All but dissertation
In typical usage of the term, the ABD student has completed only the required preparatory coursework, and passed any required preliminary and comprehensive examinations, but has not completed the research requirements, typically including the writing and defense of a dissertation. A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions.
It has been described as a "state of permanent, epic procrastination, often lasting years", and the "uncompleted dissertation hangs over the candidate like a black cloud".
- Schuman, Rebecca (1 August 2014). "ABD Company". Slate.
- Peters, Robert L. (1997). Getting what you came for. Farrar Straus Giroux. p. 219
- Amy Novotney, "The misuse of PhD(c): Why a designation used by some students is seen as unethical", Monitor on Psychology, September 2016, Vol 47, No. 8, p. 36.
- Thomas Söbbing, Warum scheitern Vertragsverhandlungen?, disserta Verlag, 2010, p. 1.
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