Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase

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Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase
Identifiers
EC no.3.2.1.49
CAS no.9075-63-2
Databases
IntEnzIntEnz view
BRENDABRENDA entry
ExPASyNiceZyme view
KEGGKEGG entry
MetaCycmetabolic pathway
PRIAMprofile
PDB structuresRCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum

α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.49) is a glycoside hydrolase from bacteria and animals, also known as nagalase.

The human gene that codes for this enzyme is NAGA. Mutations in this gene and the deficiency in alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity have been identified as the cause of Schindler disease.[1]

Enzymes with this activity is useful for converting type A blood to type O, giving it the name of A-zyme. Bacterial enzymes in the GH109 family, including the A-zyme from Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, runs this reaction efficiently.[2]

Nagalase catalyzes the deglycosylation of the Gc protein also known as vitamin D3 binding protein (VDBP) rendering it incapable of being converted to the regulatory protein, Gc Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF). GcMAF is a protein involved in the activation of macrophages - in cases when many types of incompatible cells happen to be around, thus Nagalase diminishes the body’s macrophage activating capacity, and elevated Nagalase has been reported in systemic disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Elevated Nagalase levels have also been found in the blood of children with autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). [3] Nagalase accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. [4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wang AM, Schindler D, Desnick R (November 1990). "Schindler disease: the molecular lesion in the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase gene that causes an infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 86 (5): 1752–6. doi:10.1172/JCI114901. PMC 296929. PMID 2243144.
  2. ^ Liu QP, Sulzenbacher G, Yuan H, Bennett EP, Pietz G, Saunders K, et al. (April 2007). "Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells". Nature Biotechnology. 25 (4): 454–64. doi:10.1038/nbt1298. PMID 17401360.
  3. ^ Siniscalco D, Bradstreet JJ, Cirillo A, Antonucci N (April 2014). "The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages". Journal of Neuroinflammation. 11 (78): 78. doi:10.1186/1742-2094-11-78. PMC 3996516. PMID 24739187.
  4. ^ Thyer L, Ward E, Smith R, Branca JJ, Morucci G, Gulisano M, et al. (August 2013). "N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients". Oncoimmunology. 2 (8): e25769. doi:10.4161/onci.25769. PMC 3812199. PMID 24179708.

External links[edit]