Alphestes immaculatus

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Alphestes immaculatus
Alphestes immaculatus SI.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Serranidae
Genus: Alphestes
A. immaculatus
Binomial name
Alphestes immaculatus
Breder, 1936
Alphestes immaculatus range.png

Alphestes immaculatus, the Pacific mutton hamlet, is a species of sea bass found within the eastern Pacific from the northern Gulf of California to southern Peru, including the Galápagos Islands. It grows up to 30 cm (12 in), with a typical length of 18 cm (7 in). This demersal, non-migratory species inhabits seagrass and rocky reef areas in shallow waters, where it hides using its camouflaging coloration. It may also dig into sand to avoid detection.[2][1] Muscle hepcidin expression could be significant in the immune response in fish. The expression of HAMP1 gene of A. immaculatus in muscle at basal conditions could describe a mechanism of protection upon the invasion of pathogens before a strong stimulus.[3]


  1. ^ a b Craig, M.T., Choat, J.H., Ferreira, B., Bertoncini, A.A., Rocha, L. & Heemstra, P.C. (2008). Alphestes immaculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T132754A3441793.en
  2. ^ Alphestes immaculatus Breder, 1936. FishBase
  3. ^ Masso (2011). "Genomic organization and tissue-specific expression of hepcidin in the pacific mutton hamlet, Alphestes immaculatus (Breder, 1936)". Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 31 (6): 1297–1302. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2011.10.007. PMID 22019824.

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