The aloha shirt, also referred to as a Hawaiian shirt, is a style of dress shirt originating in Hawaii. They are collared and buttoned dress shirts, usually short-sleeved and made from printed fabric. They are often worn untucked, but can also be worn tucked into the waist of trousers. They are worn casually or as informal business attire in Hawaii.
"Aloha Friday", a now-common tradition of celebrating the end of the workweek by wearing more casual attire on Fridays, initially grew out of an effort to promote aloha shirts.
Aloha dress shirts are printed, mostly short-sleeved, and collared. They almost always have buttons, sometimes for the entire length of the shirt or at least down to the chest. They usually have a left chest pocket sewn in, often with attention to ensure the printed pattern remains continuous. Aloha shirts may be worn by men or women. Women's aloha shirts usually have a lower-cut, v-neck style.
The lower hems are straight, and the shirts are often worn with the shirt-tails hanging out, rather than tucked in. Wearing an untucked shirt was possibly influenced by the local Filipinos who wore shirt-tail out, and called these bayau meaning "friend".[a] Wearing it untucked or tucked depends on personal taste; it carries the same connotations of tucking or untucking a polo shirt. In the 1950s, the shirt became allowed as business attire for aloha week, but only if worn tucked in.
Traditional men's aloha shirts are usually adorned with traditional Hawaiian quilt designs, tapa designs, and simple floral patterns in more muted colors. Contemporary aloha shirts may have prints that do not feature any traditional Hawaiian quilt or floral designs but instead may incorporate drinks, palm trees, surf boards or other island tropical elements in a similar form as the traditional aloha shirt.
It has been observed that locals (kamaʻāina) tended to shy away from the garishness of aloha shirts as "too wild" when they first appeared, whereas tourists embraced wearing designs of many bright colors. An example of the type of shirt the locals may prefer includes the "reverse print"; these shirts are often printed on the interior, resulting in the muted color on the exterior.
According to some sources, the origin of aloha shirts can be traced to the 1920s or the early 1930s, when the Honolulu-based dry goods store "Musa-Shiya the Shirtmaker" under the proprietorship of Kōichirō Miyamoto, started making shirts out of colorful Japanese prints.[b] It has also been contended that the aloha shirt was devised in the early 1930s by Chinese merchant Ellery Chun of "King-Smith Clothiers and Dry Goods", a store in Waikiki. Although this claim has been described as a myth reinforced by repeated telling, Chun may have been the first to mass-produce or to maintain the ready-to-wear in stock to be sold off the shelf.
The name "aloha shirt" appeared later. By 1935 and 1936, the word aloha was being attached to various sorts of Hawaiian products, so calling the garments "aloha shirts" was hardly original. The term aloha shirt first appeared in print in an advertisement for Musa-Shiya in the June 28, 1935 issue of The Honolulu Advertiser newspaper. However, Ellery Chun is sometimes credited for coining the term, perhaps in 1933; Chun's store reportedly carried window signs that said "aloha shirts". The term "aloha sportswear" was registered as a trademark by Chun's company in 1936, followed by Chun trademarking "Aloha Shirt" in 1937 and owning the rights to this appellation for the next 20 years.
Within years, major designer labels sprang up all over Hawaii and began manufacturing and selling aloha shirts en masse. By the end of the 1930s, 450 people were employed in an industry worth $600,000 annually. Two notable manufacturers of this period are Kamehameha and Branfleet (later Kahala), both founded in 1936. Retail chains in Hawaii, including some based on the mainland, may mass-produce a single aloha shirt design for employee uniforms.
After World War II, many servicemen and servicewomen returned to the United States from Asia and the Pacific islands with aloha shirts made in Hawaii since the 1930s. One significant manufacturer was Shaheen, which began business in 1948. Following Hawaii's statehood in 1959, when extant tropical prints came to be regarded as rather tacky, designer Alfred Shaheen became noted for producing aloha shirts of higher chic and quality, and Elvis Presley wore a Shaheen-designed red aloha on the album cover for Blue Hawaii (1961). In 1956, Tori Richard, a well-known brand of alohas was established. Reyn Spooner (or, rather, its precursor, Spooner's of Waikiki) also established business in 1956.
Aloha dress codes
In 1946, the Honolulu Chamber of Commerce funded a study of aloha shirts and designs for comfortable business clothing worn during the hot Hawaiian summers. The City and County of Honolulu passed a resolution allowing their employees to wear sport shirts from June–October. City employees were not allowed to wear aloha shirts for business until the creation of the Aloha Week festival in 1947. The Aloha Week festival was motivated by both cultural and economic concerns: First held at Ala Moana Park in October, the festival revived interest in ancient Hawaiian music, dancing, sports, and traditions. There was a holoku ball, a floral parade, and a makahiki festival attended by 8,000 people. Economically, the week-long event first attracted visitors during October – traditionally a slow month for tourism – which benefited the Hawaiian fashion industry as they supplied the muʻumuʻu and aloha shirts worn for the celebration. Aloha Week expanded in 1974 to six islands, and was lengthened to a month. In 1991, Aloha Week was renamed to Aloha Festivals.
In the end, Aloha Week had a direct influence on the resulting demand for alohawear, and was responsible for supporting local clothing manufacturing: locals needed the clothing for the festivals, and soon people in Hawaii began wearing the clothing in greater numbers on more of a daily basis. Hawaii's fashion industry was relieved, as they were initially worried that popular clothing from the mainland United States would eventually replace aloha attire.
In 1962, a professional manufacturing association known as the Hawaiian Fashion Guild began to promote aloha shirts and clothing for use in the workplace, particularly as business attire. In a campaign called "Operation Liberation", the Guild distributed two aloha shirts to every member of the Hawaii House of Representatives and the Hawaii Senate. Subsequently, a resolution passed in the Senate recommending aloha attire be worn throughout the summer, beginning on Lei Day. The wording of the resolution spoke of letting "the male populace return to 'aloha attire' during the summer months for the sake of comfort and in support of the 50th state's garment industry".
In 1965, Bill Foster Sr., president of the Hawaii Fashion Guild, led the organization in a campaign lobbying for "Aloha Friday", a day employers would allow men to wear aloha shirts on the last business day of the week a few months out of the year. Aloha Friday officially began in 1966, and young adults of the 1960s embraced the style, replacing the formal business wear favored by previous generations. By 1970, aloha wear had gained acceptance in Hawaii as business attire for any day of the week. Unlike the court dress required in most jurisdictions, attorneys in Hawaii may be allowed to wear aloha shirts in court, though this varies among individual courts.
Hawaii's custom of Aloha Friday slowly spread east to California, continuing around the globe until the 1990s, when it became known as Casual Friday. Today in Hawaii, alohawear is worn as business attire for any day of the week, and "Aloha Friday" is generally used to refer to the last day of the work week. Now considered Hawaii's term for "Thank God It's Friday" (TGIF), the phrase was used by Kimo Kahoano and Paul Natto in their 1982 song, "It's Aloha Friday, No Work 'til Monday", heard every Friday on Hawaii radio stations across the state.
The related concept of "aloha attire" stems from the aloha shirt. Semi-formal functions such as weddings, birthday parties, and dinners are often designated as "aloha attire", meaning that men wear aloha shirts and women wear muumuu or other tropical prints. Because Hawaii tends to be more casual, it is rarely appropriate to attend such functions in full evening wear like on the mainland; instead, aloha attire is seen as a happy medium between excessive formality and casual wear (i.e., business casual).
- Barong tagalog – formal Filipino shirt made of pineapple fibre
- Batik – Indonesian and Malaysian shirt worn casually or as business attire
- Bowling shirt
- Camp shirt
- Guayabera – Caribbean shirt worn casually or as business attire
- Kariyushi shirt – Okinawan shirt worn casually or as business attire
- Tori Richard – aloha shirt brand
- Reyn Spooner – aloha shirt brand
- Jams – aloha shirt brand
- Rooted perhaps to the Filipino barong tagalog.
- Musa-Shiya was established by Japanese immigrant Chōtarō Miyamoto (宮本長太郎) in 1904. After Miyamoto's death in 1915, the shop was renamed "Musa-Shiya Shoten" (Japanese title: 武蔵屋呉服店 (Musashi-ya-gofukuten) by his son Kōichirō Miyamoto (宮本孝一郎), who sewed Aloha shirts using Japanese kimono fabrics and was allegedly the first to sell shirts of this kind.
- "Aloha Friday". Maui No Ka 'Oi Magazine. Vol. 11 no. 2. March 2007. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007.
- Christian, Scott (March 30, 2017). "The Men's Shirt That Will Get You Noticed". The Wall Street Journal.
- Schmitt, Robert C. (1980). "Some Firsts in Island Business and Government" (PDF). The Hawaiian Journal of History. Hawaiian Historical Society. 14: 86–87.; cf. shorter entry in Schmitt, Robert C. (1995). Ronck, Ronn (ed.). Firsts and Almost Firsts in Hawaiʻi. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-8248-1282-9.
- Fundaburk (1965), II: 4, p. 169, apud Schimtt (1980)
- Keune, Maribeth; Quinn, Brad (July 23, 2010). "Hawaiian Style: The Roots of the Aloha Shirt Interview with Linda Arthur". The Collectors Weekly.
- Hirahara, Naomi; Smith, Henrietta M. (2002). Distinguished Asian American Business Leaders. Island Heritage Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 0-89610-406-0.
- Goggans, Jan; DiFranco, Aaron (2004). The Pacific Region. Greenwood Publishing. p. 172. ISBN 0-313-33266-5.
- Furer (1983), pp. 19–20.
- Linda B. Arthur in interview, Keane & Quinn (2010), apud Hughes (2017), p. 284
- Furer (1983), p. 19.
- Hope & Tozian (2000), pp. 17, 19 apud Hughes (2017), p. 284
- "Aroha shatsu to nihonjin imin no rekishi" アロハシャツと日本人移民の歴史 [Aloha Shirt and the history of Japanese immigration]. Japanese Overseas Migration Museum (in Japanese). Japan International Cooperation Agency. 2012. Archived from the original on September 9, 2006. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Martin, Douglas (June 8, 2000). "Ellery Chun, 91, Popularizer of the Shirt That Won Hawaii". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- Hughes (2017), p. 284.
- Hoover, Will (July 11, 2000). "Aloha Shirts Unplugged: Unraveling Some Rumors and Fabrication". Honolulu Advertiser. pp. 21–23.
- Musa-Shiya Shoten, Ltd. (June 28, 1935). "'Aloha' Shirts ― well tailored, beautiful designs and radiant colors (advertisement)". Honolulu Advertiser. p. 17.
- Ronck, Ronn (April 2, 1987). "Print that Aloha Shirt". Arts Scene. Honolulu Advertiser. p. 21.
- Hendrickson, Robert (2001). The Art of the Aloha Shirt. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 10. ISBN 0-471-34518-0.
- Gordon, Mike (July 2, 2006). "Aloha shirts". Honolulu Advertiser. pp. 21–23. Archived from the original on February 1, 2012.
- Furer (1983), p. 16.
- Cheung, Alexis (February 23, 2018). "The Origins and Appropriations of the Aloha Shirt". Racked. Vox Media. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
- Hughes (2017), pp. 288–289.
- Smith, Ray A. (June 7, 2012). "When Designers Meddle With Hawaiian Shirts". The Wall Street Journal. p. D6.
- Noland, Claire (January 4, 2009). "Alfred Shaheen, garment industry pioneer, dies at 86". Obituaries. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- "Tori Richard". San Diego Magazine. Vol. 51. 1998. p. 4.
- Fujii, Jocelyn K. (2006). Tori Richard: The First Fifty Years. Honolulu, HI: TR Press. ISBN 0-9785466-0-1. OCLC 128234380.
- Padilla, Max (June 20, 2010). "Reyn Spooner's new wave of Hawaiian shirts". Shopping. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
- Miller-Davenport, Sarah (2019). Gateway State: Hawaiʻi and the Cultural Transformation of American Empire. Princeton University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-691-18596-5.
- Arthur (2000), pp. 34–35.
- "A Cultural Showcase of Hawaii". Aloha Festivals. Hawaii Tourism Authority. 2006. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2008.
- Arthur (2000), p. 39.
- Brown & Arthur (2002), pp. 78–79.
- Hope & Tozian (2000), p. 45.
- "'Wear Aloha' Exhibit Opens At Honolulu Hale". June 8, 2006. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006.
Mayor Mufi Hannemann: 'When the board of directors of the Chamber of Commerce of Hawaiʻi voted in favor of Aloha Friday in 1966, they were acknowledging a sentiment widespread in our Island home: that we don't have to dress like Mainlanders to be taken seriously. Now the rest of the nation has caught some of the Aloha Friday spirit with "Casual Fridays."'
- Ing, Louise K. Y. (January 19, 2011). "AHFI Insights : What Not to Wear — Hawaiʻi Lawyers Edition". www.hawaiilitigation.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
- Loomis, Susan Herrmann (October 16, 1988). "Shopper's World; Hawaii's Short-Sleeve Plumage". The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 2008.
- Brown, J. J. (September 9, 2007). "Did you ever wonder?". The Gazette. Colorado Springs. Retrieved April 10, 2008.
- Dale Hope: The Aloha Shirt with a different year of introduction.[when?]
- Arthur, Linda B. (2000). Aloha Attire: Hawaiian Dress in the Twentieth Century. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 0-7643-1015-1.
- Brown, DeSoto; Arthur, Linda (2002). The Art of the Aloha Shirt. Island Heritage Publishing. ISBN 0-89610-406-0.
- Fundaburk, Emma Lila (1965). The Garment Manufacturing Industry of Hawaii. Part II, Vol. 4. University of Hawaii, Economic Research Center.
- Furer, Gloria (1983), "Designs of Hawaiian Wear: An Evolution in History", ACPTC Proceedings: National meeting proceedings
- Hope, Dale; Tozian, Gregory (2000). The Aloha Shirt: Spirit of the Islands. Hillsboro, OR: TR Press. ISBN 1-58270-034-6.
- Hughes, Roxane (2017), Ludwig, Sämi (ed.), "Multicultural or Destitue Hawaii? Re-visioning the Symbolism of the Aloha Shirt", American Multiculturalism in Context: Views from at Home and Abroad, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 281–300, ISBN 978-1-4438-7482-3
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