 1 1974 2 1967, 1975
Croagh-Kilfinny (Limerick) 1 1975 0
Athenry (Galway) 1 1977 7 1976, 1977, 1979, 1982, 1985, 2007, 2009
Killeagh (Cork) 1 1980 2 1981, 1984
Cuchulainn Crumlin (Dublin) 1 1985 0
Mullagh (Galway) 1 1990 3 1989, 1993, 2014–15
Lisdowney (Kilkenny) 1 1994 1 1997
Rathnure (Wexford) 1 1995 1 1992
O'Donovan Rossa (Antrim) 1 2008 1 2006
Killimor (Galway) 1 2010–11 1 2012–13
Slaughtneil (Derry) 1 2016-17 0
Davitts (Galway) 0 3 1999, 2003, 2005
Deirdre (Antrim) 0 2 1954, 1965
Ahane (Limerick) 0 2 1968, 1969
Portglenone (Antrim) 0 2 1972, 1977–78
Drom-Inch (Tipperary) 0 2 2008, 2011-12
Killimor (Galway) 0 2 2012–13, 2015–16
Bellaghy (Derry) 0 1 1970–71
Thurles (Tipperary) 0 1 1971–72
Glenamaddy (Galway) 0 1 1983
Eglish (Tyrone) 0 1 1991
Toomevara (Tipperary) 0 1 1995
St Vincents (Dublin) 0 1 1998
Swatrath (Derry) 0 1 2000
Cashel (Tipperary) 0 1 2001
St Ibars (Wexford) 0 1 2002
Rossa (Antrim) 0 1 2006
Inniscarra (Cork) 0 1 2010–11
Sarsfields (Galway) 0 1 2016-17

[3]

Highlights & Incidents[edit]

All-Ireland Senior Club Camogie Finals[edit]

Click on the year for details and team line-outs from each championship.
Year Date Winner Score Runner-up Score Venue Captain Referee
1964 Dec 13 Celtic (Dublin) 5-2 Deirdre (Antrim) 1-0 Croke Park Bríd Hanbury Lil O'Grady (Cork)
1965 Oct 17 SP Glengoole (Tipperary) 3-3 Deirdre (Antrim) 2-3 Casement Park Ann Carroll Lil O'Grady (Cork)
1966 Oct 30 SP Glengoole (Tipperary) 5-5 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 2-1 St John’s Park Ann Graham Lily Spence (Antrim)
1967 Nov 5 Eoghan Rua (Dublin) 3-4 Oranmore (Galway) 4-1 Parnell Park Bernie King
Replay Mar 31 Eoghan Rua (Dublin) 7-3 Oranmore (Galway) 4-1 Ballinasloe Ailish Toner Phyllis Breslin (Dublin)
1968 Nov 3 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 7-2 Ahane (Limerick) 1-2 St John’s Park Tessie Brennan Nancy Murray (Antrim)
1969 Nov 9 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 3-7 Ahane (Limerick) 2-1 Castleconnell Carmel O'Shea Jane Murphy (Galway)
1970–71[4] Mar 28 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 6-5 Bellaghy (Derry) 2-0 Bellaghy Mary Conway Jane Murphy (Galway)
1971–72[5] Mar 19 Austin Stacks (Dublin) 5-4 Thurles (Tipperary) 2-1 Croke Park Mary Ryan Lil O'Grady (Cork)
1972–73 Mar 25 Austin Stacks (Dublin) 4-2 Portglenone (Antrim) 2-0 Croke Park Mary Ryan Jane Murphy (Galway)
1973–74[6] Mar 10 Oranmore (Galway) 3-2 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 1-3 Nowlan Park Nono McHugh Phyllis Breslin (Dublin)
1974–75[7] Mar 9 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 3-3 Oranmore (Galway) 1-1 Ballinderreen Angela Downey Phyllis Breslin (Dublin)
1975–76[8] Mar 14 Croagh-Kilfinny (Limerick) 4-6 Athenry (Galway) 4-5 Athenry Bridie Stokes Phyllis Breslin (Dublin)
1976–77[9] Mar 13 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 6-3 Athenry (Galway) 1-3 Nowlan Park Mary Fennelly Phyllis Breslin (Dublin)
1977–78[10] Mar 19 Athenry (Galway) 10-5 Portglenone (Antrim) 1-1 Athenry Teresa Duane Sheila Murray (Dublin)
1978[11] Nov 19 Ballyagran (Limerick) 1-3 Buffers Alley (Wexford) 0-1 Monamolin Pauline McCarthy Jane Murphy (Galway)
1979[12] Dec 2 Buffers Alley (Wexford) 2-6 Athenry (Galway) 1-2 Athenry Kathleen Tonks Phyllis Breslin (Dublin)
1980 Nov 9 Killeagh (Cork) 4-2 Buffers Alley (Wexford) 1-7 St John's Park Breda Landers Phyllis Breslin (Dublin)
1981 Nov 8 Buffers Alley (Wexford) 2-6 Killeagh (Cork) 1-4 Gaultier Ann Butler Helena O'Neill (Kilkenny)
1982 Nov 14 Buffers Alley (Wexford) 3-2 Athenry (Galway) 0-2 Birr Elsie Walsh Phyllis Breslin (Dublin)
1983 Oct 30 Buffers Alley (Wexford) 3-7 Glenamaddy (Galway) 0-6 Monamolin Norah Gahan Phyllis Breslin (Dublin)
1984 Oct 28 Buffers Alley (Wexford) 2-4 Killeagh (Cork) 1-4 Monamolin Norah Gahan Kathleen Quinn (Galway)
1985 Oct 27 Crumlin (Dublin) 4-8 Athenry (Galway) 3-2 O’Toole Park Yvonne Redmond Bridie McGarry (Kilkenny)
1986 Oct 26 Glen Rvs (Cork) 4-11 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 5-7 Glen Rovers Mary Ring Kathleen Quinn (Galway)
1987 Nov 8 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 1-4 Glen Rovers (Cork) 0-5 Ballyragget Breda Holmes Betty Joyce (Cork)
1988 Dec 4 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 4-5 Glenamaddy (Galway) 3-7 Glenamaddy Claire Jones Betty Joyce (Cork)
1989 Nov 5 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 6-10 Mullagh (Galway) 4-2 Nowlan Park Ann Downey Betty Joyce (Cork)
1990 Nov 25 Glen Rovers (Cork) 4-13 St Paul’s (Kilkenny) 2-7 Nowlan Park Therése O'Callaghan Kathleen Quinn (Galway)
1991 Nov 24 Mullagh (Galway) 4-13 Eglish (Tyrone) 2-7 Ballinasloe Caroline Loughnane Betty Joyce (Cork)
1992 Nov 29 Glen Rovers (Cork) 1-9 Rathnure (Wexford) 0-2 Glen Rovers Mary Ring Áine Derham (Dublin)
1993 Nov 21 Glen Rovers (Cork) 6-12 Mullagh (Galway) 0-2 Ballinasloe Lynn Dunlea Áine Derham (Dublin)
1994 Nov 20 Lisdowney (Kilkenny) 5-9 Glen Rovers (Cork) 1-15 Ballyragget Catherine Dunne Áine Derham (Dublin)
1995 Nov 19 Rathnure (Wexford) 4-9 Toomevara (Tipperary) 1-5 Toomevara Geraldine Codd Maria Pollard (Waterford)
1996 Nov 24 Pearses (Galway) 1-8 Gran-B’garry (Limerick) 2-3 Ballingarry Ann Forde Áine Derham (Dublin)
1997 Nov 23 Pearses (Galway) 4-6 Lisdowney (Kilkenny) 2-5 Ballymacward Ann Forde Áine Derham (Dublin)
1998 [13] Nov 22 Gran-B’garry (Limerick) 1-19 St Vincents (Dublin) 1-8 Ballingarry Vera Sheehan Biddy Phillips (Tipperary)
1999 [14] Nov 28 Gran-B’garry (Limerick) 2-4 Davitts (Galway) 1-3 Tynagh Kay Burke Biddy Phillips (Tipperary)
2000 [15] Dec 3 Pearses (Galway) 2-11 Swatragh (Derry) 1-3 Mullingar Áine Hillary Áine Derham (Dublin)
2001 [16] Nov 4 Pearses (Galway) 2-8 Cashel (Tipperary) 0-13 Cashel Áine Hillary Áine Derham (Dublin)
2002 [17] Nov 3 Pearses (Galway) 2-13 St Ibar’s (Wexford) 1-5 Ballinasloe Áine Hillary Eamonn Browne (Tipperary)
2003 [18] Nov 2 Gran-Ballingarry (Limerick) 1-10 Davitts (Galway) 1-6 Mullingar Kay Burke Áine Derham (Dublin)
2004 [19] Nov 7 St Lachtain's (Kilkenny) 2-8 Gran-B’garry (Limerick) 0-7 Parnell Park Imelda Kennedy Liam Davitt (Westmeath)
2005 [20] Nov 20 St Lachtain's (Kilkenny) 1-9 Davitts (Galway) 1-4 Cloughjordan Imelda Kennedy John Pender (Kildare)
2006 [21] Nov 19 St Lachtain's (Kilkenny) 1-5 Rossa (Antrim) 1-3 Portlaoise Imelda Kennedy Cathal Egan (Cork)
2007 [22] Nov 18 Cashel (Tipperary) 1-18 Athenry (Galway) 0-9 Gaelic Grounds Sinéad Millea Úna Kearney (Armagh)
2008 [23] Nov 16 Rossa (Antrim) 2-15 Drom-Inch (Tipperary) 1-10 Donoughmore-Ashbourne Jane Adams[24] Úna Kearney (Armagh)
2009 [25] Dec 6 Cashel (Tipperary) 0-11 Athenry (Galway) 0-9 Clarecastle Una O'Dwyer Cathal Egan (Kerry)
2010-1 [26] Mar 6 Killimor (Galway) 3-18 Inniscarra (Cork) 1-4 Croke Park [27] Brenda Hanney Owen Elliott (Antrim)
2011-2[28] Mar 4 Oulart-the-Ballagh (Wexford) 3-13 Drom-Inch (Tipperary) 0-5 Croke Park Una Leacy Owen Elliott (Antrim)
2012-13[29] March 2 Milford (Cork) 3-6 Killimor (Galway) 1-6 Croke Park Elaine O'Riordan Ger O'Dowd (Limerick)
2013-14[30] March 2 Milford (Cork) 0-6 Ardrahan (Galway) 0-5 Croke Park Elaine O'Riordan Alan Lagrue (Kildare)
2014-15[31] March 1 Oulart-the-Ballagh (Wexford) 3-13 Mullagh (Galway) 0-7 Croke Park Karen Atkinson Cathal Egan (Cork)
2015-16[32] March 6 Milford (Cork) 2-8 Killimor (Galway) 1-3 Croke Park Sarah Sexton Alan Lagrue (Kildare)
2016-17[33] March 5 Slaughtneil (Derry) 1-10 Sarsfields (Galway) 0-11 Croke Park Aoife Cassidy R. Kelly (Kildare)

All-Ireland Intermediate Club Camogie Finals[edit]

Year Date Winner Score Runner-up Score Venue Captain Referee
2010-11[34] Mar 6 Eoghan Rua (Derry) 3-8 Harps (Laois) 2-3 Croke Park Maebh McGoldrick Mike O'Kelly (Cork)
2011-12 [35] Mar 4 Eoghan Rua (Derry) 2-8 Ardrahan (Galway) 0-12 Croke Park Maebh McGoldrick John Dolan (Clare)
2012-13 Mar 2 Castlegar (Galway) 1-8 Rower-Inistioge (Kilkenny) 1-6 Donoughmore-Ashbourne M. Kelly (Cork)
2013-14[36] Mar 2 Lismore (Waterford) 0-9 Ballyhale Shamrocks (Kilkenny) 1-6 Croke Park Cathal Egan (Cork)
Replay Mar 16 Lismore (Waterford) 3-8 Ballyhale Shamrocks (Kilkenny) 0-7 Clonmel Shona Curran John Dolan (Clare)
2014-15[37] Mar 1 Piltown (Kilkenny) 1-10 Lismore (Waterford) 1-9 Croke Park Laura Norris Peter Dowd (Meath)
2015-16[38] March 6 Cahir (Tipperary) 0-14 Eyrecourt (Galway) 1-2 Croke Park L. Dempsey (Kilkenny)
2016-17[39] March 5 Myshall (Carlow) 1-10 Eglish (Tyrone) 1-9 Croke Park F. McNamara (Clare)

All-Ireland Junior Club Camogie Finals[edit]

Year Date Winner Score Runner-up Score Venue Captain Referee
2003[40] Nov 2 Crossmaglen Rangers (Armagh) 2-5 Drumcullen (Offaly) 0-6 Mullingar Eimear Carragher Eamonn Browne (Tipperary)
2004[41] Nov 7 Liatroim Fontenoys (Down) 4-13 Four Rds (Roscommon) 0-8 Parnell Park Annie Morgan Eamonn Browne (Tipperary)
2005[42] Nov 20 Liatroim Fontenoys (Down) 3-7 Newmarket-on-Fergus (Clare) 0-8 Cloughjordan Lisa McCrickard Úna Kearney (Armagh)
2006[43] Nov 19 Harps (Laois) 1-7 Keady (Armagh) 0-5 Portlaoise Isa McCrickard Eamonn Browne (Tipperary)
2007[44] Nov 18 Harps (Laois) 2-8 Keady (Armagh) 2-7 Limerick Caitríona Phelan & Louise Mahony John Morrissey (Tipperary)
2008[45] Nov 16 Harps (Laois) 1-11 Kilmaley (Clare) 3-2 Nenagh Louise Mahony John Morrissey (Tipperary)
2009[46] Dec 6 Lavey (Derry) 1-11 Dunhill (Waterford) 1-11 Clarecastle Cathal Egan (Kerry)
replay[47] Dec 13 Lavey (Derry) 1-13 Dunhill (Waterford) 0-7 Donoughmore-Ashbourne Siobhán Convery Cathal Egan (Kerry)
2010[48] Nov 28 Four Roads (Roscommon) 1-9 Corofin (Clare) 0-6 Ballinasloe Lizzie Glennon-Tully Cathal Egan (Kerry)
2011[49][50] Nov 27 Inagh (Clare) 5-4 Tara (London) 2-4 Donoughmore-Ashbourne
2012 Nov 27 Myshall (Carlow) 1-3 Four Roads (Roscommon) 0-3 Donoughmore-Ashbourne P. Walsh (Monaghan)
2013 Nov 24 Myshall (Carlow) 3-9 Scariff/Ogonnelloe (Clare) 0-8 Kilcormac Ray Kelly
2014[51] Nov 23 Kilmessan (Meath) 2-8 Four Roads (Roscommon) 1-6 Edenderry G. O'Dowd (Limerick)
2015[52] Nov 22 Johnstownbridge (Kildare) 2-10 Athleague (Roscommon) 0-7 Kinnegad E. Cassidy (Derry)
2016[53] Nov 27 Johnstownbridge (Kildare) 1-10 Scariff/Ogonnelloe (Clare) 1-9 Birr Jenna Murphy J. Dermody (Westmeath)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moran, Mary (2011). A Game of Our Own: The History of Camogie. Dublin, Ireland: Cumann Camógaíochta. p. 460. 
  2. ^ Camogie.ie
  3. ^ For the sake of consistency in this chart, champions are listed for the year in which the competition commenced, including those years 1970–78 when the closing stages of the competition were held over until the following spring. Hence the March 1978 champions Athenry are listed as champions for 1977 and the November 1978 champions Ballyagran are listed as champions for 1978.
  4. ^ Timing of club championship brought forward to the spring after the qualifiers’ respective county championships
  5. ^ Sequence was changed in 1978 to bring camogie club championship within calendar year.
  6. ^ Sequence was changed in 1978 to bring camogie club championship within calendar year.
  7. ^ Sequence was changed in 1978 to bring camogie club championship within calendar year.
  8. ^ Sequence was changed in 1978 to bring camogie club championship within calendar year.
  9. ^ Sequence was changed in 1978 to bring camogie club championship within calendar year.
  10. ^ Sequence was changed in 1978 to bring camogie club championship within calendar year.
  11. ^ Sequence was changed in 1978 to bring camogie club championship within calendar year.
  12. ^ Sequence was changed in 1978 to bring camogie club championship within calendar year.
  13. ^ preview in Irish Independent, Tom Humphries comment piece in Irish Times
  14. ^ 1999 Granagh-Ballingarry 2-4 Davitts 1-3 report in the Irish Independent and Irish Times
  15. ^ Original match at Ballymacward on Nov 5 2000 was abandoned afeter 28 minutes due to worsening weather and ground conditions with Swatragh leading by 0-1 to no score, report in Irish Times and Irish Independent Nov 29 2000
  16. ^ 2001 Pearses 2-8 Cashel 0-13 Irish Independent
  17. ^ 2002 Pearses 2-13 St Ibar’s 1-5 report in Irish Independent
  18. ^ 2003 Granagh-Ballingarry 1-10 Davitts 1-6 report in Irish Independent
  19. ^ 2004 St Lachtain’s 2-8 Granagh-Ballingarry 0-7 report in Irish Examiner and Irish Independent, Preview in Irish Independent
  20. ^ St Lachtain’s 1-9 Davitts 1-4 report in Irish Independent and Irish Times
  21. ^ St Lachtain’s 1-5 Rossa 1-3 report in Irish Independent and Irish Times
  22. ^ Cashel 1-18 Athenry 0-9 report in Irish Independent, Irish Times and on camogie.ie, preview in Irish Independent
  23. ^ 2008 O'Donovan Rossa 2-15 Drom & Inch 1-10 Report in Irish Independent and on Camogie.ie, Preview on Camogie.ie
  24. ^ Jane Adams interviewed by Tom Humphries, Irish Times Nov 11 2008
  25. ^ 2009 Cashel 0-11 Athenry 0-9 report in Irish Times Irish Independent, RTE online and Tipperary Star[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ 2010 senior Killimor 3-18 Inniscarra 1-4 Report in Irish Times, Irish Independent, camogie.ie and on RTE Online
  27. ^ Attendance at the 2010 final, the first to be staged in Croke Park for 38 years, was 4,724
  28. ^ 2011 Oulart The Ballagh 3-13 Drom & Inch 0-5 report on camogie.ie RTÉ Sport, Irish Examiner (Oulart too strong for Tipp girls), Irish Times (Model make merry again as Oulart hold all the aces), Enniscorthy Echo (Oulart’s greatest day), Wexford People (Oulart in Dreamland), O'Connor admits it couldn't have been scripted better, Mary completes full set of medals with lifelong pals and Irish Independent (Sister act boosts classy Oulart)
  29. ^ "Milford marvels make history". Irish Examiner. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  30. ^ "Dour struggle but heroic Milford keep their crown". Irish Examiner. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  31. ^ "Red-hot Oulart-The-Ballagh ooze class against Mullagh". Irish Examiner. 2 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  32. ^ "Milford power home again". Irish Examiner. 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  33. ^ "Slaughtneil's finest hour as they claim All-Ireland Senior Club Camogie final". Irish Examiner. 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017. 
  34. ^ 2010 Intermediate Harps 1-11 Kilmaley 3-2 Report in Irish Independent and on Camogie.ie
  35. ^ 2011 Intermediate Eoghan Rua 2-8 Ardrahan 0-12 Report on 2011 Camogie.ie
  36. ^ "Mighty McGlone inspires Lismore". Irish Examiner. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  37. ^ "AIB All-Ireland intermediate club camogie final". Hogan Stand. 2 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  38. ^ "All-Ireland joy for Cahir at Croke Park". Irish Examiner. 7 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  39. ^ "Ciara Quirke scores 1-9 to help Myshall to All-Ireland glory". Irish Examiner. 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017. 
  40. ^ 2003 Junior Crossmaglen 2-5 Drumcullen 0-6 report in Irish Independent
  41. ^ 2004 Junior Leitrim 4-13 Four Roads 0-8 Four Roads report in Irish Independent
  42. ^ 2005 junior Leitrim 1-8 Four Roads 1-4 report in Irish Independent and Irish Times
  43. ^ 2006 junior Harps 1-7 Keady 0-5 report in Irish Independent and Irish Times
  44. ^ 2007 Junior Harps 2-8 Keady 2-7 report in Irish Independent, Irish Times and on camogie.ie
  45. ^ 2008 Junior Harps 1-11 Kilmaley 3-2 Report in Irish Independent and on Camogie.ie
  46. ^ 2009 Junior Lavey 1-11 Dunhill 1-11 report in Irish Times Irish Independent, and on RTE online
  47. ^ 2009 Junior replay Lavey 1-13 Dunhill 0-7 report in Irish Independent, and WLRFM
  48. ^ 2010 Junior Four Roads 1-9 Corofin 0-6 Report in Roscommon People, Clare Champion, Clare People
  49. ^ 2011 Junior Inagh 5-4 Tara 2-4 Report in Irish Independent, London Camogie
  50. ^ preview in Clare Champion
  51. ^ "Kilmessan v Four Roads AIB All-Ireland junior club camogie final". Hogan Stand. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
  52. ^ "Camogie: All-Ireland honours for Johnstownbridge". Hogan Stand. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  53. ^ "Camogie: Johnstownbridge make it two-in-a-row". Hogan Stand. 27 November 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2016. 

External links[edit]