Almora

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Almora
अल्मोड़ा
Hill station
Nickname(s): Cultural City
Almora is located in Uttarakhand
Almora
Almora
Almora is located in India
Almora
Almora
Location in Uttarakhand, India
Coordinates: 29°37′N 79°40′E / 29.62°N 79.67°E / 29.62; 79.67Coordinates: 29°37′N 79°40′E / 29.62°N 79.67°E / 29.62; 79.67
Country  India
State Uttarakhand
Division Kumaon
District Almora
Established 1568
Founded by Kalyan Chand
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Mayor Shobha Joshi[1]
Area
 • Total 7.35 km2 (2.84 sq mi)
Elevation 1,642 m (5,387 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 35,513
 • Density 4,800/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Sanskrit
 • Spoken Kumaoni
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 263601
Telephone code 91-5962
Vehicle registration UK-01
Sex ratio 1132 /
Climate Alpine (BSh) and Humid subtropical(Cwb) (Köppen)
Avg. annual temperature −3 to 28 °C (27 to 82 °F)
Avg. summer temperature 12 to 28 °C (54 to 82 °F)
Avg. winter temperature −3 to 15 °C (27 to 59 °F)
Website almora.nic.in

Almora is a municipal board and a cantonment town in the Almora district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Almora district.[2] Almora is located on a ridge at the southern edge of the Kumaon Hills of the Himalaya range, at a distance of 365 km from the national capital New Delhi and 415 km from the state capital Dehradun. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India, Almora has a population of 35,513. Nestled within higher peaks of the Himalaya, Almora enjoys a year-round mild temperate climate.

Almora was founded in 1568[3] by King Kalyan Chand,[4][5][6] however there are accounts of human settlements in the hills and surrounding region in the Hindu epic Mahabharata[7] (8th and 9th century BCE[8]). Almora was the seat of chand kings that ruled over the Kumaon Kingdom. It is considered the cultural heart of the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand. Almora got its name from "kilmora"[9][10] a short plant found nearby region,[11] which was used for washing the utensils of Katarmal Temple. The people bringing kilmora were called Kilmori and later "Almori" and the place came to be known as "Almora".[12]

History[edit]

Almora was founded in 1568[13] by Kalyan Chand during the rule of the Chand dynasty.[14] Prior to that the region was under the control of Katyuri King Bhaichaldeo who donated a part of Almora to Sri Chand Tiwari. Almora was known as 'Rajapur' during the rule of Chand Kings.[15][16][17] The name 'Rajpur' is also mentioned over a number of ancient copper plates.[17]

Almora in the 1860s

According to local tradition, the earliest inhabitants in Almora were Tewaris who were required to supply Sorrel daily for cleansing the vessels of sun temple at Katarmal.[18]:8 Ancient lore mentioned in Vishnu Purana and Mahabharata present primordial accounts of human settlements in the City.[18]:8 The Sakas, the Nagas, the Kiratas, the Khasas and the Hunas are credited to be the most ancient tribes.[18]:8 The Kauravas and Pandavas of the Hastinapur royal family were the next important princes from the plains who are said to have affected the conquest of these parts.[19]:166 After the Mahabharata war the district seems to have remained for some time under the sway of the kings of Hastinapur whose authority was never more than nominal.[19]:166 The actual rulers were the local chiefs of whom the Kulindas (or Kunindas) were probably strong in the southern and western part of the city.[18]:8 The Khasas were another ancient people who belonged to an early Aryan stock and were widely scattered in those times.[19]:167 They gave this region the name Khasadesha or Khasamandala.[18]:8[19]:167

Almora Bazaar, c1860

The next age’s silent of them may probably be the ones signaling many petty states, rivaling each-other for supremacy and ultimately chartering the inauguration of the noted and enduring dynasty of Chands. Earlier to this, the Katyuris are recorded as the dominant clans in copper and stone engravings.[20] The Chand dynasty from their inception in 953 A.D. to their ouster in the late 18th century present a saga of strife, with horrifying series of wars with rulers of Garhwal culminating in the destruction of this prosperous land and establishment of inglorious Gurkha rule. This dynasty was peculiar in that it made Almora the seat of strongest hill power in 1563 A.D.[21] From that time onwards, the limits of kingdom of Kumaon extended over the entire tracts of districts of Almora and Nainital. Towards the end of 17th century, Chand Rajas again attacked the Garhwal kingdom, and in 1688, king Udyot Chand erected several temples at Almora, including Tripur Sundari, Udyot Chandeshwer and Parbateshwer, to mark his victory over Garhwal and Doti. The Parbateshwar temple was renamed twice, to become the present Nanda Devi temple.

View of Almora, with soldiers of 3rd Gurkha Rifles, 1895.

In 1791, the Gorkhas of Nepal while expanding their kingdom westwards across Kali River, invaded and overran Almora.[18]:8[22] In the meantime, the British were engaged in preventing the Gorkhas from over-running the whole of the northern frontier.[23] The Gorkha rule lasted for twenty-four years. Due to their repeated intrusion into British territories in the Terai from 1800 onwards, Lord Moira, the Governor-General of India, decided to attack Almora in December 1814,[24] marking the beginning of the Anglo-Gorkha war. The war that broke out in 1814,[25][26] resulted in the defeat of the Gorkhas and subsequently led to the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816.[27]:594[28] According to the treaty, Nepal had to cede all those territories which the Gorkhas had annexed to the British East India Company. After the war, the old Lal Mandi fort, near Almora was renamed ‘Fort Moira’.

Unlike the neighboring hill stations like Nainital and Shimla which were developed by the British,[29][30][31] Almora was developed much before by the Chand kings.[32] The place where the present cantonment is located was formerly known as Lalmandi.[17][33][34] Presently where the collectorate exists, the 'Malla Mahal' (Upper Court) of Chand kings was located.[17][35] The site of present District Hospital used to be 'Talla Mahal' (Lower Court) of Chand rulers.[17][36] Almora had a Population of 8596 in 1901.[37]

Geography[edit]

Kosi River valley near Almora, Uttarakhand, India

Almora is located at 29°37′N 79°40′E / 29.62°N 79.67°E / 29.62; 79.67[38] in Almora district in Uttarakhand. Almora is situated 365 km north-east the national capital New Delhi and 415 km south-east the state capital Dehradun. It lies in the revenue Division Kumaon[39] and is located 63 km north of Nainital, the administrative headquarters of Kumaon.[40] It has an average elevation of 1,861 m (6,106 ft) above mean Sea Level.

Almora is situated on a ridge at the southern edge of the Kumaon Hills[17] of the Central Himalaya range in the shape of a horse saddle shaped hillock. The eastern portion of the ridge is known as Talifat and the western one is known as Selifat.[17] The Almora Market is situated at the top of the ridge, where these two, Talifat and Selifat jointly terminate.[17] It is surrounded by thick forests of pine and fir trees. Flowing alongside the city are rivers of Koshi (Kaushiki) and Suyal (Salmale). The snow-capped Himalayas can be seen in the background.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Almora is characterized by relatively high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The main seasons are summer from March to June, the monsoon season from July to November and winter from December to February. In summer, Almora is largely under the influence of moist, maritime airflow from the western side of the subtropical anticyclonic cells over low-latitude ocean waters. Temperatures are high and can lead to warm, oppressive nights. Summers are usually somewhat wetter than winters, with much of the rainfall coming from convectional thunderstorm activity; tropical cyclones also enhance warm-season rainfall in some regions. The coldest month is usually quite mild, although frosts are not uncommon, and winter precipitation is derived primarily from frontal cyclones along the polar front. The Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate is "cwb" (Humid Subtropical Climate).[41]

The average temperature for the year in Almora is 74.3 °F (23.5 °C).[42] The warmest month, on average, is June with an average temperature of 87.9 °F (31.1 °C).[42] The coolest month on average is January, with an average temperature of 55.9 °F (13.3 °C).[42] The average amount of precipitation for the year in Almora is 44.6" (1132.8 mm).[42] The month with the most precipitation on average is August with 13.0" (330.2 mm) of precipitation.[42] The month with the least precipitation on average is November with an average of 0.2" (5.1 mm).[42] There are an average of 46.8 days of precipitation, with the most precipitation occurring in August with 11.9 days and the least precipitation occurring in November with 0.6 days.[42]

Climate data for Almora
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 20
(68)
22.8
(73)
28.7
(83.7)
34.9
(94.8)
38.1
(100.6)
37
(99)
32.9
(91.2)
32.4
(90.3)
32.2
(90)
31.1
(88)
26.9
(80.4)
21.8
(71.2)
29.9
(85.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
15.9
(60.6)
21.1
(70)
27.1
(80.8)
30.6
(87.1)
31.1
(88)
28.7
(83.7)
28.4
(83.1)
27.5
(81.5)
24.5
(76.1)
19.4
(66.9)
14.7
(58.5)
23.5
(74.3)
Average low °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
8.9
(48)
13.5
(56.3)
19.3
(66.7)
23
(73)
25.2
(77.4)
24.7
(76.5)
24.5
(76.1)
22.9
(73.2)
17.9
(64.2)
12
(54)
7.7
(45.9)
17.2
(63)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 26.6
(1.047)
26.1
(1.028)
21.3
(0.839)
15.2
(0.598)
31.9
(1.256)
140.9
(5.547)
318.4
(12.535)
330.3
(13.004)
172.2
(6.78)
34.4
(1.354)
4.6
(0.181)
10.6
(0.417)
1,132.4
(44.583)
Average precipitation days 2.1 2 1.9 1.3 1.9 4.9 11.3 11.9 6.2 1.8 0.6 1 46.8
Average snowy days 6.3 3.8 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 4.4 15.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 10.9 11.6 12.4 13.3 14.1 14.5 14.3 13.6 12.7 11.8 11.1 10.7 12.6
Source: India Meteorological Department[43]
Weatherbase[44]

Flora and Fauna[edit]

The region is immensely rich with 4000 species of plants, having remarkable diversity in its natural vegetation by virtue of its being at a great range of elevation. In addition to its' climatic variations, particularly in temperature and precipitation associated with the alignment and altitudes of ranges and nature of valleys, determine the altitudinal growth and variety of vegetation. The flora of this region may be classified into tropical, Himalayan sub-tropical and sub alpine and alpine vegetation. The alpine and sub alpine zones are considered as the most natural abode of the largest number of medicinal plants.

The sub-alpine zones of Almora and outskirts are a natural sanctuary for leopard, Langur, Himalayan black bear, kakar, goral etc. Whereas the high altitude zones abound musk deer, popularly called 'Kastura Mrig', snow leopard, blue sheep, thar etc. The entire zone is rich in a remarkable variety of birds possessing plumage of magnificent design and colours like peacock, which include Grey Quail, Kala Titar, Whistling thrush, Chakor, Monal, cheer pheasant, koklas pheasant etc.

Distances[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population Growth of Almora 
Census Pop.
1901 8,596
1911 10,560 22.8%
1921 8,359 -20.8%
1931 9,688 15.9%
1941 10,995 13.5%
1951 12,757 16.0%
1961 16,602 30.1%
1971 20,881 25.8%
1981 22,705 8.7%
1991 28,051 23.5%
2001 32,358 15.4%
2011 35,513 9.8%
source:[18][45][46][47][48]





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Religions in Almora (2011)

  Hinduism (90.84%)
  Islam (7.54%)
  Sikhism (0.23%)
  Other or not religious (1.39%)

As of 2011 India census, Almora has population of 35,513 of which 18,306 are males while 17207 are females.[18]:20 out of the total population, The Almora Municipal Board has population of 34,122[49] while The Almora Cantonment Board has population of 1,391.[50] Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 3081 which is 8.67% of total population of Almora.[18]:20 Literacy rate of Almora city is 86.19 %[18]:21 higher than state average of 78.82%. Male literacy is around 88.06% while female literacy rate is 84.21%.[18]:21 Almora had a population of 32,358 according to the 2001 Census of India.[51]

Hinduism is Practised by 90.84% of the total population and is the majority religion of Almora. Islam is practised by 7.54% people and is the largest Minority religion. Other Religions like Sikhism, Christianity and Buddhism are also practised by small number of People. Hindi and Sanskrit are the official languages of the state while Kumaoni is the mother tongue of the majority.

Municipality Area[edit]

Municipal board (Nagar Palika Parishad) of Almora was established in 1864. The Almora Nagar Palika Parishad has population of 34,122 of which 17,358 are males while 16,764 are females as per report released by Census India 2011.[49] Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 2950 which is 8.65% of total population of Almora (NPP).[49] In Almora Nagar Palika Parishad, Female Sex Ratio is of 966 against state average of 963.[49] Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Almora is around 857 compared to Uttarakhand state average of 890.[49] Literacy rate of Almora city is 94.51% higher than state average of 78.82%.[49] In Almora, Male literacy is around 96.84% while female literacy rate is 92.13%.[49] Schedule Caste (SC) constitutes 16.38% while Schedule Tribe (ST) were 1.00% of total population in Almora (NPP).[49] Out of total population, 10,057 were engaged in work or business activity. Of this 7,901 were males while 2,156 were females.[49] Of total 10057 working population, 93.25% were engaged in Main Work while 6.75% of total workers were engaged in Marginal Work.[49] Almora Nagar Palika Parishad has total administration over 8,014 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage, it is divided into 11 wards for which elections are held every 5 years.

Cantonment Board Area[edit]

Cantonment Board of Almora established in 1815. The Almora Cantonment Board has population of 1,391 of which 948 are males while 443 are females as per report released by Census India 2011.[50] Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 131 which is 9.42% of total population of Almora (CB).[50] In Almora Cantonment Board, Female Sex Ratio is of 467 against state average of 963.[50] Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Almora is around 1015 compared to Uttarakhand state average of 890.[50] Literacy rate of Almora city is 91.27% higher than state average of 78.82%.[50] In Almora, Male literacy is around 96.26% while female literacy rate is 79.58%.[50] Schedule Caste (SC) constitutes 11.07% while Schedule Tribe (ST) were 0.72% of total population in Almora (CB).[50] Out of total population, 767 were engaged in work or business activity.[50] Of this 716 were males while 51 were females. Of total 767 working population, 97.91% were engaged in Main Work while 2.09% of total workers were engaged in Marginal Work.[50] Almora Cantonment Board has total administration over 717 houses of the City.

Culture[edit]

These mountains are associated with the best memories of our race: Here, therefore, must be one of centres, not merely of activity, but more of calmness of meditation, and of peace and I hope some one to realize it.

— Swami Vivekananda (replying to the address given to him by the people of Almora.)

[52][53]

Temples[edit]

Kasar Devi Temple

Almora has many noted temples, including Kasar Devi, Nanda Devi, Doli Daana, Shyayi Devi, Khakmara, Asht Bhairav, Jakhandevi, Katarmal (Sun Temple), Pataal Devi, Raghunath Mandir, Badreshwar, Banari Devi, Chitai, Jageshwar, Binsar Mahadev, Garhnath and Baijnath.

Kasar Devi temple was visited by Swami Vivekananda and this area has a Chabad House.[54][55]:96[56] Rudreshwar Mahadev Temple, near Sanara Ganiya, is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is beside the river Ram Ganga. A sun temple (only the second in the world) is at Katarmal, a short distance from the town. The famous temple of Manila Devi, Devi Maa, the family goddess of the Katyuri clan, lies around 85 km from Ranikhet. Udaipur a famous temple of Golu devta is 5 km. from Binta near Dwarahat.

Dunagiri has the highly revered temple of Shakti or Mother Goddess. Dunagiri is known as the birthplace of modern-day Kriya Yoga. There is a very famous and notable temple in Almora district which is in the village of Chaura near Bhaisor Gaun, Someshwar. This temple is dedicated to lord Golu who is considered as a lord of justice in Uttarakhand. This temple is about 40 km from Almora town. Another very famous temple of Almora district is Airdau which is in Someshwar. Someshwar is a small town of Almora which is very rich in agricultural way.

Pandu Kholi is another famous and ancient temple in Almora district. According to Hindu mythology Pandvas spent some time here to escape from Dhuryodhana. The distance of this temple from Almora is about 80 km. Another very ancient and holy Shiva temple in Someshwar town is known as Khakeshwar Mahadev temple. It is in the area of village Bhaisor Gaun on the bank of a river.

Transport[edit]

Pantnagar Airport, located in Pantnagar is the primary Airport serving entire Kumaon Region. Indira Gandhi International Airport, located in Delhi is the nearest international Airport. Kathgodam railway station is the nearest railway station. Kathgodam is the last terminus of the broad gauge line of North East Railways that connects Kumaon with Delhi, Dehradun, and Howrah.

Almora is well connected by motorable roads with major destinations of Uttarakhand state and northern India. Uttarakhand Transport Corporation runs Buses from Almora bus station to Delhi and Dehradun. Taxis and Private Buses, mostly run by K.M.O.U, connect Almora to other major destinations of Kumaon region. Government of Uttarakhand is constructing an ISBT near lower mall road[57] which will be very helpful for establishing a large tourist network in city and around nearby destinations of kumaon region. It will be the second ISBT of uttarakhand after Dehradun.[58] A Sub Regional Transport Office is located in Almora[59] where Vehicles are registered by the number UK-01.[60]

Education[edit]

Almora has a total of 22 Primary Schools, 7 Middle Schools, 2 Secondary Schools and 9 Senior Secondary Schools.

Institutions[edit]

  • G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Ranikhet road
  • ICAR Vivekanand Hill Agriculture and Research, Mall road
  • GIHM Nainital road
  • Govt. Girls Polytechnic College Patal Devi
  • NRDMS Kumaon University
  • CEMS Almora
  • Govt. Law college SSJ Campus

List of Schools[edit]

  • Koormanchal Academy
  • NBU International School
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya Almora
  • Vivekanand Girls Inter College
  • Vivekanand Intermediate College
  • Adam's Girls Inter College
  • Holy Angel Public School
  • New Modern Public School
  • New Inspiration School
  • Maharishi Vidya Mandir
  • Beersheba Sr. Secondary Public School
  • Sharada Public School
  • Almora Inter College
  • Ramsay's Inter College
  • Govt. Girls Inter College
  • Govt. Inter College
  • Aarya Kanya Inter College
  • St. Paul public school
  • Army Public School
  • Grace Public School
  • Green Field Public School
  • Spring Dales public school
  • Saraswati Shishu Mandir Narsingh Badi, Shivaji Nagar, Jeewan Dham
  • Lorraine's Public School
  • Mangal Deep Vidya Mandir
  • Govt.Inter College Raingal

Media and communications[edit]

All India Radio has a local station in Almora which transmits programs of mass interest.[61] The main service providers are Dish TV and Doordarshan. BSNL, Vodafone and Airtel have the three largest cellular networks in the city. There are Internet cafés in and around the city, but broadband connectivity is limited. Satellite dishes exist in most homes in the region and the channels available throughout India are also available here.

Multiple local Hindi and English newspapers are published, whereas regional and national Hindi and English newspapers, printed elsewhere in India, are also circulated in Almora. a number of newspapers have been published in Almora like Prabuddha Bharata, Almora Akhbar[62] etc.

Notable people[edit]

Swami Vivekananda visited Almora thrice during his Himalayan sojourns
Govind Ballabh Pant was born in Almora
Cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni has Ancestral roots in Almora

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ List of Elected Mayor/Chairpersons of Uttarakhand (PDF). Lucknow: RCUES. 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2016. 
  2. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 174. 
  3. ^ Trivedi, Vijaya R. Autonomy of Uttarakhand. Mohit Publications. p. 33. ISBN 9788174450081. 
  4. ^ Sharma, Man Mohan. Through the valley of gods: travels in the central Himalayas. Vision Books. p. 99. 
  5. ^ Bhattacherje, S. B. Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 55. ISBN 9788120740747. 
  6. ^ Tyagi, Nutan. Hill Resorts of U.P. Himalaya,: A Geographical Study. Indus Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 9788185182629. 
  7. ^ Debroy, Bibek. The Mahabharata: Volume 3. Penguin Books India. p. 20. ISBN 9780143100157. 
  8. ^ Brockington, J. L. (1998). The Sanskrit Epics. BRILL. p. 26. ISBN 9004102604. 
  9. ^ Kohli, M. S. Mountains of India: Tourism, Adventure and Pilgrimage. Indus Publishing. p. 146. ISBN 9788173871351. 
  10. ^ Shah, Giriraj. Abode of gods: Uttarakhand. Cosmo Publications. p. 113. 
  11. ^ "Almora District". www.mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 31 August 2016. 
  12. ^ [bhor.org/himalayan-region-almora/ "Himalayan Region, Almora - BHOR"] Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 2 September 2016. 
  13. ^ "Almora History - kmvn Resources and Information.". www.kmvn.org. Retrieved 31 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "Almora Travel and Tourism Guide". Travel India. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  15. ^ Riddick, John F. The History of British India: A Chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313322808. 
  16. ^ Agarwal, Rohit. "Top 8 Places To Visit In Almora". Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Dehradun, NIC, Uttarakhand State Unit,. "About us: District of Almora, Uttarakhand, India". almora.nic.in. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k District Census Handbook (PDF). Dehradun: Directorate of Census Operations, Uttarakhand. p. 8. Retrieved 31 August 2016. 
  19. ^ a b c d Aggarwal, J. C.; Agrawal, S. P. Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170225720. 
  20. ^ Census of India, 1981: Uttar Pradesh. Series 22. Controller of Publications. p. 1. Retrieved 4 September 2016. 
  21. ^ Saraswati, Baidyanath. The Cultural Dimension of Ecology. Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. ISBN 9788124601020. 
  22. ^ Hamilton, Francis; Buchanan, Francis Hamilton. An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal: And of the Territories Annexed to this Dominion by the House of Gorkha. A. Constable. Retrieved 2 September 2016. 
  23. ^ Lamb, Alastair (1986). British India and Tibet, 1766-1910 (2nd, rev. ed. ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0710208723. 
  24. ^ Cross, John Pemble ; foreword by J.P. (2008). Britain's Gurkha War : the invasion of Nepal, 1814-16 ([Rev. ed.] ed.). London: Frontline. ISBN 978-1-84832-520-3. 
  25. ^ Naravane, M.S. (2006). Battles of the honourable East India Company : making of the Raj. New Delhi: A. P. H. Pub. Corp. ISBN 978-81-313-0034-3. 
  26. ^ Gould, Tony (2000). Imperial warriors : Britain and the Gurkhas. London: Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-365-1. 
  27. ^ Martin, Robert Montgomery. The History of the Indian Empire. Mayur Publications. 
  28. ^ Summary of the operations in India: with their results : from 30 April 1814 to 31 Jan. 1823. Marquis of Hastings. 1824. 
  29. ^ (Pilgrim 1844)
  30. ^ Murphy, C. W. (1906). A guide to Naini Tal and Kumaun, etc. Allahbad, United Provinces. 
  31. ^ Vipin Pubby (1996). Shimla Then and Now. Indus Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7387-046-0. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  32. ^ Dowling, Julie. Indian Hill Stations: Shimla, Mussoorie and Almora. Blurb, Incorporated. ISBN 9781320872096. 
  33. ^ Geographical Review of India. Geographical Society of India. p. 250. Retrieved 4 September 2016. 
  34. ^ "Yatra India - Almora". www.jagranyatra.com. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  35. ^ "Almora district,Uttarakhand". 25 May 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  36. ^ Kumar, Kireet; Rawat, D. S. Water Management in Himalayan Ecosystem: A Study of Natural Springs of Almora. Indus Publishing. ISBN 9788173870477. 
  37. ^ Pradesh, India Director of Census Operations, Uttar (1971). District Census Handbook: Almora. 
  38. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Almora, India". www.fallingrain.com. Retrieved 31 August 2016. 
  39. ^ Kumaon Himalaya. Shree Almora Book Depot. ISBN 9788190020992. 
  40. ^ "Kumaon Information". Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  41. ^ "Climate: Almora - Temperature, Climate graph, Climate table - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 31 August 2016. 
  42. ^ a b c d e f g "Almora, India Köppen Climate Classification". Weatherbase. Retrieved 31 August 2016. 
  43. ^ "Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall based upon 1901–2000 data" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. p. 45. Retrieved 2012-03-03. 
  44. ^ "Monthly Weather Averages Summary, Almora, India". Retrieved 2016-08-31. 
  45. ^ District Census Handbook, 1951-61. Census of India. 
  46. ^ Pradesh, India Director of Census Operations, Uttar; Sinha, Dharmendra Mohan. District Census Handbook: Series 21, Uttar Pradesh. 
  47. ^ GISTNIC, Almora. 1991. 
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