All Grown Up!

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All Grown Up!
Allgrownuplogo.png
Also known asRugrats: All Grown Up!
Genre
Created by
Based onRugrats episode All Growed Up by Kate Boutilier and Eryk Casemiro
Developed by
Written by
  • Kate Boutilier
  • Shelia M. Anthony
  • Monica Piper
  • Eryk Casemiro
  • Scott Gray
  • Erin Ehrlich
  • Peter Hunziker
  • Joe Purdy
Directed by
Creative director(s)
Voices of
Theme music composer
Opening theme"All Grown Up with You" by Cree Summer
Ending theme
  • All Grown Up with You (Instrumental)
  • Phil & Lil's TV show song ("Coup DeVille" Only)
  • Susie's song ("Susie Sings the Blues" Only)
Composer(s)Bob Mothersbaugh
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons5
No. of episodes55 (list of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s)
  • Arlene Klasky
  • Gabor Csupo
  • Eryk Casemiro
Producer(s)
  • Jim Duffy
  • Cella Nichols Harris
  • Pemelle Hayes
  • Kate Boutilier
Editor(s)Kate Boutilier
Camera setupSingle-camera
Running time23 minutes
Production company(s)
DistributorViacom Media Networks
Release
Original networkNickelodeon
Picture format480i (4:3 SDTV)
Audio formatDolby Digital 5.1
Original releaseApril 12, 2003 (2003-04-12) –
August 17, 2008 (2008-08-17)
Chronology
Preceded byRugrats
Related showsRugrats Pre-School Daze

All Grown Up! is an American animated television series aired between 2003 to 2008. The show was created by Arlene Klasky and Gábor Csupó and developed by Kate Boutilier, Eryk Casemiro, and Monica Piper for Nickelodeon. The show is a spinoff of Rugrats, taking place about ten years after the original series ended and finds the original characters in their tweens (10-12) and teens (13-17).[1]

After the success of All Growed Up, the Rugrats 10th anniversary special, Nickelodeon commissioned All Grown Up! as a spin-off series based on the episode.[2] The series ran from 2003 to 2008 with a total of five seasons and 55 episodes. Despite mixed reviews from critics, the series has garnered a cult following and original fans of the series found that the spin off had more intriguing plots, more character development, and more emotion than the original calling it “the best sequel series to Rugrats”.

Premise[edit]

Tommy, Dil, Chuckie, Phil, Lil, Kimi, Angelica, and Susie are now tweens/teens. They have to deal with the various issues and the situations that occur during this age.

Episodes[edit]

SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
Pilot movieJuly 21, 2001 (2001-07-21)
113April 12, 2003 (2003-04-12)August 28, 2004 (2004-08-28)
212June 4, 2004 (2004-06-04)February 12, 2005 (2005-02-12)
311April 11, 2005 (2005-04-11)October 10, 2005 (2005-10-10)
49December 7, 2005 (2005-12-07)November 20, 2007 (2007-11-20)
510November 21, 2007 (2007-11-21)August 17, 2008 (2008-08-17)

Characters[edit]

  • Tommy Pickles (voiced by E. G. Daily): Tommy, now an 11-year-old boy with a full head of hair, is the elder brother of Dil Pickles and self-proclaimed leader of the group. Tommy also has an interest in film making and inventing like his father. His friends still look up to him for advice when a situation gets out of control.
  • Dylan "Dil" Pickles (voiced by Tara Strong): Dil is Tommy's 10-year-old brother and shares his father and brother's interest in inventing. Dil is known for his unconventional habits, style, speech, interests and beliefs. Although he is the youngest he is often the most insightful of the group.
  • Charles "Chuckie" Crandal Finster, Jr. (voiced by Nancy Cartwright): Chuckie, 12- year- old, is Tommy's best friend and Kimi's older stepbrother. He is shy and timid, though he has a "rebellious streak".
  • Phillip "Phil" and Lillian "Lil" DeVille (both voiced by Kath Soucie) Phil and Lil are good friends of Tommy, Chuckie and Dil. Phil and Lil are 11-year-old twins who remained very close and have gross tendencies when together. Lil is a tomboy but has matured more than her brother. Lil is interested in fashion and boys. While Phil is very talented at cooking.
  • Kimi Watanabe-Finster (voiced by Dionne Quan): Kimi is Chuckie's 11-year-old stepsister. While she lives with her mother Kira and stepfather Chas, she has a good relationship with her biological father, Hiro, who lives in Japan. Kimi also has a good relationship with Chuckie. She is a bit of a tomboy, adopted a punk style, and started to embrace her Japanese heritage.
  • Angelica Pickles (voiced by Cheryl Chase): Angelica is Tommy and Dil's cousin, now a 13-year-old teenager. She is usually seen doing many typical "teen things" like getting a cell phone, pursuing boys, and getting the latest fashion trends. Although she has grown up, Angelica continues to be mean and spoiled in her pursuit of popularity. She also has a self-serving and bossy behavior. She maintains a close relationship with Susie and has learned work with others, giving help or acting kind.
  • Susie Carmichael (voiced by Cree Summer): Susie, also 13- years -old, is Angelica's best friend and tries to keep her grounded. Susie is helpful and kind to her younger friends while keeping her reputation as the responsible one of the group. She is smart and displays a talent for singing.

Development[edit]

All Growed Up and conception[edit]

The idea for All Grown Up! originated in All Growed Up, a television special which aired in 2001 to celebrate the 10th anniversary of Rugrats and portrayed the orgiinal characters 10 years into the future.[3][4] The special was nominated for "Outstanding Children's Program" in the 2002 Creative Arts Emmy Awards[5] The special was highest rated Rugrats episode, the highest-rated Nickelodeon program, and cable's #1 show for the week ending July 22, 2001, with a 7.2 rating equivalent to 12 million viewers.[3] Approximately 70% of all kids aged 2-11 tuned in to watch the special.[6] Nickelodeon president, Herb Scannell, noted that a "Surprising numbers of kids held Rugrats parties on Saturday night and watched the show in groups".[3] The following day, Nickelodeon said "'We've got to make this a show,' because of the size of the audience that came to it."[7] Noting the immediate popularity of the show's concept, All Growed Up was deemed the network's equivalent of the Super Bowl.[8] Nickelodeon made a two-season order of 35 episodes.[9] Nick's press releases for the Rugrats' 10th anniversary noted that the All Growed Up special was a "one time only" special. Nickelodeon was so impressed by the high ratings, they wanted to use the show as a pilot for either a regular spinoff series or a series of occasional one-hour specials.[3] Finally, Nickelodeon decided to commission an entire series around the teenage main characters.[6] Arlene Klasky explained "It got enormous ratings, so Nickelodeon blessed us with another series".[10] Margie Cohn felt that Rugrats had endured prolonged success due to the " series writing, and the appeal of the shows well developed characters to its deeply devoted audience", and argued the sequel resulted from fan support and speculation on how the characters would age.[9]

While Nickelodeon executives were concerned that the new series would maintain the Rugrat's appeal, they acknowledged a revision to the successful franchise was necessary as the original series was beaten in the ratings by shows such as: Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius and SpongeBob SquarePants.[10] On October 16, 2001, a PC game based on the All Growed Up special was released.[5] After release in the US & Canada, All Growed Up debuted on Canadian television by YTV, Rugrats' English broadcaster in Canada, on September 3, 2001 . The French Canadian version, "Les Razmoket, Dix Ans Après", was broadcast in two parts on VRAK.TV, on December 1, 2001 and December 8, 2001.[5] In Britain and Australia, the video was released as "Older And Bolder", because a Rugrats video existed in those countries named "All Growed Up".[5] An All Growed Up book was also released.[5]

Production[edit]

"[While] the original idea was based on my experiences with my own toddlers our audience has grown up with the show's characters, and they have said over the years they would love to see how the Rugrats grow up."

Rugrats co-creator Arlene Klasky[11]

Nickelodeon ordered 13 episodes, to be created by Rugrats animation studio Klasky Csupo[12] for production in September 2002.[5] The series was originally set to air in late 2003 under the title All Grown Up.[5] During summer 2003, teasers for All Grown Up aired.[5] All Grown Up was intended as the first Rugrats spinoff as others were under consideration.[12] The series premiered with its first episode, "Coup DeVille", on April 12, 2003, following the Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards. The regular series was slated to begin during the Nonstop Nicktoons Weekend (November 27-30, 2003).[13] By November 2003, Rugrats was no longer in production. [7] In 2004 Rugrats and All Grown Up were aired concurrently to highlight the characters in two stages of their lives.[12] All Grown Up aired twice per week.[8] On August 23, 2004, The Washington Post interviewed the voice actor for Angelica about the show.[14]

The new episodes shifted from the 11-minute Rugrats format of two stories per episode, to a single 22-minute story. This was to allow "more time to develop and tell a story and see where the characters go with it".[7] Each of the episodes focused on the life of a main character.[7] The idea of the characters "facing a lot of firsts" was retained "only in the realm of social and political forces".[7] The show included gradual stylistic changes, with the first 10 episodes similar to the All Growed Up special and the original Rugrats world.[7] The second set of 10 episodes had a more contemporary look, with characters being given "hipper" clothing. Over the 3 seasons of 35 episodes, the developers hoped for a gradual evolution in style to where the audience will be comfortable with the changes.[7] The main cast recorded their parts for each episode in about one hour. [15] By November 24, 2003, 15 episodes began airing while 10 more episodes were in the scripting stage.[9]

Casting and characterization[edit]

"[The show's concept] meant abandoning many of the conventions and stylistic traits of the original, such as the idea that the babies can communicate with each other but not with the adults. Also, the visual trademark of seeing things through the low-to-the-ground point of view of an infant."

The Los Angeles Times[16]

The existing cast modified their voices for their characters' new ages; Tommy's voice actress noted "It was a little harder when we were doing the first batch of episodes, when they were just coming in and trying to define everybody and how they've grown".[7] The writers mellowed Angelica and her voice actress noted "I welcome the new development in her character, the way she can be vulnerable. She's getting some real acting challenges from the material the writers are coming up with".[7] She compared her role to Bart Simpson's voice actress who will likely play the 10 year old until retirement, noting that now she could play the same character with a "bit more sophistication".[15] Susie's character changes included having "a little more sass, a little less innocence and a little more bottom end".[7] "All Grown Up'' attracted 30 million viewers a month, including a large number of 12- to 14-year-olds.[8] The producers didn't delve into the "characters' loss of innocence" with topics such as sex and drugs in favor of issues relevant to 9- to 11-year-olds, the show's target demographic.[17] While the producers didn't take the teen approach with All Grown Up!, they did with another show As Told by Ginger.[17]

Executive producer Arlene Klasky acknowledged "It was always in the back of our minds that we would love to see what these characters were like as they grew".[7] Susie Carmichael voice actor, Cree Summer, noted that while part of a cartoon's appeal is not growing up, she noted a natural evolution of the show after 12 years on the air.[10] Tommy Pickles voice actor, E.G. Daily, said that while her character was still the star of the show, he was older, wiser, and using more contemporary language.[10] Cyma Zarghami, Nickelodeon's executive vice president and general manager, said "The tween special proved kids are ready to embrace these beloved characters in a whole new realm. The Rugrats property is 11 years old, so it feels just right to have the babies turn into tweens in their 12th year on the air".[18][12] On the evolution of Angelica, Marjorie Cohn, executive vice president for development and original programming at Nickelodeon explained: ''She's the center of the universe, and she keeps bumping up against forces that tell her she's not. She's become more vulnerable and has to learn to navigate the social strata of junior high".[8] Noting that as a teen, Angelica rejected her younger cousins as an embarrassment, the developers created a situation where Angelica realized she needed them.''[8] The potential for more sophisticated storytelling was one of the factors in the creation of the series.[8] The show's creators thought that "pushing the show to the next age bracket" would be an effective way of "holding on to viewers who have grown up with Rugrats".[7] Tommy's voice actress, E.G. Daily, said: "I'm definitely going to miss doing [baby Tommy], but it's awesome watching people grow."[7]

Other proposed spin-offs[edit]

Comparison in design style between Rugrats (left) and All Grown Up! (right)

At the Television Critics Association tour in July 2001, Nickelodeon executives mentioned that All Growed Up was one of three spinoff concepts proposed by Nickelodeon to continue the successful Rugrats franchise.[5] In 2002, Nickelodeon aired the episode "Pre-School Daze",[19] the pilot for a series in which Angelica and Susie attend preschool. According to Variety in September 2002, the show was to be re-purposed as a series of four standalone specials.[12] The program aired in the UK in 2005. The North American debut took place in late 2008 after the cancellation of the series.[20] Another proposed spinoff was a series featuring Susie and the Carmichael family, who would move from California to Atlanta, Georgia; it was first proposed for the 1999–2000 television season, but Nickelodeon and Klasky-Csupo decided instead to concentrate on all the original-aged Rugrats.[20] The Kwanzaa special, which aired in 2001, served as a pilot for this new series, but the series would have contradicted the established continuity.[20]

In the thirteenth episode of All Grown Up! , "Lucky 13", Angelica leaves the pre-teen world to become a teenager. When asked if the popularity of that episode would produce a spinoff as the characters enter teendom, Nickelodeon executives explained: "It has been talked about but said the network had no immediate plans to push the entire cast into puberty", though noted that those connected with the franchise were "eager to continue developing the characters".[8] The show was preceded by a six-hour marathon of Angelica-centered episodes of Rugrats and All Grown Up. [21] [8] Angelica's voice actor expressed a desire to take part in any spin-off the Rugrats, from Angelica Goes to College to Rugrats in the Nursing Home.[15] In 2003, Cohn proposed that Rugrats characters' play the leads in classic fairy tales for Nickelodeon.[9]

Release[edit]

A preview show premiered on April 12, 2003[22] before its regular run began on November 9, 2003.[23] More than 5.2 million viewers watched the regular run, in 2nd place behind an NFL game on ESPN, and making it the highest-rated premiere at Nickelodeon's to date.[citation needed] The show aired in reruns on "Nick on CBS" for six months from March 13, 2004, to September 4, 2004.[citation needed] In addition, in its first season, All Grown Up! had its first of two celebrity guest stars: Lil Romeo as "Lil Q" (Cupid) in episode 11, "It's Cupid, Stupid".[24] The German broadcast premiered on August 21, 2006 on Nick.[23] In early 2007, All Grown Up! was removed from the Nickelodeon schedule in the United States,[citation needed] returning to air the remaining episodes in 2008. Nickelodeon US aired most of the final season of All Grown Up! from June 15, 2008 through August 17, 2008. Since the series' cancellation, Nicktoons aired reruns until October 28, 2013.[citation needed]

Critical reception[edit]

The debut show was in the top 15 ratings spots.[10]

Common Sense Media felt that the show's scenarios were not as good as in the original series, commenting that they were "thoughtfully crafted" but lacked the satiric take of babies misunderstanding the adult world. Rather the show was choosing to tackle more standard pre-teen themes.[25] The Los Angeles Times felt this series was "a revolutionary idea" for a series with characters perpetually stuck in their status quo.[7]

Anaheim Calling gave the show 1 star, writing that in this " complete travesty", the lovable Rugrats were turned into angsty teens.[26] Image felt All Grown Up! was the "natural progression of the show".[27] GamesRadar felt it was an " ill-advised venture".[28] CBR commented "The sense of adventure and exploration of the original had been lost, those special personalities they had as babies vanished in a haze of pre-pubescent insecurities"[29], though felt it was a "fun "what-if" ".[30] NYU argued the show didn't pursue the character's progression with a sense of accuracy.[31] The Gamer thought it was a "terrible excuse for a sequel ".[32] Chicago Tribune wrote that in the new series, Angelica has "become an overbearing teen, still bossing around Tommy and his chums".[33]

Merchandise[edit]

VHS and DVD releases[edit]

A total of twelve All Grown Up! DVDs have been released:

VHS and DVD
VHS and DVD name Publisher Episodes # Release date (Region 1) Release date (Region 2) Release date (Region 4) Additional information
All Grown Up! Nickelodeon 2 August 26, 2003 November 8, 2004 September 15, 2005 The DVD also includes two bonus Rugrats episodes. These are, Rugrats: All Growed Up! and Rugrats: My Fair Babies.
Lucky 13 Nickelodeon 4 August 31, 2004 September 5, 2005 September 15, 2005 Episodes on the DVD are Lucky 13, Tweenage Tycoons, Truth or Consequences, and Thief Encounter.
O'Brother! Nickelodeon 4 November 16, 2004 November 7, 2005 November 17, 2005 Episodes on the DVD are Brother, Can You Spare The Time?, Tommy Foolery, The Old and The Restless, and Bad Kimi.
All Grown Up And Loving It Nickelodeon 4 January 11, 2005 February 13, 2006 March 30, 2006 Episodes on the DVD are It's Cupid, Stupid!, Chuckie's In Love, Saving Cynthia, and Fear Of Falling.
Interview With A Campfire Nickelodeon 4 April 5, 2005 July 27, 2006 September 29, 2006 Episodes on the DVD are Interview With A Campfire (Parts 1 and 2), River Rats, and Bad Aptitude.
Dude, Wheres My Horse? Nickelodeon 4 July 26, 2005 N/A N/A Episodes on the DVD are Dude, Where's My Horse? (Parts 1 and 2), Blind Man's Bluff, and Yu-Gotta-Go.
R.V. Having Fun Yet? Nickelodeon 4 October 11, 2005 N/A N/A Episodes on the DVD are R.V. Having Fun Yet (Part 1 and 2), The Science Pair, and It's Karma, Dude.
Season 1 Beyond Home Entertainment 15 N/A N/A April 1, 2015[34] Includes two bonus episodes of Rugrats Pre-School Daze
Season 2 Beyond Home Entertainment 10 N/A N/A April 1, 2015[35] Includes two bonus episodes of Rugrats Pre-School Daze
Season 3 Beyond Home Entertainment 10 N/A N/A June 3, 2015[36]
Season 4 Beyond Home Entertainment 10 N/A N/A September 1, 2015[37]
Season 5 Beyond Home Entertainment 10 N/A N/A September 1, 2015[38]
The Complete Series Beyond Home Entertainment 55 N/A N/A 2018[39]
Nick Picks
Title Episodes Release date Title
Nick Picks Vol. 1 1 May 24, 2005 Lucky 13
Nick Picks Vol. 2 1 October 18, 2005 Interview With A Campfire
Nick Picks Vol. 3 1 February 7, 2006 Dude Where's My Horse
Nick Picks Vol. 4 1 June 6, 2006 R.V. Having Fun Yet
Nick Picks Holiday 1 September 26, 2006 The Finster Who Stole Christmas

Books[edit]

There are a range of All Grown Up! books published:

  • Ask Angelica!
  • What's with Dad?
  • Chuckie's Ghost
  • Cookie Crisis!
  • It's About Time
  • The Scavenger Hunt
  • Welcome to Fifth Grade!
  • Boys vs Girls
  • Angelica for President
  • Coolest Girl In School

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mallory, Michael (November 29, 2003). "Rugrats' spinoff leaves sandbox world behind". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  2. ^ Graeber, Laurel (August 22, 2004). "FOR YOUNG VIEWERS; Queen of Mean Turns 13: How Unlucky Is That?". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
  3. ^ a b c d Dempsey, John; Dempsey, John (2001-07-25). "'Rugrats' lifts Nick to new ratings heights". Variety. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  4. ^ Shattuck, Kathryn (2001-07-15). "FOR YOUNG VIEWERS; TV's No. 1 Babies Celebrate Their 10th Birthday". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Tweenage Rugrats". web.archive.org. 2004-12-13. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  6. ^ a b "Rugrats Get All Grown Up Nov. 29 on Nick". Animation World Network. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mallory, Michael (2003-11-29). "'Rugrats' spinoff leaves sandbox world behind". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Graeber, Laurel (2004-08-22). "FOR YOUNG VIEWERS; Queen of Mean Turns 13: How Unlucky Is That?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  9. ^ a b c d "What Makes a Hit a Hit?". Animation World Network. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Rugrats: All Grown Up". The Age. 2004-01-22. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  11. ^ "Rugrats: All Grown Up". The Age. 22 January 2004.
  12. ^ a b c d e Oei, Lily; Oei, Lily (2002-09-27). "'Rugrats' grows up". Variety. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  13. ^ ""All Grown Up" -- The Series". web.archive.org. 2008-09-13. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  14. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A25009-2004Aug22.html
  15. ^ a b c Ball, Ryan (2004-08-27). "Cheryl Chase Turns 13 AgainVoice actress discusses being Angelica All Grown Up". Animation Magazine. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  16. ^ Mallory, Michael (29 November 2003). "'Rugrats' spinoff leaves sandbox world behind" – via LA Times.
  17. ^ a b Mallory, Michael (2003-11-29). "'Rugrats' spinoff leaves sandbox world behind". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  18. ^ "Inside The "All Grown Up" Series". web.archive.org. 2004-12-13. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  19. ^ "Preschool Daze". 4 December 2004. Archived from the original on 4 December 2004. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  20. ^ a b c "The Tweenage Rugrats". 13 December 2004. Archived from the original on 13 December 2004. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  21. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/tv/2004/08/22/on-cable/402ea7e4-c62e-4ae9-9fa6-3f035ec96e31/
  22. ^ All Grown Up! (TV Series 2003–2008), retrieved 2019-01-08
  23. ^ a b KG, imfernsehen GmbH & Co, All Grown Up – Fast erwachsen (in German), retrieved 2019-01-01
  24. ^ "Romeo Miller". IMDb. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  25. ^ "All Grown Up - TV Review". www.commonsensemedia.org. 2010-12-16. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  26. ^ jrudolph91 (2018-01-29). "Anaheim Ducks Weekly Rankings Jan 20th-26th: Nick Nick Nick Nick na Nick Nick Nick Nickelodeon". Anaheim Calling. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  27. ^ ODonoghue, Niamh. "The Rugrat's Angelica Pickles is the accidental style icon of 2018". IMAGE.ie. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  28. ^ Staff 2018-08-03T16:00:34ZPS4, GamesRadar. "8 things to watch out for this week". gamesradar. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  29. ^ "Tooning Out: 15 Failed Cartoon Sequels, Spin-Offs, And Reboots". CBR. 2017-08-13. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  30. ^ "10 Cartoons Who Look Cooler Older (And 10 Who Should Have Never Grown Up)". CBR. 2018-08-25. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  31. ^ Local, N. Y. U. (2010-11-04). "We Didn't Know Any Better: Rugrats (Again!)". NYU Local. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  32. ^ "25 Things Everyone Gets Wrong About Nickelodeon Cartoons". TheGamer. 2018-11-22. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  33. ^ Post, The Washington. "As Angelica Pickles, Cheryl Chase gets to release her inner brat". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  34. ^ "Beyond Home Entertainment – Beyond Home Entertainment". Beyond Home Entertainment. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  35. ^ "Beyond Home Entertainment – Beyond Home Entertainment". Beyond Home Entertainment. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  36. ^ "Beyond Home Entertainment – Beyond Home Entertainment". Beyond Home Entertainment. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  37. ^ "Beyond Home Entertainment – Beyond Home Entertainment". Beyond Home Entertainment. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  38. ^ "Beyond Home Entertainment – Beyond Home Entertainment". Beyond Home Entertainment. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  39. ^ "Amazon". Amazon. Retrieved 13 August 2018.

External links[edit]