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Most occur in the southwestern subarid forest-thicket vegetation of the island.
Spines are arranged around the leaves as a defense against herbivores. The spines are several meters above the ground, and probably evolved in response to herbivory by now-extinct lemurs, such as Hadropithecus. Several lemur species living today feed heavily on Alluaudia, such as the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and the white-footed sportive lemur (Lepilemur leucopus).
- Alluaudia ascendens (Drake) Drake 1903
- Alluaudia comosa (Drake) Drake 1903
- Alluaudia dumosa (Drake) Drake 1903
- Alluaudia humbertii Choux 1934
- Alluaudia montagnacii Rauh 1961
- Alluaudia procera (Drake) Drake 1903
- Alluaudia. Madagascar Catalogue. eFloras.
- Schatz, G., et al. Modeling of endemic plant species of Madagascar under climate change. In: Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Madagascar's Livelihoods and Biodiversity. Conference. Antananarivo, Madagascar, 28 January 2008.
- Crowley, B. E. and L. R. Godfrey. (2013). Why all those spines?: Anachronistic defences in the Didiereoideae against now extinct lemurs. South African Journal of Science 109(1-2), 1-7.
- GRIN Species Records of Alluaudia. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
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