|Alsthom, GEC Alsthom|
|Traded as||Euronext: ALO|
CAC Next 20 Component
|Henri Poupart-Lafarge (Chairman and CEO)|
|Products||Railway vehicles and signalling|
|Revenue||€7951 million (2017/2018)|
|€381 million (2017/2018)|
|€485 million (2017/2018)|
|Total assets||€14.4 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||€3.7 billion (2017)|
Number of employees
Alstom is a French multinational company operating worldwide in rail transport markets, active in the fields of passenger transportation, signalling and locomotives, with products including the AGV, TGV, Eurostar, and Pendolino high-speed trains, in addition to suburban, regional and metro trains, and Citadis trams.
Alstom (originally as Alsthom) was formed from a merger between Compagnie Française Thomson Houston and the Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques in 1928; significant acquisitions included the Constructions Electriques de France (1932), shipbuilder Chantiers de l'Atlantique (1976), and parts of ACEC SA (Belgium, late 1980s). A merger with parts of the General Electric Company plc (UK) formed GEC Alsthom in 1989; the company became Alstom in 1998.
In 2004, Alstom was in financial crisis due to massive inherited unexpected costs (€4 billion) arising from a design flaw inherited from the acquisition of ABB Group's turbine business, in addition to losses in other areas of the business. The company required a €3.2 billion state-backed bailout in 2003 – and as a result was required to sell several divisions including shipbuilding and electrical transmission to Nikhanj Power, in order to comply with EU rules on state aid.
In 2014, Alstom and General Electric (GE) announced that a US$17 billion (€12.4 billion) bid for the company's power and grid divisions had been made and provisionally accepted. After modification of the deal following political controversy in France relating to the take over by a foreign company of a strategic player in heavy industry, GE's bid was modified; to include joint ventures in power generation and electrical transmission, and the sale of its own rail signalling business to Alstom. The GE acquisition deal for the power and grid division was accepted by EU and US anticompetition authorities in mid 2015, subject to the sale of Alstom's heavy gas turbine business. The acquisition was finalised on 2 November 2015, with GE acquiring Alstom's power generation and electricity transmission business (combined as GE Power) leaving the Alstom company operating solely in the rail transport market.
- 1 History
- 2 Company structure, products, and services
- 3 Financial information
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Alsthom was founded in 1928 from the merger of French heavy engineering interests of the Thomson-Houston Electric Company (then part of General Electric) – the Compagnie française pour l'exploitation des procédés Thomson Houston (or Compagnie Française Thomson Houston, CFTH) and Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques, with the first factory in Belfort. In 1932, Alsthom expanded into transportation by acquiring Constructions Electriques de France, Tarbes, a manufacturer of electric locomotives as well as electrical and hydraulic equipment.
In 1969, Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE) became the majority shareholder of Alsthom. In 1976, Alsthom merged with Chantiers de l'Atlantique, becoming Alsthom Atlantique. Thus, the business expanded into marine. The next year, it constructed the first 1300 MW generator set for the Paluel power station, setting a world record with an output of 1500 MW.
In 1978, Alsthom delivered its first TGV to SNCF. The TGV went on to break world rail speed records in 1981 (at 380 kilometres per hour (240 mph)) and in 1990 (at 515.3 kilometres per hour (320.2 mph)). It also set the world endurance record for high-speed train lines in 2001, travelling the 1,067.2 kilometres (663.1 mi) from Calais to Marseille in 3 hours and 29 minutes. In 1986, Alsthom Belfort received an order from EDF for the largest gas turbine in the world (212 MW).
In 1988–89, holding company CGEE Alsthom acquired ACEC Energie (hydroturbines and electrical equipment for the nuclear industry) and ACEC Automatisme (automation) from the dissolution of Belgian electrical engineering company ACEC SA. Alsthom acquired 100% of ACEC's transport division, renaming it ACEC Transport.
GEC Alsthom (1989–1998)
In 1989 GEC Alsthom was formed from a 50–50 merger of the power and transport activities of Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE) subsidiary Alstom and the Powers System Division of the British General Electric Company plc, with the intent to allow Alsthom to export outside France. In May 1989 the rail vehicle manufacturer Metro-Cammell was acquired.
In 1994 GEC Alsthom acquired the rail vehicle manufacturer Linke-Hofmann-Busch from Salzgitter AG. In 1995, the company acquired the remaining shares in the steam turbine manufacturer MAN Energie. In early 1998, GEC Alsthom acquired the electrical contractor Cegelec, renaming it Alstom Power Conversion.
In June 1998 GEC Alsthom was listed on the Paris Stock Exchange; GEC and Alcatel sold off part of their stakes in the capital (23.6% each) and the company was renamed Alstom.
In 1999 Alstom's energy division merged with ABB in a 50–50 joint company known as ABB Alstom Power. Alstom also bought Canada's Télécité, a passenger information and security solutions company, and sold its heavy-duty gas turbine business to General Electric. The next year, it bought out ABB's share in ABB Alstom Power.
In 2000 Alstom sold its diesel engine businesses (Ruston, Paxman, and Mirrlees Blackstone) to MAN Group. It also acquired a 51% stake in Fiat Ferroviaria, the Italian rail manufacturer and world leader in tilting technology. In April 2003, Alstom sold its industrial turbine business to Siemens for €1.1 billion.
By 2003 Alstom was facing a financial crisis due to poor sales and over $5 billion of debt liabilities, with the potential to force the liquidation of the company. The crisis was in part due to $4 billion in costs from a design flaw in the turbines from the 2000 ABB Group acquisition, and from the collapse of customer Renaissance Cruises, and a downturn in the marine market. Alstom's share price had dropped 90% over two years. European competition commission law required Alstom to sell several of its subsidiaries, including its shipbuilding and electrical transmission assets, when it accepted a €3.2 billion rescue plan involving the French state.
In 2004 the French state took a 21% stake in Alstom and received an EU-approved French government bailout worth €2.5 billion. The company sold its electrical transmission and distribution ("grid") activities to Areva, the diesel locomotive manufacturer Meinfesa to Vossloh AG, and Alstom Power Rentals to APR LLC. Alstom also delivered the Queen Mary 2, the world's largest ocean liner, to Cunard during 2004.
In 2005 the former Metro-Cammell rail vehicle works in Washwood Heath, Birmingham were closed.
In 2006 Alstom sold its Marine Division to the Norwegian group Aker Yards, with a commitment to retain 25% of the shares until 2010. It also sold Alstom Power Conversion, which became Converteam, in a leveraged buy-out deal funded by Barclays Private Equity France SAS. In June, Bouygues group acquired the French government's 21% holding for €2 billion. Later in the year, Bouygues increased its shareholding to 24%.
In 2007 TGV Est set the world speed record for rail vehicles of 574.8 kilometres per hour (357.2 mph). In March, Alstom acquired Power Systems Manufacturing LLC (Florida, USA) a manufacturer of gas turbine components from Calpine Corporation for $242 million. In June, Alstom acquired the Spanish wind turbine manufacturer Ecotècnia, renamed as Alstom Ecotècnia (since 2010 Alstom Wind). The company also adopted a new graphic chart (logo, corporate identity) using "alstom" as its trading name, reserving "Alstom SA" for legal documents.
In 2010 Alstom re-acquired the electric power transmission division of Areva SA, which had previously been sold in 2004; the re-acquisition became a new operating division named "Alstom Grid". The company also opened a wind turbine assembly facility in Amarillo, Texas; a turbine manufacturing facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee; and a new hydropower manufacturing facility in China. Investments underlined Alstom's clean power strategy, focused on providing a wide range of power generation capabilities, highly efficient technology and carbon capture and storage technology, led by (then) Alstom Power President, Philippe Joubert.
In 2012 Alstom opened construction of factories at Sorel-Tracy, Quebec, Canada (passenger rail vehicles). After a consortium of Alstom (Alstom Wind), EDF, and Dong Energy was awarded three major French offshore wind farm contracts, the company initiated construction of factories at Cherbourg (turbine blades in association with LM Power, also wind turbine towers) and Saint-Nazaire (Nacelles and generators). Also in 2012 the company forms a joint venture with RusHydro to manufacture hydropower equipment for small and medium power hydropower plants. (up to about 100MW.)
In November 2013 Alstom announced it planned to raise €1 to €2 billion through sale of some non-core assets, plus the possible sale of a stake in Alstom Transport, and cut 1300 jobs. In 2014, Alstom sold its steam auxiliary components activities (air preheaters and gas-gas heaters for thermal power, other industrial heat transfer equipment, and grinding mills) to Triton Partners for €730 million.
Acquisition by General Electric
On 24 April 2014 it was reported that the U.S. conglomerate General Electric (GE) was in talks to acquire Alstom for $13 billion, and claimed the deal had the support of 29%-shareholder Bouygues; as a result, the company's share price rose 18% in one day. Neither GE nor Alstom confirmed the report. On 27 April Le Figaro reported that an alternative offer of a cash plus asset swap had been made by Siemens. The bid was reported to involve Siemens acquiring Alstom's power business in exchange for part of its rail transport arm, plus a cash offer as good as GE's and various job guarantees. The Siemens deal was reported as being promoted by French economic minister Arnaud Montebourg. However, the Siemens' and Alstom's companies' product overlap was greater, representing a greater jobs risk, and had potential issues with European competition regulators. Siemens' initial offer was characterised as "defensive" and was met with skepticism from investors and analysts.
On 29 April Reuters reported that the board of Alstom had accepted a €10 billion bid from GE for its energy operations; a letter from GE executive Jeffrey R. Immelt to President François Hollande published in Les Echos Immelt gave assurances about continued investment in Alstom's French activities, on security relating to Alstom's involvement in the French civil nuclear sector, and on job commitments made by Alstom Wind regarding its new factories, whilst making Alstom's wind activities available for sale to French investors. On 30 April, Alstom confirmed an offer had been received for its power and grid divisions (representing an equity value of €12.35 billion, €11.4 billion enterprise value) and was under review with key interests including the French state. On 30 April, GE confirmed an offer had been made, with a value of $16.9 billion, representing a $13.5 billion enterprise value plus $3.4 billion cash. On 5 May, General Electric posted an offer to buy one fourth of the shares in Alstom's Indian power and distribution companies – Alstom T&D India and Alstom India – at 261.25 and 382.20 rupees a share (value US$278 million and $111 million respectively) subject to its bid for Alstom SA being successful.
On 5 May 2014 the French government stated it did not back GE's bid, citing concerns on the potential future of Alstom's rail transport business as a smaller separate entity, suggesting that GE transfer its own rail division to Alstom; other concerns were retaining national technological independence in the civil nuclear field, and French jobs. On 14 May, France issued a decree (Décret n° 2014-479 du 14 mai 2014.[note 1]), nicknamed "décret Alstom", extending to power of the state to veto the takeover of "strategic interests" into areas of energy supply, water, transport, telecoms and public health. Both the French employer organisation MEDEF (through its president Pierre Gattaz (wiki:fr)) and the European Commissioner for Internal Market and Services (Michel Barnier) responded negatively to the decree.
On 16 June Siemens and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) submitted a competing proposal in which Siemens would acquire Alstom's gas turbine activities for €3.9 billion and MHI would form joint ventures with Alstom, acquiring 40, 20 and 20% stakes in Alstom's steam and nuclear, electrical grid, and hydroelectric businesses respectively, for €3.1 billion. The proposal included an additional offer to acquire a further 10% stake from shareholder Bouygues and the option to form a joint venture in rail transport. On 19 June, GE revised its bid, valuing the assets at the same price, but with a lower cash transaction value. The revised bid proposed to form a 50:50 joint venture combining GE's and Alstom's renewable and electric grid business, and a 50:50 joint venture in Alstom's steam turbine and nuclear power business. GE also announced a memorandum of understanding between the two firms in the rail transport sector, where GE would sell its rail signalling business to Alstom. On 20 June, Siemens and MHI modified their offer, with MHI increasing its stake in Alstom's steam, hydro, and grid businesses to 40% in all three (total €3.9 billion), and with Siemens increasing its offer by €400 million to €4.3 billion. Subsequently, Economy minister Arnaud Montebourg stated he would block both bids, but stated the French government was now backing the GE offer, and had given GE additional specifications regarding commitments and guarantees. It also announced it intended to take two thirds of Bouygues' shareholding (20%). The Alstom board met the next day and backed GE's revised bid. On 22 June, the French state agreed terms with Bouygues, enabling the purchase of part of their shareholding in Alstom, taking a 20% stake in Alstom from Bouygues before payment, with an agreement to buy the shares at a 2–5% discount on a value of a minimum of ≈€35 per share.[note 2] Analysts commented Bouygues would be under pressure to make a deal with the state in order to gain positive political capital due to regulation issues the company was facing in the French telecoms sector.
Initially the acquisition deal was expected to be finalised by early 2015. In early 2015 the EU Competition Commission began an examination process of the deal. Both European Union and United States competition regulators approved the deal by September 2015, subject to the divestiture of Alstom's large and very large gas turbine (GT26 and GT36 models) manufacturing and service business; and its GE7FA gas turbine aftermarket parts subsidiary business, Power Systems Mfg. LLC (PSM), to another company, named as Ansaldo of Italy, (see Ansaldo Energia).
The sale of the company's Energy division to GE was finalised 2 November 2015 – the final valuation being €12.4 billion, of which €9.7 billion was transferred to Alstom, the remainder being reinvested by Alstom in GE/Alstom joint ventures, plus other corrections. Following the acquisition, the remainder of the Alstom group including GE Signalling acquired for an amount of approximately €700 million, refocused entirely on Rail transport activities. The acquired businesses were to be reorganised together with GE's existing power generation business (GE Power & Water) as GE Power, headquartered in Schenectady, NY, USA.
With the acquisition of Alstom, GE accrued $17.3bn of goodwill, consisting of Alstom’s negative book value of $7.2bn at the time of acquisition and the purchase price of $10.1bn. In October 2018, GE took a write-off of $23bn from the value of its power industry division, most of it attributed to the hollow goodwill of Alstom.
2014 Bribery charges and fines
In late 2014 Alstom was fined $772 million by the U.S. Justice Department, and admitted guilt (under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act) in relation to bribes paid to obtain contracts in various countries.
In mid 2014 Alstom Network UK was charged by the UK Serious Fraud Office (SFO) in relation to corruption offences alleged to have been committed when obtaining transportation contracts in India, Poland and Tunisia, covered under sections 1 of the Prevention of Corruption Act 1906 and Criminal Law Act 1977. Further charges were brought in late 2014 by the SFO in relation to corrupt practices used to obtain energy contracts in Lithuania. Additional charges relating to contracts for the Budapest Metro in Hungary were added in April 2015.
In November 2015 Alstom was awarded a contract from the Indian Railways to construct an electric locomotive factory in Madhepura (Bihar), with an initial order of 800 twin section 9MW locomotives for use on the Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor, value ₹190 billion (about 2.9 billion USD). The factory was to be a joint venture with the Ministry of Railways (26%) at a cost of ₹ 13 billion. (about 200million USD)
In September 2015, it was announced that Amtrak would award Alstom a contract for $2.5 billion for the next generation high-speed train sets for the Northeast Corridor. This would result in the creation of 750 jobs across upstate New York with 400 direct manufacturing jobs at Alstom. The order for 28 trains was officially confirmed in August 2016 by Amtrak.
In March 2016 a joint venture of Alstom and Gibela began construction of a new 60,000 square metres (650,000 sq ft) train building factory in Dunnotar nr. Johannesburg, (South Africa). Initial orders for the factory included 580 X'Trapolis Mega passenger trains for PRASA – a €4 billion contract awarded in 2013.
In September 2016 Alstom announced it was to cease locomotive manufacturing at its Belfort (France) site by 2018 due to low orders, with remaining production transferred to Reichshoffen (Alsace). However, in early October 2016 the French state placed an order of about €650 million for 15 TGV Euroduplex trains; an order for 20 locomotives; plus an order for 30 intercity trains to be built at Reichshoffen. Together the orders were sufficient to prevent the plant closing in the short to medium term.
Company structure, products, and services
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2018)
Up to November 2015 Alstom operated in three main business areas: Power generation, rail transport, and transmission. Following the sale of the company's power and transmission business to GE the remainder of the business was entirely focused on rail transport.
Alstom Transport develops and markets a complete range of systems, equipment and service in the railway industry. The division has annual sales of €5.5 billion as of 2013. It is one of the world's largest manufacturers of high-speed trains, tramways and metros, electrical and diesel trains, information systems, traction systems, power supply systems and track work. The company also operates in the rail infrastructure market, designing, producing and installing infrastructure for the rail network. These includes information solutions, electrification, communication systems, track laying, station utilities, as well as workshops and depots. Maintenance, rebuilding, and renovation services are also provided by the company. Alstom Transport operates in 70 countries and employs 26,000 people.
Notable products includes series production of the TGV high-speed trains with over 650 trainsets sold over 25 years, as well as the AGV (Automotrice Grande Vitesse) unveiled in February 2008 and which entered service with NTV in Italy in 2012.
The company between 2007 and 2010 produced 1,002 R160A New York City subway cars at its manufacturing plant in Hornell, New York, while the body shells were built at their Lapa plant, in São Paulo, Brazil. In 2013, Alstom was awarded the contract to supply 168 coaches to Chennai Metro at a cost of ₹1,470 crore (US$200 million). In September 2015, it was announced in Hornell, NY by Senator Charles Schumer (D-NY) that Amtrak will be awarding Alstom a contract for $2.45 billion for the next generation high-speed train sets for the Northeast Corridor. This would result in the creation of 750 jobs across upstate New York with 400 direct manufacturing jobs at Alstom. The new train sets will be able to reach speeds up to 186 mph and feature active tilting technology. The 28 new train sets are scheduled to enter service by 2021.
Merger with Siemens
On 26 September 2017, Alstom announced a proposal to merge with Siemens Mobility, the rolling stock business of German conglomerate Siemens AG, with the objective of creating "a new European champion in the rail industry". The combined rail business, to be named Siemens Alstom and headquarters in Paris, would have $18 billion U.S. in revenue and employ 62,300 people in more than 60 countries. Seen as a measure to counter the rise of China's CRRC with support from both the French and German governments, the transaction, due to close by the end of 2018, has seen opposition by locals due to possible job cuts resulting from the merger. On 17 July 2018, Alstom shareholders overwhelmingly approved the merger with Siemens.
Alstom power activities were collectively called Alstom Power Systems and included the design, manufacturing, services and supply of products and systems for the power generation sector and industrial markets. The group covered most energy sources, including gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, wind. Power Systems provided components for power generation including: boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines, wind turbines, generators, air quality control systems and monitoring and control systems for power plants, as well as related products. It had a special focus on boilers and emissions control equipment.
Power Systems also provided services such as product retrofitting for nuclear and fossil steam turbines and refurbishment of existing power plants. It performed maintenance and servicing under long-term agreements for its own turbines, as well as those manufactured by GE and Siemens. In Russia, the company serviced nuclear equipment under a join agreement with Atomenergomash. In Brazil, Alstom, together with Bardella, ran a joint venture called Indústria Metalúrgica e Mecânica da Amazônia to build hydroelectic power plants throughout the Amazon and Latin American regions. In India, Alstom had a joint venture with Bharat Forge to manage power production from start to finish.
In 2015 the entire power sector was taken over by General Electric.
A third business section based on power transmission was formed on 7 June 2010 with the acquisition of the transmission business of Areva SA. The division manufactures equipment for the entire chain of electrical power transmission, including ultra-high voltage transmission lines (both AC and DC). Alstom Grid is headquartered at La Défense, the business district west of Paris, and has four main businesses: electrical transmission system products, power electric system, automation, and service. Alstom Grid has roughly 10% of the global market share.
Alstom was listed on the London, New York and Paris Stock Exchanges when it was floated on 22 June 1998. Following the financial reconstruction in 2003, the company remained listed on the Paris Stock Exchange, but was delisted from the London Stock Exchange on 17 November 2003 and the New York Stock Exchange in August 2004.
According to a shareholding study carried out in Feb 2016 the company's shareholding was :
- Institutional investors: 62%
- Bouygues: 29%
- Individual shareholders: 8%
- Employees: 1%
- The decree was an amendment to the Code monétaire et financier (French), extending powers given by Decree No. 2005-1739 (30 December 2005); the Décret n° 2014-479 du 14 mai 2014 relatif aux investissements étrangers. was nicknamed the "décret Alstom", or the "décret Montebourg". Arnaud Montebourg was quoted as stating the decree protected France's strategic interests, and was the end of laissez-faire economic policy.
- The 20% shareholding gave the state two seats on the board. The share purchase deal was for 20 months, after which the state was entitled to a 15% share at a similar markdown on the actual market price.
- Alstom – Contact, retrieved 8 September 2016
- Alstom: Consolidated financial statements – Year ended 31 March 2018.
- "Alstom and Siemens in rail merger deal". BBC News. 2017-09-26. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
- "Une nouvelle division des ACEC cédée à la CGE", archives.lesoir.be (in French), 11 January 1989
- Depas, Guy (1 December 1998), "ACEC", archives.lesoir.be (in French)
- "Les ACEC vendent", archives.lesoir.be (in French), 12 January 1989
- Delvaux, Beatrice (7 January 1989), "La reprise du ferroviaire", archives.lesoir.be (in French)
- International Directory of Company Histories (1994)
- "SASIB ANNOUNCES 1999 RESULTS", www.cirgroup.com, 6 March 2000
- "GEC Alsthom buys SASIB signaling units", Railway Age, 199 (2): 21, February 1998
- "Alstom Signalling History", www.alstomsignalingsolutions.com, archived from the original on 9 January 2013
- A Centennial – History of ALSTOM Signaling Inc. (Formerly General Railway Signal Company) 1904–2004 (PDF), Alstom Signalling Inc., June 2004, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011
- "ALSTOM sells its heavy duty gas turbine business to General Electric", www.alstom.com (press release), 23 March 1999
- "ALSTOM completes sale of its heavy duty gas turbine business to General Electric", www.alstom.com (press release), 25 June 1999
- "ABB to Sell Stake in ABB Alstom Power". tdworld.com. Transmission & Distribution World. 1 May 2000.
- "Man acquires ALSTOM's diesel engine operations", www.alstom.com (Press release), 21 February 2000
- "Article: Alstom Takes Over Fiat Ferroviaria". www.highbeam.com. International Railway Journal Article. 1 July 2000.
- "Siemens buys Alstom industrial turbines business for €1.1bn", www.power-eng.com, 28 April 2003
- "Can Alstom Get Back on Track? It's a financial wreck, and the rescue plan may not work". www.businessweek.com. Bloomberg. 21 July 2003.
- "French capitalism. Bull again France's state-backed rescue of Alstom is all too familiar". The Economist. 7 August 2003.
- Braud, Maurice (22 October 2010), "Alstom rescue plan agreed", www.eurofound.europa.eu, Eurofound
- "EU gives Alstom bailout backing". BBC News. 7 July 2004.
- "Converteam Annual Report 2006" (PDF). www.converteam.com. Converteam. 5 May 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2016.
- Gow, David (28 April 2006), "Bouygues buys Alstom stake", The Guardian, London
- Alstom to acquire USA gas turbine service provider (press release), March 2007
- Annual Report 2006/7 (PDF), Alstom, p. 8
- "Alstom and the Russian rail manufacturer Transmashholding sign a strategic partnership agreement". eng.tmholding.ru. 31 March 2009. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012.
- "Alstom Acquires Areva Division for 2.3 Billion Euros (Update3)". www.businessweek.com. Bloomberg. 8 June 2010.
- "Alstom wants to buy former unit from Areva". www.reuters.com. Reuters. 9 March 2009.
- "Alstom creates a third Sector, Alstom Grid, with the acquisition of the transmission business of Areva". www.alstom.com (Press release). Alstom. 8 June 2010. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011.
- "Alstom Outlines Plans for North American Wind Turbine Assembly Facility". 25 May 2010.
- "Alstom opens in Chattanooga, USA, a state-of-the-art turbine manufacturing facility to address the North American power generation market". 24 June 2010.
- "Alstom inaugurates new hydropower manufacturing facility in China; New carbon-neutral factory will reinforce Alstom's leading position in the Chinese hydro market". 4 November 2010.
- "Alstom powers up to fight climate change". 10 March 2010.
- "Iraq: France's Alstom signs high-speed rail line deal". BBC News Online. 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 27 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- Rochon, Sylvain (20 May 2012), "Il réalise son engagement électoral le plus audacieux" Un jour pas si lointain, des bogies construits à Sorel-Tracy équiperont des rames de métro partout au Canada et aux Etats-Unis " – Sylvain Simard", www.soreltracyregion.net
- "New Alstom manufacturing plant in Canada", www.alstom.com, 18 May 2012
- French Govt Picks EDF, Dong, Alstom For Offshore Wind Farms, Dow Jones and Company Inc., 6 April 2012
- Backwell, Ben (13 April 2012), "Green Street: Et voilà! A French offshore wind turbine industry", www.rechargenews.com
- Boselli, Muriel (6 April 2012), "Alstom win bulk of French wind farm tender (UPDATE 2-EDF)", www.reuters.com
- "Alstom confirme l'implantation de 4 usines à Cherbourg et Saint-Nazaire pour livrer son éolienne Haliade 150 au consortium EDF EN", www.businesswire.com (in French), Alstom, 6 April 2012
- "Alstom confirms four new factories to be built in Cherbourg and Saint-Nazaire to produce Haliade 150 turbines for the EDF EN consortium", www.alstom.com, Alstom, 5 April 2012
- "Alstom and RusHydro start work on new manufacturing plant", www.waterpowermagazine.com, 15 May 2012, archived from the original on 5 February 2013
- Stothard, Michael (6 November 2013), "Alstom to cut 1,300 jobs and sell assets", www.ft.com
- Landauro, Init (6 November 2013), "Alstom to Sell Stake in Bullet-Train Unit – French Conglomerate Targets $1.35 Billion to $2.7 Billion in Asset sales", online.wsj.com
- Alstom sells its steam auxiliary components activities to Triton for around €730 million (Press release), Alstom, 4 April 2014
- Mexico City awards $430 million train contract to Alstom. Reuters, 17 November 2014
- Kirchfeld, Aaron; Campbell, Matthew; McCracken, Jeffrey (24 April 2014), General Electric Said in Talks to Buy France's Alstom, Bloomberg
- Letessier, Ivan (27 April 2014), "Alstom : le gouvernement travaille à un projet franco-allemand avec Siemens", www.lefigaro.fr
- Kirchfeld, Aaron; de Beaupuy, Francois; Webb, Alex (27 April 2014), "Siemens Said to Offer Alstom Asset Swap to Beat GE Bid", www.bloomberg.com
- Campbell, Matthew; Fouquet, Helene; de Beaupuy, Francois (28 April 2014), "GE's Alstom Bid Gains Steam as Hollande Said Not Opposed", www.bloomberg.com
- Meichtry, Stacy; Gauthier-Villars, David (27 April 2014), "Siemens's New Alstom Bid Disrupts GE Deal", online.wsj.com
- Protard, Matthieu; Sheahan, Maria (29 April 2014). "Alstom accepts 10 billion euro GE bid for its energy unit". www.reuters.com.
- Gordon, Sarah (4 June 2014). "Siemens rides to Alstom's rescue on a horse gone lame". www.ft.com.
- Le Billon, Veronique (29 April 2014). "Alstom : ce que promet General Electric à Hollande". www.lesechos.fr (in French).
- Alstom is considering the proposed acquisition of its Energy activities by GE and the creation of a strong standalone market leader in the rail industry (Press release), Alstom, 30 April 2014
- GE offers $13.5 billion enterprise value to acquire Alstom Thermal, Renewables, and Grid businesses (Press release), GE, 30 April 2014
- Tripathy, Devidutta (5 May 2014), "GE makes $389 mln share tender offer for Alstom's India units", www.reuters.com
- Jolly, David (5 May 2014), "France Says It Opposes G.E.'s Bid for Alstom Unit", dealbook.nytimes.com
- "Décret n°2005-1739 du 30 décembre 2005 réglementant les relations financières avec l'étranger et portant application de l'article L. 151-3 du code monétaire et financier", www.legifrance.gouv.fr (in French), 31 December 2005
- "Décret n° 2014-479 du 14 mai 2014 relatif aux investissements étrangers soumis à autorisation préalable", www.legifrance.gouv.fr (in French), 16 May 2014
- "Au fait, c'est quoi ce décret sur les " investissements stratégiques " ?", www.lemonde.fr (in French), 16 May 2014
- d'Allonnes, David Revault; Pietralunga, Cedric (15 May 2014), "Montebourg : " Le décret sur les entreprises, c'est la fin du laisser-faire "", www.lemonde.fr (in French),
Le choix que nous avons fait, avec le premier ministre, est un choix de patriotisme économique. Ces mesures de protection des intérêts stratégiques de la France sont une reconquête de notre puissance. C'est la fin du laisser-faire
- "Décret Alstom : une "mauvaise idée" pour Gattaz, la Commission européenne attentive", www.boursier.com (in French), 15 May 2014
- "France grabs for power over Alstom future with new takeover law (update 5)", www.reuters.com, 15 May 2014
- de Beaupuy, Francois; Fouquet, Helene; Deen, Mark (15 May 2014), "France Fortifies Anti-Takeover Law as GE, Siemens Eye Alstom", www.bloomberg.com
- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Siemens provide a compelling proposal for Alstom (PDF) (Press release), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries / Siemens, 16 June 2014
- "Siemens and Mitsubishi launch Alstom gas bid", BBC News, 16 June 2014
- GE Announces Energy and Transport Alliance with Alstom (press release), GE, 19 June 2014
- Huet, Natalie; Mallet, Benjamin (19 June 2014), "GE reshapes Alstom offer to appease France", www.bloomberg.com
- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Siemens specify proposal to Alstom (PDF) (press release), Siemens / Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, 20 June 2014
- Vey, Jean-Baptiste; Huet, Natalie (20 June 2014), "France picks GE for Alstom, but says there's still work to do (UPDATE 3)", www.reuters.com
- Armstrong, Ahsley (20 June 2014), "France to take 20pc stake in Alstom alongside GE deal", The Telegraph, London
- "Alstom: GE and French state agree to work on new offer", BBC News, 20 June 2014
- Carnegy, Hugh; Stothard, Michael (20 June 2014), "French government backs GE-Alstom deal", www.ft.com
- "Alstom : l'Etat retient General Electric", www.lesechos.fr (in French), 20 June 2014
- "L'Etat devient le principal actionnaire d'Alstom", www.lemonde.fr (in French), 20 June 2014
- Carnegy, Hugh; Stothard, Michael; Crooks, Ed (21 June 2014), "Alstom board unanimously approves revised GE bid", www.ft.com
- Guillaume, Gilles; Pineau, Elizabeth (21 June 2014), "Alstom backs GE bid as Bouygues stake deal takes shape (UPDATE 4)", www.reuters.com
- Mallet, Benjamin; Frost, Laurence (23 June 2014), "France secures Alstom stake option ahead of GE tie-up", www.reuters.com
- "France secures option to buy Alstom stake from Bouygues", www.reuters.com, 22 June 2014
- Landauro, Inti; Meichtry, Stacy (22 June 2014), "France Lifts Hurdle to GE-Alstom Deal", online.wsj.com
- Guillaume, Gilles; Pineau, Elizabeth (21 January 2014), "Alstom backs GE bid as Bouygues stake deal takes shape", www.reuters.com
- "EU watchdog to examine GE's $14 bln Alstom deal more closely (UPDATE 2)", www.reuters.com, 23 February 2015
- Sebag, Gaspard (8 September 2015), "GE Wins Approval for Alstom Deal After Asset-Sales Pledge", www.bloomberg.com, retrieved 2 November 2015
- Fairless, Tom (8 September 2015), "EU Approves GE's Acquisition of Alstom's Energy Business Subject to Conditions", www.wsj.com, retrieved 2 November 2015
- "Mergers: Commission clears GE's acquisition of Alstom's power generation and transmission assets, subject to conditionsm", europa.eu (press release), 8 September 2015, retrieved 2 November 2015
- Justice Department Requires General Electric to Divest Aftermarket Business in Order to Complete Alstom Purchase (press release), United States Department of Justice, 8 September 2015, retrieved 2 November 2015
- "Alstom refocused on rail transport with strong leadership positions", www.alstom.com (press release), 2 November 2015, retrieved 2 November 2015
- "Alstom closes sale of energy business to GE (UPDATE 1)", www.reuters.com, 2 November 2015, retrieved 2 November 2015
- "Alstom Power Combine to Form GE's Largest Digital Industrial Business, GE Power", www.genewsroom.com (press release), 2 November 2015, retrieved 2 November 2015
- "GE COMPLETES ACQUISITION OF ALSTOM POWER AND GRID BUSINESSES", www.genewsroom.com (press release), 2 November 2015, retrieved 2 November 2015
- "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
- Lynch, Sarah N. (22 December 2014). "Alstom to pay record $772 million to settle bribery charges with U.S." Reuters.com. Reuters.
- Tovey, Alan (22 December 2014), "Alstom fined $772m in US for 'brazen' and 'astounding' foreign bribery schemes", The Telegraph, London
- "Criminal charges against Alstom in the UK", www.sfo.gov.uk, 27 July 2014, archived from the original on 25 December 2014
- Ring, Suzi (24 December 2014), "Alstom Charged in U.K. With Paying Bribes Over 8 Years", www.bloomberg.com
- Cruise, Sinead (16 April 2015), "files more corruption charges against Alstom's UK unit (UPDATE 1-UK)", www.reuters.com
- "Alstom to supply 800 electric locos to Indian Railways", www.railwaygazette.com, 10 November 2015, retrieved 11 November 2015
- Barrow, Keith (29 December 2015), "Alstom increases stake in Transmashholding", www.railjournal.com, retrieved 29 December 2015
- Jordan, Jason (21 September 2015). "400 New jobs coming to Alstom". The Evening Tribune. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "SCHUMER ANNOUNCES: AMTRAK IS SET TO SELECT HORNELL'S ALSTOM AS PART OF $2.5 BILLION PROGRAM TO BUILD SAFER, NEXT GENERATION HIGH-SPEED TRAINS; SENATOR SAYS PROJECT WILL CREATE 750 JOBS INCLUDING 400 DIRECT MANUFACTURING JOBS AT ALSTOM IN HORNELL" (press release). Charles E. Schumer (Senator). 21 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "AMTRAK INVESTS $2.4 BILLION FOR NEXT-GEN HIGH-SPEED TRAINSETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE UPGRADES". Amtrak. 25 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "Alstom JV begins construction on South African suburban trains manufacturing site", www.europeanrailwayreview.com, 7 March 2016, retrieved 8 September 2016
- "Alstom to cease locomotive production at Belfort", www.railwaygazette.com, 8 September 2016, retrieved 8 September 2016
- Barrow, Keith (4 October 2016), "Alstom Belfort plant rescued with TGV order", www.railjournal.com, retrieved 4 October 2016
- Nussbaum, Ania (4 October 2016), "Alstom to Scrap Belfort Plan After France Pledges New TGV Orders", www.bloomberg.com, retrieved 4 October 2016
- Alstom in Widnes, Alstom, retrieved 1 July 2017
- "Alstom opens UK's largest train modernisation facility in Widnes", Rail Technology Magazine, Cognitive Publishing, 29 June 2017, retrieved 1 July 2017
- Alstom – Our Activities www.alstom.com Archived 22 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Alstom (ALO:Euronext Paris) Company Description". Business Week. Retrieved 24 June 2014.[permanent dead link]
- Whitfield, Paul (6 May 2014). "GE Offers New Talks With France Over Alstom bid". The Street. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Green ambition". Railway Strategies. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Sarkozy backs Alstom's Grande Vitesse". Railway People. 14 February 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Alstom to supply Citadis tramways in Oran and Constantine". Visit Oran. 18 November 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Alstom completes in Lapa plant the first train for Chennai metro, in India". Alstom (Press release). May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- "AMTRAK INVESTS $2.4 BILLION FOR NEXT-GEN HIGH-SPEED TRAINSETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE UPGRADES". Amtrak Media. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Siemens and Alstom join forces to create a European Champion in Mobility". Alstom. 2017-09-26. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
- Marowits, Ross (2017-09-26). "European railway manufacturers Siemens and Alstom confirm merger deal". The Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
- "French trade unions voice opposition to Alstom/Siemens tie-up deal". Reuters. 2018-01-30. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
- Senese, Kyra (2018-07-18). "Alstom shareholders approve Siemens merger". Railway Age. Retrieved 2018-07-22.
- The creation of a third sector, Alstom Grid, opens a new development phase for Alstom www.alstom.com Archived 23 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Alstom Grid – a global organization focused on performance". Alstom.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- De Clercq, Geert (29 April 2014). "Whoever wins Alstom power assets, industry faces shakeout". Reuters. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "ALSTOM 1998/1999 : A year of solid results". Alstom. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Alstom Re Secondary Listing". Trustnet.com. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Singer, Marie (27 April 2014). "Alstom takeover, French government slams brakes". Market Business News. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Capital Structure". Alstom. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
- "Alcatel Alsthom Compagnie Générale d'Electricité", International Directory of Company Histories, St. James Press, 9, 1994
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alstom.|