Kalvoda was born in Šlapanice near Brno, the eighth of ten children. He attended the gymnasium in Brno and then studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague for five years, 1892–97, with Julius Mařák. In 1900 a scholarship allowed him to study in Paris, from where he moved to Munich in 1901. His time in Munich is credited with broadening his experience of contemporary trends. He first exhibited in Prague in 1901, and in 1902 exhibited at the Mánes Union of Fine Arts.
He was married first to Anna Fastrova (1905–29) and then to Bozena Peloušková (from 1933).
Kalvoda's paintings focused on Czech landscapes. His style was initially marked by Mařák, then by naturalism, with an inclination towards Art Nouveau symbolism. From 1907 his painting became increasingly impressionist.
He received some twenty separate domestic exhibitions and was also exhibited in Vienna, Berlin, Warsaw, Rome, Paris, Saint Louis, and Pittsburgh. His 1936 posthumous exhibition in Prague consisted of 110 works.
A memorial to Kalvoda was unveiled in the Šlapanice cemetery in 1998. In 2005, the Czech Republic honored him with a postage stamp showing his "Osiky by Velké Nemcice," one of his earliest paintings, then exhibited at the Moravian Gallery in Brno.
- Galerie malířství. "Kalvoda Alois". Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- Encyklopedie Brna. "Akademický malíř Alois Kalvoda". Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- Zachař, Michael. "Kalvoda Alois (1875-1934)". Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- "Akademický malíř Alois Kalvoda". Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- Česká pošta. "Works of art on postage stamps - Alois Kalvoda (1875 - 1934)". Retrieved 2013-01-27.
Nová encyklopedie českého výtvarného umění, Academia, Praha 1996. s. str. 334-335.