Alstonia scholaris

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Alstonia scholaris
Alstonia.scholaris.jpg
Devil tree (Alstonia scholaris)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Tribe: Plumeriae
Subtribe: Alstoniinae
Genus: Alstonia
Species: A. scholaris
Binomial name
Alstonia scholaris
Alstoniascholaris1.png
Occurrence data from GBIF[2]
Synonyms[3]
  • Echites scholaris L.

Alstonia scholaris (commonly called blackboard tree, devil tree, ditabark, milkwood-pine,saptparni,shaitan tree,white cheesewood[3]) is an evergreen tropical tree in the family Apocynaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent, Indomalaya, Malesia, and Australasia.

Description[edit]

Leaves and flowers in Kolkata, West Bengal, India

The Alstonia scholaris is a glabrous tree and grows up to 40 m (130 ft) tall. Its mature bark is grayish and its young branches are copiously marked with lenticels.

The upper side of the leaves are glossy, while the underside is greyish.[4] Leaves occur in whorls of three to ten; petioles are 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in); the leathery leaves are narrowly obovate to very narrowly spathulate, base cuneate, apex usually rounded; lateral veins occur in 25 to 50 pairs, at 80-90° to midvein. Cymes are dense and pubescent; peduncle is 4–7 cm (1.6–2.8 in) long. Pedicels are usually as long as or shorter than calyx. The corolla is white and tube-like, 6–10 mm (0.24–0.39 in); lobes are broadly ovate or broadly obovate, 2–4.5 mm (0.079–0.177 in), overlapping to the left. The ovaries are distinct and pubescent. The follicles are distinct and linear.

Flowers bloom in the month October. The flowers are very fragrant similar to the flower of Cestrum nocturnum.

Seeds of A. scholaris are oblong, with ciliated margins, and ends with tufts of hairs 1.5–2 cm (0.59–0.79 in).[5] The bark is almost odorless and very bitter, with abundant bitter and milky sap.

Range[edit]

Alstonia scholaris is native to the following regions:[3]

It has also been naturalized in several other tropical and subtropical climates.[citation needed]

Alstonia scholaris (Saptaparni in Bengali) is declared as the State Tree of West Bengal, India.

Uses[edit]

The wood of Alstonia scholaris has been recommended for the manufacture of pencils, as it is suitable in nature and the tree grows rapidly and is easy to cultivate.[7] In Sri Lanka its light wood is used for coffins. In Borneo the wood close to the root is very light and of white color, and is used for net floats, household utensils, trenchers, corks, etc.[8] In Theravada Buddhism, Bodhi by first Lord Buddha is said to have used Alstonia scholaris as the tree for achieving enlightenment.

The 1889 book 'The Useful Native Plants of Australia’ records that "The powerfully bitter bark of this tree is used by the natives [sic.] of India in bowel complaints. (Treasury of Botany,) It has proved a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhoea and the advanced stages of dysentery. It has also been found effectual in restoring the tone of the stomach and of the system generally in debility after fevers and other exhausting diseases. (Phurm. of India.) It is officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as an astringent tonic, anthelmintic, and antiperiodic. It is held in the highest repute in the Phillippine Islands. For further information see Dymock (Materia Medica of Western India). Most writers who speak of it at all speak of it in terms of the highest praise. A very full account of the various substances which have been extracted from this bark will be found in Watt's Dict., 3rd suppt., Part i., page 688 et seq."[9]

At one time, decoctions of the leaves were used for beriberi.[4]

Chemistry[edit]

The bark contains the alkaloids ditamine, echitenine, echitamine[citation needed] and strictamine.

Devil Tree (Alstonia Scholaris) blossom in October 2014 - Mumbai, India
Alstonia scholaris fruit, the Kimberley, NT, Australia
Arrangement of leaves
Alstonia scholaris in the IIT Kanpur campus
Close-up of bark in Hong Kong

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1998). "Alstonia scholaris". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1998: e.T32295A9688408. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T32295A9688408.en. Retrieved 3 January 2018. 
  2. ^ GBIF.org (07 June 2018) GBIF Occurrence Download https://doi.org/10.15468/dl.eokqvq Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.
  3. ^ a b c "Alstonia scholaris". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2012-03-30. 
  4. ^ a b http://www.stuartxchange.org/Dita.html retrieved on 29 June 2007
  5. ^ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200018323 retrieved on 29 June 2007
  6. ^ Simon Gardner, Pindar Sidisunthorn and Lai Ee May, 2011. Heritage Trees of Penang. Penang: Areca Books. ISBN 978-967-57190-6-6
  7. ^ Tonanont, N. Wood used in pencil making. Vanasarn 1974 Vol. 32 No. 3 pp. 225-227
  8. ^ "retrieved on 29 June 2007". Botanical.com. Retrieved 2012-03-30. 
  9. ^ J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.