All India Services

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The All India Services comprises Civil Services of India, namely the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), the Indian Forest Service ("IoFS) and the Indian Police Service (IPS).[1] A common unique feature of the All India Services is that the members of these services are recruited by the Center(Union government in federal polity), but their services are placed under various State cadres, and they have the liability to serve both under the State and under the Centre.[1] Due to the federal polity of the country, this is considered one of the tools that makes union government stronger than state governments. Officers of these three services comply to the All India Services Rules relating to pay, conduct, leave, various allowances etc.[2]

The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions is the cadre controlling authority for the IAS, for IPS, the Ministry Of Home Affairs while the Ministry of External Affairs is the cadre controlling authority for IFS.

Examination for recruitment of IFS, IAS and IPS is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) on the basis of the annual Civil Services Examination, a competitive civil service examination.

Power, purpose and responsibilities[edit]

The All India Services Act, 1951 empowers the government of India to make, after consultation with state governments, rules for the regulation of recruitment and conditions of service of the persons appointed to an All India Service.All India Service is governed by All India Service(Conduct) Rules,1968 which specifies the code of conduct for Civil Servant in general. The All India Service(Conduct) Rules,1968 were amended latest by Govt.of India by notification published in official Gazette of India on 10 April 2015.

Nature of Work[edit]

Responsibilities vary with the seniority of the civil servant. Junior officers begin with probation and move up in the hierarchy. At the district level the responsibilities are concerned with district matters as well as all developmental affairs while at the divisional level the responsibilities focus on law and order also. Policy framing is carried on at the State and Central levels.

Allocation, division and cadres[edit]

The officers of All India Services are organized into cadres, derived from the states they are allotted to work in for as long as they continue to be a member of the respective Service. Twenty-four states have their own cadre, but there are also three joint cadres: Assam-Meghalaya, Manipur-Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram-Union Territories (AGMUT).

There are State Cadres and the Officers of All India Services (AIS) - Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS) - are divided into State cadres. When on probation the All India Service (AIS) Officers are allocated to their States. Officers of AIS working with the Union Government are posted on deputation for some years. The AIS officers in a State cadre may be original residents of that State but almost 2/3 of all officers are from outside the state. The AIS officer cannot demand his home State cadre but may put in request for being considered for the home cadre. Once allotted to a State cadre, an officer generally continues with that State cadre during his/her whole service . All India Services are controlled by the Union Government of India. Selected candidates are appointed to different state cadres and as and when required they also move to Union Government jobs on deputation.

Indian Administrative Service (IAS)[edit]

IAS Officers are trained to handle Government affairs. This being the main responsibility, every civil servant is assigned to a particular office which deals with policy matters pertaining to that area. The policy matters are framed, modified, interpreted in this office under the direct supervision of the Administrative Officer in consultation with the Minister. The implementation of policies is also done on the advice of the Officer. The Cabinet Secretary stands at the top of the government machinery involved in policy making followed by Secretary/Additional Secretary, Joint Secretary, Director, Under Secretary and Junior Scale Officers in that order. These appointments are filled by civil servants according to seniority in the Civil Services. In the process of decision making, a number of officers give their views to the Minister who weighs the matter and makes a decision considering the issue involved.

The implementation process involves supervision and touring. The allocation of enormous funds to and by the field officers calls for supervision and the officials concerned have to reply to queries made in the Parliament for which they must remain well informed.

The Civil servant has also to represent the Government in another country or in International forums. At the level of Deputy Secretary, he is even authorized to sign agreements on behalf of the Government.

A civil servant begins his career in the state with 2 years in probation. This period is spent at training schools, Secretariat, field offices or in a District Magistrate's office. He is given the position of Sub-Magistrate and has to look after the law, order and general administration including developmental work in the area under his charge. After the probation and 2 years of services as a junior scale officer, the officer is put in the senior scale. Then he may function as District Magistrate, Managing Director of a Public Enterprise or Director of a Department. Senior Scale comprises the Senior Time Scale (Joint Secretary), Junior Administrative Grade (Additional Secretary) and the Selection Grade (Special Secretary). Selection Grade is given on promotion after 13 years of regular service. The next promotion within the State is that of a Commissioner-cum-Secretary after 16 years. This promotion also entitles them to the Super Time Scale. Then after 24 years of regular service an IAS officer may be promoted to Above super time scale who is designated as Principal Secretaries/Financial Commissioners in some states

Each State has many Secretaries/Principal Secretaries and only one Chief Secretary. Some appointments of Secretaries are considered more prestigious than others, e.g., the Finance Secretary, Development Commissioners, Home Secretary and hence they enjoy the salary of a Principal Secretary. the Chief Secretary in the State is the top ranking civil servant and may be assisted by Additional Chief Secretaries. In some cadres/States e.g. New Delhi, Financial Commissioner and other high ranking secretaries such as Additional Chief Secretaries enjoy the pay of the Chief Secretary .

In the District, the most senior person is the Collector or Deputy Commissioner or District Magistrate. The DM/Collector/DC handle the affairs of the District including development functions. He necessarily tours all rural sectors inspecting specific projects, disputed sites and looks into the problems of people on the spot also.

At the divisional level, the Divisional Commissioner is in charge of his division. His role is to oversee law and order and general administration and developmental work. Appeals against the Divisional Commissioner are heard by the Chairman of the Board of Revenue.

Indian Foreign Service (IFS)[edit]

The Indian Foreign Service (Hindi: भारतीय विदेश सेवा) (abbreviated as IFS) is the administrative diplomatic civil service under Group A and Group B of the Central Civil Services of the executive branch of the Government of India. It is one of the two premier Civil Services (other being IAS) as appointment to IFS renders a person ineligible to reappear in Civil Services Examination. It is a Central Civil service as Foreign policy is the subject matter and prerogative of Union Government. The Ambassador, High Commissioner, Consul General, Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations and Foreign Secretary are some of the offices held by the members of this service. The Indian Foreign Service holds the distinction of giving India its- President, Vice President, Speaker of Lok Sabha, Foreign Minister and many distinguished Statesmen in past and present. The service is entrusted to conduct diplomacy and manage foreign relations of India. It is the body of career diplomats and representational officers serving in more than 169 Indian Diplomatic Missions and International Organisations around the world. In addition, they serve at the headquarters of the Ministry of External affairs in Delhi and the Prime Minister's Office. They also head the Regional Passport Offices throughout the country and hold positions in the President's Secretariat and several ministries. Foreign Secretary of India is the administrative head of the Indian Foreign Service. IFS was created by the Government of India in October 1946 but its roots can be traced back to the British Raj when the Foreign Department was created to conduct business with the "Foreign European Powers".[11] IFS Day is celebrated on October 9 every year since 2011 to commemorate the day the Indian Cabinet created the IFS. Officers of the IFS are recruited by the Government of India on the recommendation of the Union Public Service Commission. Fresh recruits to the IFS are trained at the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) after a brief foundation course at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie.

Indian Police Service (IPS)[edit]

Main article: Indian Police Service

The Indian Police Service more popularly known as the 'IPS', is responsible for internal security, public safety and law and order. In 1948, a year after India gained independence from Britain, the Imperial Police (IP) was replaced by the Indian Police Service. The IPS is not a law enforcement agency in its own right; rather it is the body to which all senior police officers belong regardless of the agency for whom they work.

An IPS officer is subjected to and faces several life-threatening and harsh conditions which no other service in the country faces, they are entrusted with the overall law and order of the entire State as the Director General of Police and entire Districts as it's Superintendent of Police, and in Metropolitan Cities as Deputy Commissioner or the entire City as the Commissioner of Police. As Commissioner of Police they enjoy magisterial powers.

The IPS is the only service in the country apart from the IFS (Indian Foreign Service) which if not equals comes within striking distance of the IAS in terms of Power, Authority and speed in promotions be it in the state or in the Government of India.

The IPS officer takes charge as an Assistant Superintendent of Police of a Sub-division after probation of 2 years. The tenure of this post is normally 2 years. The next appointment is as Superintendent of Police or Deputy Commissioner of Police and then as Deputy Inspector General of Police or Additional Commissioner of Police in 14 years, an Inspector General of Police in 18 years, Additional Director General of Police in 25 years and finally, the Director General of Police after 30 years in service.

IPS officers also work in the national government agencies such as Intelligence Bureau, Research and Analysis Wing, Central Bureau of Investigation, etc. IPS officers also get highly placed in seceral PSUs such as GAIL,SAIL, Indian Oil Corporation Limited etc. at the State Secretariat the Central Secretariat under the Central Staffing Scheme and in CAPFs such as Director General of Border Security Force, the Central Reserve Police Force and the Central Industrial Security Force, etc. An IPS officer has vast opportunities to work in several International Organisations such as Interpol, International Cricket Council, the United Nations, Consulates (Foreign Missions) and Embassies all over the World in various capacities such as First Secretary, Consul, Consul General, Deputy High Commissioner, Minister, High Commissioner and an Ambassador.

The Director General of Police and Commissioner of Police is the head of the entire police force of the State or Metropolitan City (e.g. Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai etc.) and below him is the Additional DGP/Special Police Commissioner. The Inspector General or Joint Commissioner of Police is at the head of certain specialised police force like Criminal Investigation Department, Special Branch, etc.

Reforms and changes[edit]

In January 2012, the Government amended AIS Rule 16 (3) which permits the Central Government in consultation with the State Government to retire in the public interest, incompetent and non-performing Officers after a review on their completion of 15 years or 25 years of qualifying service or attaining the age of 50.[3][4][5][6]

On recommendation by Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, from year 2014 state civil servants are required to clear 1000 marks four-stage process including a written exam and interview conducted by Union Public Service Commission to get promoted to the three all India services which was previously based solely on basis of seniority and annual confidential reports.[7][8]

Equivalent ranks[edit]

S No Indian Police Service Indian Foreign Service Indian Administrative Service Pay scale
1 Deputy Superintendent of Police Sub Divisional Magistrate (Trainee) (States) 15,600-39,100 plus grade pay of 5400
2 Additional Superintendent of Police Third Secretary/ Under Secretary in MEA Under Secretary to Government of India/Deputy Secretary to State Govt./Addl. District Magistrate(states) 15,600-39,100 plus grade pay of 6600
3 Superintendent of Police Second Secretary/ Deputy Secretary in MEA Deputy Secretary to Government of India/ Joint Secretary to State Govt./District Magistrate(states) 15,600-39,100 plus grade pay of 7600
4 Senior Superintendent of Police First Secretary/ Director in MEA Director to Government of India/Special Secretary to State Govt. 37,400-67,000 plus grade pay of 8700
5 Deputy Inspector General of Police 37,400-67,000 plus grade pay of 8900
6 Inspector General of Police Counsellor/ Joint Secretary in MEA Joint Secretary to Government of India/Secretary to State Govt/Divisional Commissioner in a Division. 37,400-67,000 plus grade pay of 10,000
7 Additional Director General of Police Minister/ Additional Secretary in MEA Additional Secretary to Government of India/Principal Secretary to State Govt. HAG scale of 67,000-79,000
8 HAG + scale of 75,500–80,000
9 Director General of Police (Head of Dept.) Deputy High Commissioner/ Secretary in MEA Secretary to Government of India/Chief Secretary of State 80,000 (fixed) plus grade pay-Nil
10 Director of Intelligence Bureau (India) Ambassador/ Foreign Secretary of India 90,000 (fixed)
11 No equivalent No equivalent Cabinet Secretary of India 90,000 (fixed)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]