Alphard (programming language)

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Alphard is a Pascal-like programming language for data abstraction and verification, proposed and designed by William A. Wulf, Ralph L. London, and Mary Shaw.[1] The language was the subject of several research publications in the late 1970s, but was never implemented. Its main innovative feature was the introduction of the 'form' datatype, which combines a specification and a procedural (executable) implementation. It also took the generator from IPL-V,[2] as well as the mapping functions from Lisp[3] and made it general case.[4]


  1. ^ Wulf, William A.; London, Ralph L.; Shaw, Mary (December 1976). "An Introduction to the Construction and Verification of Alphard Programs". IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. 2 (4): 253–265.
  2. ^ Newell, Allen (1964). Information processing language-V manual. Prentice-Hall. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  3. ^ McCarthy, John (1965). LISP 1.5 programmer's manual (2d ed.). Cambridge: M.I.T. Press. ISBN 978-0262130110.
  4. ^ Shaw, Mary (1981). Alphard: form and content. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-90663-6. Retrieved 12 May 2012.

Further reading[edit]

  • Cleaveland, J. Craig (1986). An Introduction to Data Types. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0201119404.