All Along the Watchtower
|"All Along the Watchtower"|
|Single by Bob Dylan|
|from the album John Wesley Harding|
|B-side||"I'll Be Your Baby Tonight"|
|Released||November 22, 1968|
|Recorded||November 6, 1967|
|Bob Dylan singles chronology|
"All Along the Watchtower" is a song written and recorded by American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan. The song initially appeared on his 1967 album John Wesley Harding, and it has been included on most of Dylan's subsequent greatest hits compilations. Since the late 1970s, he has performed it in concert more than any of his other songs. Different versions appear on four of Dylan's live albums.
Covered by numerous artists in various genres, "All Along the Watchtower" is strongly identified with the interpretation Jimi Hendrix recorded for Electric Ladyland with the Jimi Hendrix Experience. The Hendrix version, released six months after Dylan's original recording, became a Top 20 single in 1968 and was ranked 47th in Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.
- 1 Bob Dylan's original
- 2 The Jimi Hendrix Experience
- 3 Other notable recordings
- 4 In popular culture
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Bob Dylan's original
Following a motorcycle accident in July 1966, Dylan spent the next 18 months recuperating at his home in Woodstock and writing songs. According to Clinton Heylin, all the songs for John Wesley Harding were written and recorded during a six-week period at the end of 1967. With one child born in early 1966 and another in mid-1967, Dylan had settled into family life.
Dylan recorded "All Along the Watchtower" on November 6, 1967, at Columbia Studio A in Nashville, Tennessee, the same studio where he had completed Blonde on Blonde in the spring of the previous year. Accompanying Dylan, who played acoustic guitar and harmonica, were two Nashville veterans from the Blonde on Blonde sessions, Charlie McCoy on bass guitar and Kenneth Buttrey on drums. The producer was Bob Johnston, who produced Dylan's two previous albums, Highway 61 Revisited in 1965 and Blonde on Blonde in 1966.
The final version of "All Along the Watchtower" resulted from two different takes during the second of three John Wesley Harding sessions. The session opened with five takes of the song, the third and fifth of which were spliced to create the album track. As with most of the album's selections, the song is a dark, sparse work that stands in stark contrast with Dylan's previous recordings of the mid-1960s.
Several reviewers have pointed out that the lyrics in "All Along the Watchtower" echo lines in the Book of Isaiah, Chapter 21, verses 5-9:
Prepare the table, watch in the watchtower, eat, drink: arise ye princes, and prepare the shield./For thus hath the Lord said unto me, Go set a watchman, let him declare what he seeth./And he saw a chariot with a couple of horsemen, a chariot of asses, and a chariot of camels; and he hearkened diligently with much heed./...And, behold, here cometh a chariot of men, with a couple of horsemen. And he answered and said, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, and all the graven images of her gods he hath broken unto the ground.
|“||"I haven't fulfilled the balladeers's job. A balladeer can sit down and sing three songs for an hour and a half... it can all unfold to you. These melodies on John Wesley Harding lack this traditional sense of time. As with the third verse of "The Wicked Messenger", which opens it up, and then the time schedule takes a jump and soon the song becomes wider... The same thing is true of the song "All Along the Watchtower", which opens up in a slightly different way, in a stranger way, for we have the cycle of events working in a rather reverse order."||”|
The unusual structure of the narrative was remarked on by English Literature professor Christopher Ricks, who commented that "All Along the Watchtower" is an example of Dylan's audacity at manipulating chronological time: "at the conclusion of the last verse, it is as if the song bizarrely begins at last, and as if the myth began again."
Heylin described Dylan's narrative technique in "Watchtower" as setting the listener up for an epic ballad with the first two verses, but then, after a brief instrumental passage, the singer cuts "to the end of the song, leaving the listener to fill in his or her own (doom-laden) blanks."
Critics have described Dylan's version as a masterpiece of understatement. Andy Gill said "In Dylan's version of the song, it's the barrenness of the scenario which grips, the high haunting harmonica and simple forward motion of the riff carrying understated implications of cataclysm; as subsequently recorded by Jimi Hendrix, ... that cataclysm is rendered scarily palpable through the dervish whirls of guitar."
Dave Van Ronk, an early supporter and mentor of Dylan, disagreed with the majority view when he made the following criticism:
"That whole artistic mystique is one of the great traps of this business, because down that road lies unintelligibility. Dylan has a lot to answer for there, because after a while he discovered that he could get away with anything—he was Bob Dylan and people would take whatever he wrote on faith. So he could do something like 'All Along the Watchtower,' which is simply a mistake from the title on down: a watchtower is not a road or a wall, and you can't go along it."
Performances and subsequent releases
John Wesley Harding came out at the end of 1967, on December 27, less than two months after the recording sessions. The song was the second single from the album, released on November 22, 1968, but did not chart. A live recording of "All Along the Watchtower" from the album Before the Flood appeared as the B side of "Most Likely You Go Your Way (And I'll Go Mine)" in 1974. The recordings came from separate concerts earlier that year at the Forum outside Los Angeles, both with Dylan backed by The Band.
Dylan first performed the song live on January 3, 1974, in Chicago on the opening night of his 'comeback tour'. From this first live performance, Dylan has consistently performed the song closer to Hendrix's version than to his own original recording. In The Bob Dylan Encyclopedia, critic Michael Gray wrote that this is the most often performed of all of Dylan's songs. By Gray's count, Dylan had performed the song in concert 1,393 times by the end of 2003. According to Dylan's own website, through 2015 he had performed the song 2,257 times.
In recent years, Dylan in live performances has taken to singing the first verse again at the end of the song. As Gray notes in his Bob Dylan Encyclopedia:
"Dylan chooses to end in a way that at once reduces the song's apocalyptic impact and cranks up its emphasis on the artist's own centrality. Repeating the first stanza as the last means Dylan now ends with the words 'None of them along the line/Know what any of it is worth' (and this is sung with a prolonged, dark linger on that word 'worth')."
Dylan possibly was following the lead of the Grateful Dead in concluding the song by repeating the first verse; the Dead covered the song in this fashion, both with and without Dylan.
The original recording of "All Along the Watchtower" appears on most of Dylan's "greatest hits" albums, as well as his two box set compilations, Biograph, released in 1985, and Dylan, released in 2007. In addition, Dylan has released live recordings of the song on the following albums: Before the Flood (recorded February 1974); Bob Dylan at Budokan (recorded March 1978); Dylan & The Dead (recorded July 1987); and MTV Unplugged (recorded November 1994).
The Jimi Hendrix Experience
|"All Along the Watchtower"|
European single cover
|Single by The Jimi Hendrix Experience|
|from the album Electric Ladyland|
|B-side||US "Burning of the Midnight Lamp"
UK "Long Hot Summer Night"
EU+JP "Can You See Me"
|Released||September 21, 1968 (US)
October 18, 1968 (UK)
October 1968 (EU and JP)
Olympic Studios, London;
Record Plant Studios, NYC
|Genre||Psychedelic rock, hard rock, blues rock|
|Label||Reprise, Track, Polydor|
|The Jimi Hendrix Experience singles chronology|
The Jimi Hendrix Experience began to record their version of Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower" on January 21, 1968, at Olympic Studios in London. According to engineer Andy Johns, Jimi Hendrix had been given a tape of Dylan’s recording by publicist Michael Goldstein, who worked for Dylan’s manager Albert Grossman. "(Hendrix) came in with these Dylan tapes and we all heard them for the first time in the studio", recalled Johns. According to Hendrix’s regular engineer Eddie Kramer, the guitarist cut a large number of takes on the first day, shouting chord changes at Dave Mason who had appeared at the session and played guitar. Halfway through the session, bass player Noel Redding became dissatisfied with the proceedings and left. Mason then took over on bass. According to Kramer, the final bass part was played by Hendrix himself. Hendrix's friend and Rolling Stones multi-instrumentalist Brian Jones played the various percussion instruments on the track. "That’s him playing the thwack you hear at the end of each bar in the intro, on an instrument called a vibraslap."  Jones originally recorded a piano part that was later mixed out in place of the percussion instruments. Kramer and Chas Chandler mixed the first version of "All Along the Watchtower" on January 26, but Hendrix was quickly dissatisfied with the result and went on re-recording and overdubbing guitar parts during June, July, and August at the Record Plant studio in New York. Engineer Tony Bongiovi has described Hendrix becoming increasingly dissatisfied as the song progressed, overdubbing more and more guitar parts, moving the master tape from a four-track to a twelve-track to a sixteen-track machine. Bongiovi recalled, "Recording these new ideas meant he would have to erase something. In the weeks prior to the mixing, we had already recorded a number of overdubs, wiping track after track. [Hendrix] kept saying, 'I think I hear it a little bit differently.'" The finished version was released on the album Electric Ladyland in September 1968. The single reached number five in the British charts, becoming the first UK stereo-only single to do so, and number 20 on the Billboard chart, Hendrix's only top 20 entry there. The song also had the number 5 spot on Guitar World's 100 Greatest Guitar Solos.
- Jimi Hendrix - vocals, lead guitar, acoustic guitar, bass
- Dave Mason - 12-string acoustic, electric guitar
- Mitch Mitchell - drums
- Brian Jones - percussion
Dylan has described his reaction to hearing Hendrix's version: "It overwhelmed me, really. He had such talent, he could find things inside a song and vigorously develop them. He found things that other people wouldn't think of finding in there. He probably improved upon it by the spaces he was using. I took license with the song from his version, actually, and continue to do it to this day." In the booklet accompanying his Biograph album, Dylan said: "I liked Jimi Hendrix's record of this and ever since he died I've been doing it that way... Strange how when I sing it, I always feel it's a tribute to him in some kind of way."
Hendrix's recording of the song appears at number 47 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time, and in 2000, British magazine Total Guitar named it top of the list of the greatest cover versions of all time.
Other notable recordings
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The Nashville Teens
The earliest recording of the song, other than by Dylan, was by British pop group the Nashville Teens, who had previously had a hit in 1964 with the song "Tobacco Road". Their recording of "All Along the Watchtower", produced by Vic Smith, was released as a single in the UK and Europe on Decca Records in March 1968, some six months before Hendrix's version. The recording was described by the NME as "both effective and commendable", and by Record Mirror as a "reasonably strong song idea", but failed to have any commercial success, and the band left the Decca label soon afterwards.
Dave Matthews Band
Dave Matthews Band has played the song since the band's inception in the early 1990s. Their rendition maintains Dylan's three chord structure and key signature but differs in style. Dave Matthews typically begins the song slowly with just bass, vocals and acoustic guitar. The band members come in after the line "the hour is getting late", picking up the tempo and intensity. The band's members then take extended solos, culminating with the line, "No reason to get excited." "Watchtower", as it is referred to by the band's fans, is a concert staple, often performed as either a closer or encore. In all, they have covered the song live more than 600 times, including solo performances by Matthews, and it has appeared on nine of their officially released live albums, though the band has never released a studio version.
In addition, the band has had numerous musicians guest with them while playing Watchtower including Carlos Santana, Neil Young, Warren Haynes from Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band, Trey Anastasio from Phish, Zac Brown, Bela Fleck, Robert Randolph, Marcus Mumford and Gary Clark Jr.
Irish rock band U2 first played a cover of "All Along the Watchtower" during their Boy Tour in 1981. Years later, during the Joshua Tree Tour in 1987, the cover was played for a second time, in San Francisco, California, with an additional verse added by Bono. This performance was later included as a scene in U2's 1988 rockumentary film, Rattle and Hum, and also appeared on the album of the same name. The performance was impromptu, with the band learning the chords and lyrics within minutes of taking the stage, and as a result, there were problems in editing the soundtrack. The song made its way into 47 live shows during the band's 1989 Lovetown Tour.
Neil Young, who played Woodstock as part of Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young, has performed numerous covers of the song, including a notable performance at Farm Aid in 1994, with band Crazy Horse and Willie Nelson. He also performed the song with Dave Matthews Band and with Booker T. and the M.G.'s at the Dylan 30th Anniversary Celebration at Madison Square Garden, a recording of which was issued in 1993 on The 30th Anniversary Concert Celebration album. In 2000, Young performed a live version with Chrissie Hynde of The Pretenders, which appeared on his album Road Rock Vol. 1: Friends & Relatives. In 2004, he performed a version with Bruce Springsteen.
Bryan Ferry recorded this song as a demo with Robin Trower in the mid-1990s. He completed the track during sessions in August 2006 for his Dylan tribute album Dylanesque released March 2007. It featured up-beat versions of Dylan's greatest hits.
Eddie Vedder and Pearl Jam
After performing the song live four times from 2004–2006 with Pearl Jam, lead singer Eddie Vedder was asked to record "All Along the Watchtower" with The Million Dollar Bashers for the soundtrack of the Dylan biopic I'm Not There. Named for Dylan's song "Million Dollar Bash", the group was formed by guitarist Lee Ranaldo of Sonic Youth. Its other members included Steve Shelley on drums; Television's Tom Verlaine, Wilco's Nels Cline, and Smokey Hormel on guitars; John Medeski of Medeski Martin & Wood on keyboards; and Dylan's bassist Tony Garnier.
In 2008, the song was played three times during Pearl Jam's US East Coast Summer Tour, including the Bonnaroo Music Festival. In 2009, the band was joined by Ronnie Wood of The Rolling Stones to perform the song at the Shepherds Bush Empire in London, England.
Bear McCreary/Battlestar Galactica
Television composer Bear McCreary arranged a distinctive version with non-Western tonalities of "All Along the Watchtower" for use in the final scene of the Battlestar Galactica season three finale "Crossroads, Part II". A version with all the lyrics was included on the season 3 soundtrack.
Steve Hackett Band
Steve Hackett played a live version of the song during a show at the Shepherd's Bush Empire with John Wetton on lead vocals (2010). Then he created a studio version of the song (also with John Wetton on vocals) for the new remastered edition of the Tokyo Tapes live album (2013). All Along the Watchtower's studio version involved: Steve Hackett on guitars and percussion, John Wetton on vocals, Roger King on keyboards, Lee Pomeroy on Bass and Garry O'Toole on drums. The initial live version include the same band except Nick Beggs on bass instead of Lee Pomeroy and Amanda Lehmann in a 2nd guitar part.
The song has been covered by many other artists, including:
- Brewer and Shipley
- Chris de Burgh
- Randy California
- Eric Clapton
- The Dream Syndicate
- Richie Havens
- Jeff Healey
- Michael Hedges
- Indigo Girls
- Van Morrison
- The Persuasions
- June Tabor
- Turtle Island String Quartet
- Paul Weller
- Bobby Womack
- Envy on the Coast
- Francis Cabrel, in a French translation titled "D'en haut de la tour du guet", on his album "Viser le ciel", 2012
- Devlin ft Ed Sheeran
In popular culture
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The song as originally recorded by Dylan was used in the 1999 film American Beauty. Hendrix's version was featured in the movies Withnail and I, Rush, Land of the Lost (without Hendrix's vocals), Private Parts, Forrest Gump, Clockers, A Bronx Tale, Blue Chips, Vegas Vacation, Tupac: Resurrection, the 2001 remake of Brian's Song, Watchmen (among others), and also in television shows such as The Simpsons, in episodes "Mother Simpson" and "My Mother the Carjacker" and appears in the announcement trailer for the upcoming video game Mafia III. The Bob Dylan version appears as playable track in the video game Guitar Hero 5.
The song is featured prominently in the re-imagined Battlestar Galactica, serving as a critical plot element of the show. The lyrics are referenced in the dialogue multiple times, and the opening bars are a recurring theme throughout the show. The show features a new arrangement by Bear McCreary during the season three finale, and Jimi Hendrix's version during the series' finale.
- Gray, Michael (2006), The Bob Dylan Encyclopedia, p. 7.
- Bush, John. "All Along the Watchtower". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-01-14.
- Sounes p. 215-8
- Heylin, 2009, Revolution In The Air, The Songs of Bob Dylan: Volume One, pp. 364–369.
- Bjorner, Olof (May 7, 2000). "Still on the Road: Bob Dylan Recording Sessions". Olof Bjorner. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Gray p. 356-7
- Gray p. 7
- Heylin p. 285
- Gill p. 130–1
- Cott p. 122
- Ricks p. 359
- Gill p. 131
- Dave Van Ronk, The Mayor of Macdougal Street, ISBN 978-0-306-81479-2
- Gray p. 350
- "Bob Dylan Songs". bobdylan.com. Retrieved 2017-01-18.
- Cf. "Dylan and the Dead".
- "Bob Dylan Albums". bobdylan.com. May 21, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Eddie Kramer, 'Hendrix: Setting The Record Straight, p. 135
- Eddie Kramer, 'Hendrix: Setting The Record Straight, p. 136
- Padgett, Ray: The Story Behind Jimi Hendrix's "All Along the Watchtower"
- Eddie Kramer, 'Hendrix: Setting The Record Straight, p. 174
- Eddie Kramer, 'Hendrix: Setting The Record Straight, p. 175
- "JIMI HENDRIX EXPERIENCE | full Official Chart History | Official Charts Company". Theofficialcharts.com. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- Eddie Kramer, 'Hendrix: Setting The Record Straight, p. 198
- "100 Greatest Guitar Solos: 5) "All Along the Watchtower" (Jimi Hendrix)". Guitar World. 2008-10-14. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved 2011-08-13.
- "Interview with Dylan: 09/29/95". Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel. 1995-09-29.
- "#47, All Along the Watchtower". rollingstone.com. April 7, 2011. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "The Best Cover Versions Ever". Total Guitar. Future Publishing. August 2000.
- "Their Music". The Nashville Teens. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- "Opulent Conceptions: The Nashville Teens - Sun-Dog". Expo67-cavestones.blogspot.co.uk. 2012-08-21. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- "Dave Mason's All Along The Watchtower cover of Bob Dylan's All Along The Watchtower". whosampled.com. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
- "U2 Live: All Along The Watchtower - Setlists". U2tour.de. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Milestones: U2's 'Joshua Tree' is 25 today; watch full 1987 'Save the Yuppies' concert – slicing up eyeballs // 80s alternative music, college rock, indie". Slicingupeyeballs.com. 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- list.fm/stats/u2-23d6b80f.html?tour=Lovetown+Tour "U2 Tour Statistics: Lovetown Tour" Check
|url=value (help). set list.fm. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Searchable Grateful Dead Setlists". DeadBase. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-13.
- "NME.com: Pearl Jam and Rolling Stones star unite onstage at intimate gig". NME.com. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
- Radio, Southern California Public. "Watch 'Walking Dead' composer Bear McCreary rock out, pirate-style". Retrieved 2015-08-15.
- "More from TV composers Michael Giacchino and Bear McCreary". Retrieved 2015-08-15.
- "Hackett Songs". Hackettsongs.sandbag.uk.com. 2010-11-30. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- Allmusic lists about 500 recorded versions, a figure which should be reduced to its quarter, after erasing all the duplicates.
- Mills, Jon. "Affinity: Affinity". Allmusic. Retrieved 2014-09-20.
- Viglione, Joe. "Brewer & Shipley: Weeds". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "Chris de Burgh: Footsteps". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- "Randy California: Shattered Dreams". AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-09-21.
- Lenny Kravitz & Eric Clapton - All Along The Watchtower, 1999 (Live). Retrieved 2016-03-07.
- Mason, Sewart. "The Dream Syndicate: The Complete Live at Raji's". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- "Second Hand Songs". secondhandsongs.com. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "The Jeff Healey Band: Live at Grossmans 1994". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- Jurek, Thom. "Michael Hedges: Platinum & Gold Collection". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "Indigo Girls: Back on the Bus, Y'All". AllMusic. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
- Collette, Doug (2008-11-08). "Van Morrison: Remasters Redux". Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- "Supertramp: Portrait 1970". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-11-15.
- "The Persuasions: Knockin' on Bob's Door". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "Peel Sessions: June Tabor (1990-11-27)". BBC. Retrieved 2010-12-26.
- Torreano, Bradley. "TSOL: Hell & Back Together: 1984-1990". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- "Klopjag: Musiek vir die Agtergrond". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
- "Turtle Island String Quartet: Have You Ever Been...?". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Paul Weller: Studio 150". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- Elias, Jason. "Bobby Womack: The Facts of Life". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- Woodstra, Chris. "XTC: White Music". AllMusic. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "Various Artists: Punk Goes Classic Rock". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- "Discographie - Francis CabrelFrancis Cabrel". Franciscabrel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Devlin: A Moving Picture". Allmusic. Retrieved 2014-10-30.
- "In Real Time (Extended and Remastered) by John Waite on Apple Music".
- "Everyday Companion All Along the Watchtower Every Time Played=".
- Youngquist, Paul (January 2013). "Stats of Exception: Watchmen and Nixon's NSC". Postmodern Culture. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 23 (2).
- "GCD :: Issue :: Watchmen". Comics.org. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- "John Corigliano - Mr. Tambourine Man: Seven Poems of Bob Dylan (for soprano and piano) (2000) - Music Sales Classical". Schirmer.com. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- Plasketes, Professor George (28 January 2013). Play it Again: Cover Songs in Popular Music. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-4094-9400-3.
- "Battlestar Galactica, "Daybreak, Part 2": There must be some kind of way out of here". Retrieved 2015-08-15.
- Whalen, Andrew. "The Martian Trailer 2: "All Along the Watchtower" Is An Ominous Choice". Idigitaltimes.com. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- "Epic Trailer for 'The Martian' Questions the Value of a Human Life in Space". Space.com. 2015-08-19. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- "Trailer: Matt Damon's 'The Martian' Aims To Be The Next 'Gravity' Or 'Interstellar'". Forbes.com. 2015-08-19. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- Gaming. "The Epic Matt-Damon-Lost-in-Space Trailer (No, the Other One): The Martian". Wired.com. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- "The Young Pope hasn't premiered yet, but it's already the internet's newest meme". Polygon. 2017-01-04. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- Blake (ed.), Mark (2005). Dylan: Visions, Portraits, and Back Pages. Mojo/DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7566-3725-5.
- Cott (ed.), Jonathan (2006). Dylan on Dylan: The Essential Interviews. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-92312-1.
- Gill, Andy (1999). Classic Bob Dylan: My Back Pages. Carlton. ISBN 1-85868-599-0.
- Gray, Michael (2006). The Bob Dylan Encyclopedia. Continuum International. ISBN 0-8264-6933-7.
- Heylin, Clinton (2003). Bob Dylan: Behind the Shades Revisited. Perennial Currents. ISBN 0-06-052569-X.
- Kramer, Eddie (1992). Hendrix: Setting the Record Straight. Warner Books. ISBN 0-7515-1129-3.
- Ricks, Christopher (2003). Dylan's Visions of Sin. Penguin/Viking. ISBN 0-670-80133-X.
- Sounes, Howard (2001). Down the Highway: The Life of Bob Dylan. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1686-8.
- Marqusee, M (2002). Chimes of Freedom: The Politics of Bob Dylan's Art, New Press