Allium vineale

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Wild garlic
crow garlic
stag's garlic
Alliumvineale1web.jpg
Allium vineale
umbel showing bulbils and a few flowers
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. vineale
Binomial name
Allium vineale
L.
Synonyms[1]

Allium vineale (wild garlic, crow garlic or stag's garlic) is a perennial, bulb-forming species wild onions, native to Europe, northwestern Africa and the Middle East.[2] The species was introduced in Australia and North America, where it has become a noxious weed. [3][4][5][6][7]

Description[edit]

All parts of the plant have a strong garlic odour. The underground bulb is 1-2 cm diameter, with a fibrous outer layer. The main stem grows to 30-120 cm tall, bearing 2-4 leaves and an apical inflorescence 2-5 cm diameter comprising a number of small bulbils and none to a few flowers, subtended by a basal bract. The leaves are slender hollow tubes, 15-60 cm long and 2-4 mm thick, waxy texture, with a groove along the side of the leaf facing the stem. The inflorescence is a tight umbel surrounded by a membranous bract in bud which withers when the flowers open. Each individual flower is stalked and has a pinkish-green perianth 2.5 to 4.5 mm (0.10 to 0.18 in) long. There are six tepals, six stamens and a pistil formed from three fused carpels. Mixed with the flowers are several of yellowish-brown bulbils. The fruit is a capsule but the seeds seldom set and propagation usually takes place when the bulbils are knocked off and grow into new plants.[8][9] Plants with no flowers, only bulbils, are sometimes distinguished as the variety Allium vineale var. compactum, but this character is probably not taxonomically significant.

Uses and problems[edit]

While Allium vineale has been suggested as a substitute for garlic, there is some difference of opinion as to whether there is an unpleasant aftertaste compared to that of common garlic (A. sativum).[citation needed] It imparts a garlic-like flavour and odour on dairy and beef products when grazed by livestock. It is considered a pestilential invasive weed, as grain products may become tainted with a garlic odour or flavour in the presence of aerial bulblets at the time of harvest.[10][11][12] Wild garlic is resistant to herbicides, which cannot cling well to the vertical, smooth and waxy structure of its leaves.[13][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Plant List
  2. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ Flora of North America v 26 p 237, Allium vineale
  4. ^ Kartesz, J.T., The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2013 county distributioni map. North American Plant Atlas. Chapel Hill, N.C., USA, Allium vineale
  5. ^ GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network), United States Department of Agriculture, Allium vineale
  6. ^ Weeds Australia, Australian Weeds Committee, Allium vineale
  7. ^ Brewster, J. L. (2008). Onions and Other Alliums. (Wallingford: CABI Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84593-399-9. 
  8. ^ "Wild garlic: Allium vineale". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  9. ^ Davies, D. (1992). Alliums: The Ornamental Onions. (Portland: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-241-2. 
  10. ^ Eric Block, "Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science" (Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2010)
  11. ^ James L. Brewster, "Onions and Other Alliums" (Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2008)
  12. ^ Dilys Davies, "Alliums: The Ornamental Onions" (Portland: Timber Press, 1992)
  13. ^ Wild Garlic & Wild Onion. Clemson University. Retrieved May 12, 2013
  14. ^ Block, E. (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. (Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9. 

External links[edit]