All India Financial Institutions
All India Financial Institutions (AIFI) is a group composed of Development Finance Institutions (DFI) and Investment Institutions that play a pivotal role in the financial markets. Also known as "financial instruments", the financial institutions assist in the proper allocation of resources, sourcing from businesses that have a surplus and distributing to others who have deficits - this also assists with ensuring the continued circulation of money in the economy. Possibly of greatest significance, the financial institutions act as an intermediary between borrowers and final lenders, providing safety and liquidity. This process subsequently ensures earnings on the investments and savings involved.
In Post-Independence India, people were encouraged to increase savings, a tactic intended to provide funds for investment by the Indian government. However, there was a huge gap between the supply of savings and demand for the investment opportunities in the country.
List of AIFIs
- Export - Import Bank of India (Exim Bank)
- National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
- Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)
- National Housing Bank (NHB)
Industrial Development Bank of India
IDBI is no more an AIFI and has been converted into universal bank by Government of India. The IDBI was established to provide credit for major financial facilities to assist with the industrial development of India. It was established in 1964 by RBI, and was transferred to the government of India in 1976. The government holdings in IDBI, after the IPO, is 51.4%. By the end of September 2004, the IDBI asset base was Rs. 36850 crore.
- Direct assistance: helps the industrial sector by granting project loans, underwriting of and direct subscription to the industrial securities (shares and debentures), soft loans, and technical development funds.
- Coordinating functions: coordinates the functions of financial institutions such as ICICI, IFCI, LIC and GIC, with respect to industrial development.
- Indirect assistance to small and medium enterprises by granting loans. It also refinances industrial loans of the SFC's, SIDCs, commercial banks and RRBs, along with the billing related to the sale of the indigenous machinery.
- Raising funds from the international money markets.
Diversification of Activities of IDBI
Since 1990, IDBI has set up number of institutes, including:
- Small Industries Development Bank of India SIDBI)in 1990.
- IDBI Investment Management Company (IIMCO)in 1994.
- IDBI Capital Market Services Ltd. (ICMS) in 1995.
- IDBI bank Ltd.
State Industrial Development Corporations
In 1960, the first State Industrial Development Corporations (SIDC) was established in Bihar. These mainly autonomous bodies are controlled by the State government, who may own a stake in the corporation. There are approximately 29 SIDCs in India.
Their main functions include the promotion of rapid industrialization in India. They mainly work at the grass roots level, providing development in the backward and less frequented parts of India. They offer financial leases and offer guarantees. They also administer the schemes of the central and state governments. The projects and surveys of the industrial potential areas are conducted by them, as well as the evaluation of SEZs.
The first Mutual funds in India were created in 1964 by the UTI or The Unit Trust of India. In 1987, the leading public sector banks of the country, such as SBI and Canara Bank, set up their mutual funds. It became popular after the 1991 liberalization of the Indian Economy.
By the end of 2006, there were around 200 mutual funds schemes in India. The amount of assets that are managed by the mutual funds grew from Rs. 47,000 Crores to Rs. 217,707 by 31 March 2006. The mutual funds are managed by fund managers for small investors, who often does not have enough information to adequately invest there funds.
Organizations Of The Mutual Funds Companies In India
The mutual funds in India has 5 constituents :
- The Sponsors
- The board of trustees or the Trust.
- The Asset Management Company
- The custodian
- The unit holders.
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