This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||146.11 g/mol|
|Melting point||115 °C (239 °F; 388 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
α-Ketoglutaric acid (2-oxoglutaric acid) is one of two ketone derivatives of glutaric acid. The term "ketoglutaric acid," when not further qualified, almost always refers to the alpha variant. β-Ketoglutaric acid varies only by the position of the ketone functional group, and is much less common.
α-Ketoglutarate is a key intermediate in the Krebs cycle, coming after isocitrate and before succinyl CoA. Anaplerotic reactions can replenish the cycle at this juncture by synthesizing α-ketoglutarate from transamination of glutamate, or through action of glutamate dehydrogenase on glutamate.
Formation of amino acids
Glutamine is synthesized from glutamate by glutamine synthetase, which utilizes adenosine triphosphate to form glutamyl phosphate; this intermediate is attacked by ammonia as a nucleophile giving glutamine and inorganic phosphate. Proline, arginine, and lysine (in some organisms) are other amino acids synthesized as well. These three amino acids derive from glutamate with the addition of further steps or enzymes to facilitate reactions.
Another function is to combine with nitrogen released in cells, therefore preventing nitrogen overload.
α-Ketoglutarate is one of the most important nitrogen transporters in metabolic pathways. The amino groups of amino acids are attached to it (by transamination) and carried to the liver where the urea cycle takes place.
α-Ketoglutarate is transaminated, along with glutamine, to form the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate can then be decarboxylated (requiring vitamin B6) into the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid.
Relationship to molecular oxygen
Acting as a co-substrate for α-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylase, it also plays important function in oxidation reactions involving molecular oxygen.
Molecular oxygen (O2) directly oxidizes many compounds to produce useful products in an organism, such as antibiotics, in reactions catalyzed by oxygenases. In many oxygenases, α-ketoglutarate helps the reaction by being oxidized with the main substrate. EGLN1, one of the α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenases, is an O2 sensor, informing the organism the oxygen level in its environment.[clarification needed]
In combination with molecular oxygen, alpha-ketoglutarate is one of the requirements for the hydroxylation of proline to hydroxyproline in the production of type 1 collagen.
A study showed that in glutamine deprived conditions, α-ketoglutarate promotes naïve CD4+ T cell differentiation into TH1 whilst inhibiting their differentiation into anti-inflammatory Treg cells.
α-Ketoglutarate can be produced by:
- Oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate by isocitrate dehydrogenase
- Oxidative deamination of glutamate by glutamate dehydrogenase
- From galacturonic acid by the organism Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Alpha-ketoglutarate can be used to produce:
Interactive pathway map
Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]
- Merck Index, 13th Edition, 5320.
- Ledwidge, Richard; Blanchard, John S. (1999). "The Dual Biosynthetic Capability of N-Acetylornithine Aminotransferase in Arginine and Lysine Biosynthesis†". Biochemistry. 38 (10): 3019–3024. doi:10.1021/bi982574a. PMID 10074354.
- "Does infectious fever relieve autistic behavior by releasing glutamine from skeletal muscles as provisional fuel?". Archived from the original on 2014-05-19. Retrieved 2014-05-19.
- Ott, P; Clemmesen, O; Larsen, FS (Jul 2005). "Cerebral metabolic disturbances in the brain during acute liver failure: from hyperammonemia to energy failure and proteolysis". Neurochemistry International. 47 (1–2): 13–8. doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2005.04.002. PMID 15921824.
- Hares, P; James, IM; Pearson, RM (May–Jun 1978). "Effect of ornithine alpha ketoglutarate (OAKG) on the response of brain metabolism to hypoxia in the dog". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 9 (3): 222–4. doi:10.1161/01.STR.9.3.222. PMID 644619.
- Long, L; Halliwell, B (2011). "Artefacts in cell culture: α-Ketoglutarate can scavenge hydrogen peroxide generated by ascorbate and epigallocatechin gallate in cell culture media". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 406 (1): 20–24. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.01.091. PMID 21281600.
- Chin, RM; Fu, X; Pai, MY; Vergnes, L; Hwang, H; Deng, G; Diep, S; Lomenick, B; Meli, VS; Monsalve, GC; Hu, E; Whelan, SA; Wang, JX; Jung, G; Solis, GM; Fazlollahi, F; Kaweeteerawat, C; Quach, A; Nili, M; Krall, AS; Godwin, HA; Chang, HR; Faull, KF; Guo, F; Jiang, M; Trauger, SA; Saghatelian, A; Braas, D; Christofk, HR; Clarke, CF; Teitell, MA; Petrascheck, M; Reue, K; Jung, ME; Frand, AR; Huang, J (2014). "The metabolite α-ketoglutarate extends lifespan by inhibiting ATP synthase and TOR". Nature. 510 (7505): 397–401. Bibcode:2014Natur.510..397C. doi:10.1038/nature13264. PMC 4263271. PMID 24828042.
- KaiserSep. 1, Jocelyn; 2020; Am, 11:00 (2020-09-01). "Bodybuilding supplement promotes healthy aging and extends life span, at least in mice". Science | AAAS. Retrieved 2020-09-01.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "A metabolite produced by the body increases lifespan and dramatically compresses late-life morbidity in mice". BUCK. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
- Shahmirzadi, Azar Asadi; Edgar, Daniel; Liao, Chen-Yu (2020-09-01). "Alpha-Ketoglutarate, an Endogenous Metabolite, Extends Lifespan and Compresses Morbidity in Aging Mice". Cell Metabolism. Retrieved 2020-09-20.
- Klysz, Dorota; Tai, Xuguang (29 September 2015). "Glutamine-dependent α-ketoglutarate production regulates the balance between T helper 1 cell and regulatory T cell generation". Science Signaling. 8 (396): ra97. doi:10.1126/scisignal.aab2610. PMID 26420908.
- Richard, Peter; Hilditch, Satu (2009). "d-Galacturonic acid catabolism in microorganisms and its biotechnological relevance". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 82 (4): 597–604. doi:10.1007/s00253-009-1870-6. ISSN 0175-7598. PMID 19159926.
|NADH + H+ + CO|