Page semi-protected

Alternative for Germany

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland
Abbreviation AfD
Leaders Jörg Meuthen
Alexander Gauland
Deputies Georg Pazderski
Kay Gottschalk
Albrecht Glaser
Parliamentary leadership Alice Weidel
Alexander Gauland
Founded 6 February 2013; 5 years ago (2013-02-06)
Headquarters

Schillstraße 9

10785 Berlin
Youth wing Young Alternative for Germany
Membership (August 2018) Increase 31,000[1]
Ideology

German nationalism[2][3][4]
Right-wing populism[5]
Euroscepticism[6]
National conservatism[7][8]
Anti-Islam[9][10][11]
Anti-immigration[12]
Antifeminism[13]


Direct democracy[14][15]
Political position Right-wing[16] to far-right[17]
European affiliation None
European Parliament group ECR (2014-2016)
EFDD (from 2016)
Colours      Light blue
     Red
Bundestag
92 / 709
State Parliaments
158 / 1,821
European Parliament
1 / 96
Website
www.afd.de

Alternative for Germany (German: Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a right-wing[18] to far-right[17] political party in Germany. Founded in April 2013, the AfD narrowly missed the 5% electoral threshold to sit in the Bundestag during the 2013 federal election. In 2014 the party won seven seats in the European election as a member of the European Conservatives and Reformists. After securing representation in 14 of the 16 German state parliaments by October 2017, the AfD became the third-largest party in Germany after the 2017 federal election, claiming 94 seats in the Bundestag, a major breakthrough for the party as it was the first time the AfD had won any seats in the Bundestag. The party is chaired by Jörg Meuthen; its lead candidates in the 2017 elections were AfD Co-Vice Chairman Alexander Gauland and Alice Weidel who now serves as the party group leader in the Bundestag. Since 2017, AfD is the largest opposition party in the Bundestag.

The party has been described as a German nationalist,[2][3][4] right-wing populist,[19] and Eurosceptic[6] party. Since about 2015, the AfD has been increasingly open to working with far-right extremist groups such as Pegida.[20] Parts of the AfD have racist,[21] Islamophobic,[22] anti-Semitic[23][24] and xenophobic[11][25][26] tendencies linked to far-right movements such as neo-Nazism[27][24] and identitarianism.[28][29]

History

Founding

In September 2012, Alexander Gauland, Bernd Lucke, and journalist Konrad Adam, founded the political group Electoral Alternative 2013 (German: Wahlalternative 2013) in Bad Nauheim, to oppose German federal policies concerning the eurozone crisis. Their manifesto was endorsed by several economists, journalists, and business leaders, and stated that the eurozone had proven to be "unsuitable" as a currency area and that southern European states were "sinking into poverty under the competitive pressure of the euro".[30]

"Wahlalternative 2013" logo

Some candidates of what would become the AfD sought election in Lower Saxony as part of the Electoral Alternative 2013 in alliance with the Free Voters, an association participating in local elections without specific federal or foreign policies, and received 1% of the vote.[30][31] In February 2013 the group decided to found a new party to compete in the 2013 federal elections. The Free Voters leadership declined to join forces, according to a leaked email from Bernd Lucke.[32] Advocating the abolition of the Euro, Alternative for Germany (AfD) took a more radical stance than the Free Voters.[33] Likewise, the Pirate Party of Germany opposed any coalition with the AfD at their 2013 spring convention.[34]

Konrad Adam (left), Frauke Petry and Bernd Lucke during the first AfD convention on 14 April 2013 in Berlin

The AfD's initial supporters were the same prominent economists, business leaders and journalists who had supported the Electoral Alternative 2013, including former members of the Christian Democratic Union, who had previously challenged the constitutionality of the German government's eurozone policies at the Federal Constitutional Court.[35][36]

Second vote share percentage for AfD in the 2013 federal election in Germany, final results
Representations of AfD in the federal states of Germany

On 14 April 2013, the AfD announced its presence to the wider public when it held its first convention in Berlin, elected the party leadership and adopted a party platform. Bernd Lucke,[37] entrepreneur Frauke Petry and Konrad Adam were elected as speakers.[38] The AfD federal board also chose three deputy speakers, Alexander Gauland, Roland Klaus and Patricia Casale. The party elected treasurer Norbert Stenzel and the three assessors Irina Smirnova, Beatrix Diefenbach and Wolf-Joachim Schünemann. The economist Joachim Starbatty, along with Jörn Kruse, Helga Luckenbach, Dirk Meyer and Roland Vaubel were elected to the party's scientific advisory board. Between 31 March and 12 May 2013 the AfD founded affiliates in all 16 German states in order to participate in the federal elections. On 15 June 2013 the Young Alternative for Germany was founded in Darmstadt as the AfD's youth organisation.[39] In April 2013, during David Cameron's visit to Germany, the British Conservative Party was reported to have contacted both AfD and the Free Voters to discuss possible cooperation, supported by the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group of the European Parliament.[40] In June 2013, Bernd Lucke gave a question and answer session organised by the Conservative Party-allied Bruges Group think tank in Portcullis House, London.[41] In a detailed report in the conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in April 2013, the paper's Berlin-based political correspondent Majid Sattar revealed that the SPD and CDU had conducted opposition research to blunt the growth and attraction of the AfD.[42]

The party was created by Bernd Lucke, Alexander Gauland, and Konrad Adam to confront German-supported bailouts for poorer southern European countries.[43]

2013 federal election

On 22 September 2013, the AfD won 4.7% of the votes in the 2013 federal election, missing the 5% barrier to enter the Bundestag. The party won about 2 million party list votes and 810,000 constituency votes, which was 1.9% of the total of these votes cast across Germany.[44]

2013 state elections

The AfD did not participate in the 2013 Bavaria state election held on 15 September 2013. The AfD gained its first representation in the state parliament of Hesse with the defection of Jochen Paulus from the Free Democratic Party (FDP) to the AfD in early May 2013,[45] who was not re-elected and left office in January 2014.[46] In the 2013 Hesse state election held on 22 September 2013, the same day as the 2013 federal election, the AfD failed to gain representation in the parliament with 4.0% of the vote.

2014 European Parliament election

Former "Courage [to stand up] for the truth! The euro is dividing Europe!" tagline on election placard 2013

In early 2014, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled the proposed 3% vote hurdle for representation in the European elections unconstitutional, and the 2014 European Parliament election became the first run in Germany without a barrier for representation.[47]

The AfD held a party conference on 25 January 2014 at Frankenstolz Arena, Aschaffenburg, northwest Bavaria. The conference chose the slogan Mut zu Deutschland ("Courage [to stand up] for Germany") to replace the former slogan Mut zur Wahrheit (lit. "Courage [to speak] the truth" or, more succinctly, "Telling it as it is"),[48] which prompted disagreement among the federal board that the party could be seen as too anti-European. Eventually a compromise was reached by using the slogan "MUT ZU D*EU*TSCHLAND, with the "EU" in "DEUTSCHLAND" encircled by the 12 stars of the European flag.[49] The conference elected the top six candidates for the European elections on 26 January 2014 and met again the following weekend to choose the remaining euro candidates.[48][49][50] Candidates from 7th–28th place on the party list were selected in Berlin on 1 February.[51] Party chairman Bernd Lucke was elected as lead candidate.

In February 2014, AfD officials said they had discussed alliances with Britain's anti-EU UK Independence Party (UKIP), which Bernd Lucke and the federal board of AfD opposed, and also with the ECR group, to which the British Conservative Party belongs.[52] In April 2014 Hans-Olaf Henkel, AfD's second candidate on the European election list, ruled out forming a group with UKIP after the 2014 European election.[53] stating that he saw the British Conservatives as the preferred partner in the European Parliament.[53] On 10 May 2014 Bernd Lucke had been in talks with the Czech and Polish member parties of ECR group.[54]

In the 25 May 2014 European election, the AfD came in fifth place in Germany, with 7.1% of the national vote (2,065,162 votes), and seven members of the EU parliament.[55] On 12 June 2014 it was announced that the AfD had been accepted into the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group in the European Parliament.[56] The official vote result was not released to the public, but figures of 29 votes for and 26 against were reported by the membership.[56]

2014 state elections

On 31 August 2014, the AfD scored 9.7% of the vote in the Saxony state election,[57] winning 14 seats in the Landtag of Saxony.[58] and on 14 September 2014 they obtained 10.6% of the vote in the Thuringian and 12.2% in the Brandenburg state election, winning 11 seats in both state parliaments.[59]

2015 state elections

On 15 February 2015 AfD won 6.1% of the vote in the 2015 Hamburg state election, gaining the mandate for eight seats in the Hamburg Parliament,[60] winning their first seats in a western German state.

On 10 May the AfD secured in the 5.5% of the vote in the Bremen state election, 2015 gaining representation in their 5th state parliament on a 50% turnout.[61]

Petry assumes leadership, Lucke quits

After months of factional infighting and a cancelled party gathering in June 2015, on 4 July 2015 Frauke Petry was elected as the de facto principal speaker of the party with 60% of the member votes ahead of Bernd Lucke at a party congress in Essen.[62] Petry was a member of the national-conservative faction of the AfD.[63] Her leadership was widely seen as heralding a shift of the party to the right, to focus more on issues such as migration, Islam and strengthening ties to Russia,[64] a shift which was claimed by Lucke as turning the party into a "Pegida party".[65] In the following week, five MEPs exited the party on 7 July, the only remaining MEPs being Beatrix von Storch and Marcus Pretzell[66] and on 8 July 2015, Lucke announced that he was resigning from the AfD, citing the rise of xenophobic and pro-Russian sentiments in the party.[67] At a meeting of members of the Wake-up call (Weckruf 2015) group on 19 July 2015, the founder of the AfD Bernd Lucke and former AfD members announced they would form a new party, the Alliance for Progress and Renewal (ALFA), under the founding principles of the AfD.[68]

Co-operation with FPÖ and exclusion from ECR group

In February 2016, the AfD announced a cooperation pact with the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ).[69] On 8 March 2016, the bureau of the ECR Group began motions to exclude the AfD from their group due to its links with the far-right FPÖ,[70] inviting the two remaining AfD MEPs to leave the group by 31 March, with a motion of exclusion to be tabled on 12 April if they refuse to leave voluntarily.[71] While MEP Beatrix von Storch left the ECR group on 8 April to join the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group,[72][73] Marcus Pretzell let himself be expelled on 12 April 2016.[74]

2016 state elections

With the migrant debate remaining the dominant national issue, on 13 March 2016 elections held in the three states of Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saxony-Anhalt saw the AfD receiving double-digit percentages of the vote in all three states.[75][76] In the 2016 Saxony-Anhalt state election, the AfD reached second place in the Landtag, receiving 24.2% of the vote. In the 2016 Baden-Württemberg state election, the AfD achieved third place with 15.1% of the vote. In the 2016 Rhineland-Palatinate state election, the AfD again reached third place with 12.6% of the vote. In Angela Merkel's home state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern her CDU was beaten into third place following a strong showing of the AfD who contested at state level for the first time, to claim the second-highest polling with 20.8% of the vote in the 2016 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state election.[77][78] However AfD voter support in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania appears to have come from both left and right wing parties with support for the SPD down 4.9%, CDU down 4.1%, The Left down 5.2%, Alliance '90/The Greens down 3.9% and support for the National Democratic Party of Germany halved, dropping 3.0%. Rising support for the AfD meant that The Greens and the NDP failed to reach the 5% threshold to qualify for seats in the Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and consequently lost their seats. In the 2016 Berlin state election, which the AfD also contested for the first time,[79] they achieved a vote of 14.2%, making them the fifth largest party represented in the state assembly. Their vote seems to have come equally from the SPD and CDU, whose votes declined 6.7% and 5.7% respectively.[80]

2016 party congress

At the party congress held on 30 April to 1 May 2016, the AfD adopted a policy platform based upon opposition to Islam, calling for the ban of Islamic symbols including burkhas, minarets and the call to prayer, using the slogan "Islam is not a part of Germany".[81][82][83][84]

2017 federal election

Second vote share percentage for AfD in the 2017 federal election in Germany, final results
National party convention in Cologne in April 2017

At the party conference in April 2017, Frauke Petry announced that she would not run as the party's main candidate for the 2017 federal election. This announcement grew out of internal power struggle as the party's support had fallen in polls from 15% in the summer of 2016 to 7% just before the conference. Björn Höcke from the far-right wing of the party and Petry were attempting to push each other out of the party. Petry's decision was partly seen as a step to avoid a vote at the conference on the issue of her standing.[85] The party chose Alexander Gauland, a stark conservative who worked as an editor and was a former member of the CDU,[86] to lead the party in the elections. Gauland supported the retention of Höcke's party membership. Alice Weidel, who is perceived as more moderate and neoliberal, was elected as his running mate.[87] The party approved a platform that, according to The Wall Street Journal: "urges Germany to close its borders to asylum applicants, end sanctions on Russia and to leave the EU if Berlin fails to retrieve national sovereignty from Brussels, as well as to amend the country's constitution to allow people born to non-German parents to have their German citizenship revoked if they commit serious crimes.[87]

In the 2017 German federal elections the AfD won 12.6% of the vote and received 94 seats; this was the first time it had won seats in the Bundestag.[88][89] At a press conference held by AfD the day after the election, Petry said that she would participate in the Bundestag as an independent; she said she did this because extremist statements by some members made it impossible for AfD to function as a constructive opposition, and to make clear to voters that there is internal dissent in the AfD. She also said that she would be leaving the party at some future date.[90][91] Four members of the AfD in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania legislature also left the AfD to form their own group.[90]

Ideology and policies

The AfD was founded as a centre-right conservative party of the middle class with a tendency toward 'soft' Euroscepticism, being generally supportive of Germany's membership in the European Union but critical of further European integration, the existence of the euro currency, and the bailouts by the eurozone for countries such as Greece.[92][93][94] At that time, the party also advocated support for Swiss-style direct democracy, dissolution of the Eurozone, opposition to immigration, and opposed gay marriage.[15]

By May 2015, the party became polarised into two factions, one centred around Lucke and his core economic policies and another group led by Petry, which favoured an anti-immigration approach. The result was that Lucke's faction left to found a new party: the Alliance for Progress and Renewal,[95] later renamed the Liberal Conservative Reformers in November 2016. AfD also supports the privatization of social programs and state owned enterprises.[96][97]

German nationalism

The party was founded on opposition to Germany's financial support of other Eurozone states and the third main point of its initial platform called for Germany to cede no further elements of its sovereignty to the EU without approval via a referendum.[30] Over time, a focus on German nationalism, on reclaiming Germany's sovereignty and national pride, especially in repudiation to Germany's culture of shame with regard to its Nazi past, became more central in AfD's ideology and a central plank in its populist appeals.[2][3][4] For example, Petry, who led the moderate wing of the party, said that Germany should reclaim the German word "völkisch" from its Nazi connotations,[98] while Höcke, who is an example of the more right-wing views, regularly speaks of the "Fatherland" and "Volk."[2] In January 2017, Höcke drew heavy criticism for a speech in which he stated, in reference to the Berlin Holocaust Memorial, "Germans are the only people in the world who plant a monument of shame in the heart of the capital," and criticized the "laughable policy of coming to terms with the past."[99][100] Höcke continued that Germany should make a "180 degree" turn with regard to its sense of national pride.[2]

The party also describes German national identity as under threat both from European integration and from the presence and accommodation of immigrants and refugees within Germany; its anti-immigration message is often articulated in this way, especially with regard to Islam.[3][4]

Homosexuality and feminism

According to its interim electoral manifesto, the party is against same-sex marriage and favours civil unions. The party is also against adoption for same-sex couples.[101] The left-leaning newspaper Die Tageszeitung described the group as advocating 'old gender roles'.[102] Wolfgang Gedeon, an elected AfD representative, has included feminism, along with "sexualism," and "migrationism", in an ideology he calls "green communism" that he opposes, and argues for family values as part of German identity.[103] As AfD has campaigned for traditional roles for women, it has aligned itself with groups opposed to modern feminism.[104] The youth wing of the party has used social media to campaign against aspects of modern feminism, with the support of party leadership.[105]

Environment

The party has a platform of climate change scepticism,[101][106] and therefore criticizes the energy transformation policies (Energiewende) that have promoted renewable energy. The party wants to restrict "uncontrolled expansion of wind energy", for instance.[101]

Conscription

AfD wants a reinstatement of conscription, starting for men at the age of 18.[107][101]

Foreign policy

In foreign policy, as of 2015 the party platform was pro-NATO, pro-United States and largely pro-Israel,[108][109] but the party was significantly divided on whether to support Russia, and had opposed sanctions on Russia supported by NATO and the United States.[110] It is also divided on free trade agreements.[110]

Membership

membership numbers
2013 17,687[111]
2014 20,728[111]
2015 16,385[111]
2016 26,409[111]
2017 29,000[112]
2018 31,000[112]

Party finances

Because the 2013 federal election was the first attempt to join by the party, the AfD had not received any federal funds in the run-up to it,[113] but after receiving 2 million votes it crossed the threshold for party funding and was expected to receive an estimated 1.3 to 1.5 million Euros per year of state subsidies.[114] After joining the parliament after the election of 2017 with more than 90 representatives, the party received more than 70 million Euros per year. This will probably raise to more than 100 million Euros per year from 2019 onward. Further, the party has established and acknowledged a foundation for political education, and other purposes, close to the party but organized separately, which may be able to claim up to 80 million Euro per year.[115] This foundation would be need to be acknowledged by the federal parliament in Germany first, but it generally has a legal claim to these subsidies.

European affiliations

Following the 2014 European Parliament elections, on 12 June 2014 the AfD was accepted into the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group in the European Parliament.[56]

In February 2016, the AfD announced a closer cooperation with the right-wing populist party Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), which is a member of the Europe of Nations and Freedom (ENF) group.[69] On 8 March 2016, the bureau of the ECR Group began motions to exclude AfD MEPs from their group due to the party's links with the far-right FPÖ and controversial remarks by two party leader, about shooting immigrants.[70][71] MEP Beatrix von Storch pre-empted her imminent expulsion by leaving the ECR group to join the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group on 8 April,[72][73] and Marcus Pretzell was expelled from the ECR group on 12 April 2016.[74] During the AfD party convention on 30 April 2016, Pretzell announced his intention to join the Europe of Nations and Freedom group.[116][117]

Public image

Alternative for Germany in 2013

At the outset AfD presented itself as conservative and middle-class, catering to a well-educated demographic; around two-thirds of supporters listed on its website in the early days held doctorates, leading to AfD being nicknamed the "professors' party" in those early days.[118][119][120] The party was described as professors and academics who dislike the compromises inflicted on their purist theories by German party politics.[121] 86% of the party's initial supporters were male.[45]

Relationship with far-right groups

Outside the Berlin hotel where the party held its inaugural meeting, it has been alleged that copies of Junge Freiheit, a weekly that is also popular with the far-right were being handed out.[122] The Rheinische Post pointed out that some AfD members and supporters write for the conservative paper Junge Freiheit.[42][123] There was also a protest outside the venue of the party’s inaugural meeting by Andreas Storr, a National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) representative in the Landtag of Saxony, as the NPD sees the AfD as a rival for Eurosceptic votes.[124]

In 2013 Alternative for Germany party organisers sent out the message that they are not trying to attract right-wing radicals, and toned down rhetoric on their Facebook page following media allegations that it too closely evoked the language of the far-right.[118][125] At that time the AfD checked applicants for membership to exclude far-right and former NPD members who support the anti-Euro policy (as other mainstream German political parties do).[118][119][126] The former party chairman Bernd Lucke initially defended the choice of words, citing freedom of opinion, and a right to use "strong words", meanwhile he has also said that "The applause is coming from the wrong side" in regards to praise his party gained from the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD).[118]

A 2013 investigation conducted by the internet social analytic company Linkfluence showed little to no similarities in Facebook likes of AfD followers and those of the NPD supporter base.[127] AfD members interests tended towards euroscepticism and direct democracy, while NPD supporters showed interests in anti-Islamification, right-wing rock bands and the German military.[127] An evaluation between the hyperlinks included on AFD local party websites also showed few similarities, with the company's German chief-executive stating "The AfD supporter base and the right-wing extremist scene are digitally very far removed from one another".[127] The analysis did point to AfD members favouring links with right-wing populist reactionary conservative content.[127] The AfD's desire to break consensus-based politics and oppose political correctness as undermining freedom of speech, does lend it kudos as a legitimate mouthpiece for right-wing populism among some of the party membership and on regional AfD websites, which contrasts with the intellectual character of the party hierarchy.[127]

Left-wing criticism of the party took a more hardened tone over the late summer 2013,[citation needed] with an array of political activists from far-left anti-fascist anarchists to the mainstream Green Party accusing it of pandering to xenophobic and nationalistic sentiments.[128] This ultimately led to the AfD complaining over incidents of verbal abuse and violence to its campaigners in Berlin, Lübeck, Nuremberg and the university city of Göttingen.[128] Incidents in Göttingen flared after a party conference on 1 August, with police intervening later in the month in an attempted garage arson attack (in which there was said to be a car filled with AfD campaign literature) and to break up a dispute between the AfD and members of the Green Youth.[128] Party leader Bernd Lucke described the events as a "slap in the face for every person who supports democracy" with the party in Lower Saxony left questioning whether to abandon their campaign in the state as local pub and restaurant owners denied the party access to their venues fearing for their businesses.[128]

On 24 August 2013, Lucke and 16 other party members were reported to have been attacked in Bremen by opponents who used pepper spray and pushed Lucke from the stage. Initial reports by party officials and the police suggested that they were left-wing extremists and that about eight out of 20–25 attackers had succeeded in getting onto the stage. It was reported that a campaign worker had been cut with a knife. Later the police indicated that the number of people was probably around 10, of whom only two were known to have gained access to the stage, that only one of the opponents was known to be a left wing activist, and that the minor cut sustained by a campaign worker was probably not caused by a knife and was incurred later when attempting to apprehend a fleeing attacker.[129]

Following the German Federal Election 2013 the anti-Islam party Die Freiheit unilaterally pledged to support Alternative for Germany in the 2014 elections and concentrate its efforts on local elections only.[130] Bernd Lucke responded by saying the recommendation was unwelcome and sent a letter to party associations recommending a hiring freeze.[131] Earlier in September, Lucke described the Freedom Party members as coming from two camps, one of extreme Islam critics and populists, the other, ordinary democrats who were joining the AfD.[130] Co-operation with the Freedom Party remains controversial within the ranks of the AfD,[131] with some German state associations conducting vetting interviews with former Freedom Party members.[130] Referring to an initiative for an LGBT specific sex education in elementary school, Petry had asked on her social media presence if homophobia was such a common prejudice among third and fourth grade children, that it would be necessary to confront them with it. An article in the German LGBT magazine Queer interpreted her statement as a demand to protect ″normal" (allegedly referring to heterosexual) families in elementary school.[132]

AfD MEP Beatrix von Storch is a known opponent of same-sex marriage.[133] She has accused school gay youth networks of using "forced sexualization" on their students.

In November 2015, a leading Berlin theatre, the Schaubühne, was brought into legal conflict with members of the AfD over a piece, Falk Richter's FEAR, that parodied them as zombies and mass murderers.[134] AfD vice-president Beatrix von Storch is depicted facing retribution for her maternal grandfather's role as a minister in Hitler's government.[135] AfD Spokesperson, Christian Lüth, responded by interrupting a performance and filming it. Beatrix von Storch, and Conservative spokesperson Hedwig von Beverfoerde, then requested and obtained a preliminary injunction against the theatre, prohibiting it from using images of them in the production. They charged that the images' use violated their human dignity protected under the Constitution.[136] On 15 December 2015, the court ruled against the complainants in favour of the theatre's freedom of expression and lifted the injunctions against using the images. The judges commented that 'any audience member can recognize that this is just a play'.[137]

In November 2015 Markus Pretzell said that German borders should be defended "with armed force as a measure of last resort,"[74] and in January 2016, Frauke Petry twice said similar things.[138] Petry told the regional newspaper Mannheimer Morgen in an interview, but she later denied this and claimed that the press lied about her statement. Rhein-Zeitung has offered the audio-recording of the interview in which she advocates firing on refugees.[139]

Stern reports that among 396 AfD candidates for the 2017 Bundestag, 47 candidates have not distanced themselves from right extremism. Although a large proportion of the candidates are not openly racist, some relativize Germany's role in World War II or call for the recognition of a "Cult of Guilt". 30 candidates tolerate right-wing friends in their profile or are themselves members of groups associated with such people. Others mourn the German Reich or use their symbols.[140]

Pegida

In response to the Pegida movement and demonstrations, members of AfD have expressed different views, with Lucke describing the movement as "a sign that these people do not feel their concerns are understood by politicians."[141] In response to the CDU Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere alleging an "overlap" between Pegida rallies and the AfD, Alexander Gauland stated that the AfD are "natural allies of this movement".[142] However, Hans-Olaf Henkel asked members of the party not to join the demonstrations, telling Der Tagesspiegel that he believed it could not be ruled out that they had "xenophobic or even racist connotations".[141] A straw poll by The Economist found that nine out of ten Pegida protesters would back the AfD.[143]

Antisemitism

Björn Höcke, one of the founders of AfD,[144][145][146][147] gave a speech in Dresden in January 2017, in which, referring to the Holocaust memorial in Berlin, he stated that "we Germans are the only people in the world who have planted a memorial of shame in the heart of their capital"[148] and suggested that Germans "need to make a 180 degree change in their politics of commemoration."[149]

The speech was widely criticized as antisemitic, among others by Jewish leaders in Germany.[148][150] Within the AfD, he was described by his party chairwoman, Frauke Petry, as a "burden to the party" while other members of the party, such as Alexander Gauland, said that they found no anti-semitism in the speech.[148]

As a result of his speech, the leaders of the AfD have asked in February 2017 that Björn Höcke be expelled from the party. The arbitration committee of the AfD in Thuringia is set to rule on the leaders' request.[151] As of August 2017, Höcke remains "a part of the soul of the AfD".[152]

Junge Alternative youth organisation

The Young Alternative for Germany (German: Junge Alternative für Deutschland or JA), was founded in 2013 as the youth organisation of the AfD, while remaining legally independent from its mother party.[39]

In view of the JA's independence it has been regarded by some in the AfD hierarchy as being somewhat wayward,[153] with the JA repeatedly accused of being "too far right,"[154] politically regressive and anti-feminist by the German media.[153][155][156]

Elections

Federal Parliament (Bundestag)

Election year Constituency

votes

Party list

votes

% of

party list votes

Seats won +/– Status
2013[157] 810,915 2,056,985 4.7
0 / 631
0 Extra-parliamentary
2017[88][89] 5,316,095 5,877,094 12.6
94 / 709
+94 Opposition

European Parliament

Election year Votes % of vote Rank Seats won +/–
2014[158] 2,070,014 7.1 #5
7 / 96
+7

State Parliament (Landtag)

State election, year Votes % of

vote

Rank Seats won +/– Status
Hesse, 2013[159] 126,906 4.1 #6
0 / 110
0 Extra-parliamentary
Saxony, 2014[160] 159,611 9.7 #4
14 / 126
+14 Opposition
Thuringia, 2014[161] 99,548 10.6 #4
11 / 91
+11 Opposition
Brandenburg, 2014[162] 119,989 12.2 #4
11 / 88
+11 Opposition
Hamburg, 2015[163] 214,833 6.1 #6
8 / 121
+8 Opposition
Bremen, 2015[164] 64,368 5.5 #6
5 / 83
+5 Opposition
Baden-Württemberg, 2016[165] 809,311 15.1 #3
23 / 143
+23 Opposition
Rhineland-Palatinate, 2016[166] 267,813 12.6 #3
14 / 101
+14 Opposition
Saxony-Anhalt, 2016[167] 271,646 24.4 #2
25 / 87
+25 Opposition
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 2016[168] 167,453 20.8 #2
18 / 71
+18 Opposition
Berlin, 2016[169] 231,325 14.2 #5
25 / 160
+25 Opposition
Saarland, 2017[170] 32,971 6.2 #4
3 / 51
+3 Opposition
Schleswig-Holstein, 2017[171] 86,275 5.9 #5
5 / 73
+5 Opposition
North Rhine-Westphalia, 2017[172] 624,552 7.4 #4
16 / 199
+16 Opposition
Lower Saxony, 2017[173] 235,840 6.2 #5
9 / 137
+9 Opposition

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Alternative für Deutschland hat mehr als 30.000 Mitglieder". 
  2. ^ a b c d e Taub, Amanda; Fisher, Max (18 January 2017). "Germany's Extreme Right Challenges Guilt Over Nazi Past". The New York Times. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Understanding the 'Alternative for Germany': Origins, Aims and Consequences" (PDF). University of Denver. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d Beyer, Susanne; Fleischhauer, Jan (30 March 2016). "AfD Head Frauke Petry: 'The Immigration of Muslims Will Change Our Culture'". Der Spiegel. 
  5. ^ "Germany's populist AfD: from anti-euro to anti-migrant". France 24. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016. 
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ "Germany". Parties and Elections in Europe. 2017. 
  8. ^ Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld. Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ Zeller, Frank. "Anti-migrant, anti-Muslim and anti-Merkel, Germany's AfD set to enter parliament". The Times of Israel. The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  11. ^ a b Horn, Heather. "The Voters Who Want Islam Out of Germany". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 22 January 2018. The AfD’s founder Bernd Lucke, an economics professor, left the party last summer, condemning rising xenophobia.  
  12. ^ "German election: Why this vote matters". BBC News. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017. [better source needed]
  13. ^
  14. ^
    • "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". cnbc.com. Consumer News and Business Channel. Retrieved 25 September 2017. Let's take the slightly controversial side about what the AfD wants to do about culture and immigration, which has been vastly misrepresented by their opponents, then everything else is small government, direct democracy, low regulation and low taxes, support for the family... 
  15. ^ a b Wayne C. Thompson, ed. (2015). Nordic, Central, and Southeastern Europe 2015–2016. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-4758-1883-3. 
  16. ^ Germany's populist AfD seeks to turn online 'censorship' to its advantage. Deutsche welle. Published 2 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
    Germany's right-wing AfD party surges to new high amid concern over refugees.
    'Germany’s eurosceptic right-wing party has hit a new all-time high in the opinion polls as concern about migration rises in the country'.
    Independent. Author – Jon Stone. Published 13 January 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    New poll shows Alternative for Germany gaining support.
    'The right-wing Alternative for Germany (AfD) has garnered some of its best numbers yet in a nationwide poll'.
    Deutsche Welle. Author – Brandon Conradis. Published 23 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
    Germany's Right-Wing Challenge.
    'All of that is now changing fast, thanks mostly to the rise of the right-wing Alternative for Germany (AfD) party, which is capitalizing on widespread discontent with Merkel’s refugee policy'.
    Foreign Affairs. Author – Thorsten Benner.
    Published 26 September 2016.
    Retrieved 26 December 2016.
    Right-wing German party Alternative for Germany adopts anti-Islam policy.
    'The right-wing Alternative for Germany party declared that "Islam does not belong in Germany" as it passed its new party manifesto on Sunday'.
    Author – Anne-Beatrice Clasmann.
    The Sydney Morning Herald. Published 2 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    Germany AfD conference: party adopts anti-Islam policy.
    'The German right-wing party Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) has adopted an explicitly anti-Islam policy'.
    BBC News. Published 1 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  17. ^ a b
  18. ^ Germany's populist AfD seeks to turn online 'censorship' to its advantage. Deutsche welle. Published 2 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
    Germany's right-wing AfD party surges to new high amid concern over refugees.
    'Germany’s eurosceptic right-wing party has hit a new all-time high in the opinion polls as concern about migration rises in the country'.
    Independent. Author – Jon Stone. Published 13 January 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    New poll shows Alternative for Germany gaining support.
    'The right-wing Alternative for Germany (AfD) has garnered some of its best numbers yet in a nationwide poll'.
    Deutsche Welle. Author – Brandon Conradis. Published 23 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
    Germany's Right-Wing Challenge.
    'All of that is now changing fast, thanks mostly to the rise of the right-wing Alternative for Germany (AfD) party, which is capitalizing on widespread discontent with Merkel’s refugee policy'.
    Foreign Affairs. Author – Thorsten Benner.
    Published 26 September 2016.
    Retrieved 26 December 2016.
    Right-wing German party Alternative for Germany adopts anti-Islam policy.
    'The right-wing Alternative for Germany party declared that "Islam does not belong in Germany" as it passed its new party manifesto on Sunday'.
    Author – Anne-Beatrice Clasmann.
    The Sydney Morning Herald. Published 2 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
    Germany AfD conference: party adopts anti-Islam policy.
    'The German right-wing party Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) has adopted an explicitly anti-Islam policy'.
    BBC News. Published 1 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ "Anti-Semitism row splits German party". BBC News. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  24. ^ a b Aderet, Ofer (24 September 2017). "'Nazis in the Reichstag': All Eyes on Far-right AfD Party as Germans Vote in National Election". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  25. ^
  26. ^ Ellyatt, Holly. "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". CNBC.com. CNBC LLC; a Division of NBCUniversal. Retrieved 22 January 2018. Lucke told Reuters at the time that he was leaving amid rising xenophobia and Islamophobia in the party, 
  27. ^ "A neo-Nazi party now controls one-eighth of German Parliament, and here's how that happened". Newsweek. 25 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  28. ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Identitarian movement - Germany's 'new right' hipsters | Germany | DW | 23 June 2017". DW.COM. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  29. ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "German right-wing Identitarians 'becoming radicalized' | Germany | DW | 20 March 2017". DW.COM. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  30. ^ a b c Lachmann, Günther (3 March 2013). "Anti-Euro-Partei geißelt die Politik der Kanzlerin" [Anti-euro party lashes out at politics of Chancellor Merkel]. Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 2 May 2013. "Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland ist in der schwersten Krise ihrer Geschichte. Das Euro-Währungsgebiet hat sich als ungeeignet erwiesen. Südeuropäische Staaten verarmen unter dem Wettbewerbsdruck des Euro. Ganze Staaten stehen am Rande der Zahlungsunfähigkeit." [The Federal Republic of Germany is in the gravest crisis of its history. The euro currency area has shown itself to be unfit for purpose. Countries in southern Europe are sinking into poverty under the competitive pressure of the euro. Whole countries are on the brink of bankruptcy.] 
  31. ^ Frymark, Kamil (10 April 2013). "German Euro-sceptics to establish a political party". CeWeekly: The Centre for Eastern Studies (Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich). Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  32. ^ "Here comes ... the German Anti-Euro Party". Open Europe (Think Tank) Blog. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  33. ^ Pop, Valentina (12 March 2013). "New anti-euro party forms in Germany". EUobserver. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  34. ^ Scholz, Kay-Alexander (13 May 2013). "German Pirate Party in uncharted waters". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  35. ^ Czuczka, Tony (4 March 2013). "German Euro Foes to Found Party in Merkel Election Challenge". Bloomberg. 
    Winand von Petersdorff-Campen (4 March 2013). "Die neue Anti-Euro-Partei". Frankfurter Allgemeine (in German). 
  36. ^ Matthew Boesler, "A small band of German professors is the hottest new threat to the future of the Euro," Business Insider (4 March 2013).
  37. ^ "Southern Europe out of euro says Alternative For Germany". BBC Daily Politics. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  38. ^ Jahn, Joachim (14 April 2013). "Aufstand gegen Merkels 'alternativlose Politik'". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 
    Vasagar, Jeevan (14 April 2013). "1,000 Germans abandon Angela Merkel for Eurosceptic party". The Daily Telegraph. London. 
  39. ^ a b "Bernd Lucke und die wilde Jugend" (in German). N24. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  40. ^ Tories build secret alliance with Eurosceptics behind Merkel's back, The Daily Telegraph, UK, 12 April 2013.
  41. ^ "Germany and the euro — with Professor Bernd Lucke". The Bruges Group. Archived from the original on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  42. ^ a b Weinthal, Benjamin (3 May 2013). "The Rise of Germany's Tea Party". Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  43. ^ "Why AFD was created". BBC World news. 4 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016. 
  44. ^ "German Euroskeptic Party AFD Could Unravel After Election – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Der Spiegel. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  45. ^ a b Paulick, Jane (5 May 2013). "German Euro-Skeptic Party Gaining Ground". Spiegel Online International: German Election Blog. Retrieved 8 May 2013. 
  46. ^ Marcus Janz (10 March 2014). "Ex-Abgeordneter fehlte acht Monate im Landtag – keine Sanktionen". Hessische/Niedersächsische Allgemeine. Retrieved 17 February 2015. 
  47. ^ Demuth, Norbert (26 February 2014). "Germany's top court scraps 3 percent vote threshold for EU poll". Reuters. Retrieved 20 September 2014. [dead link]
  48. ^ a b Benzow, Gregg (26 January 2014). "Germany's euroskeptic party revamps its image". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  49. ^ a b Lachmann, Günther (26 January 2014). "Wie die AfD ihr inhaltliches Vakuum füllen will". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  50. ^ Czygan, Michael (26 January 2014). "Die Alternative für Deutschland nominiert in Aschaffenburg Kandidaten für Europa". Main Post (in German). Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  51. ^ "Unsere Kandidaten für Europa" (in German). Alternative für Deutschland. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  52. ^ Marsh, Sarah (13 February 2014). "German anti-euro party says won't team up with xenophobes". Reuters. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  53. ^ a b Waterfield, Bruno (24 April 2014). "EU elections: German Eurosceptics snub 'ridiculous' Ukip". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  54. ^ Barker, Alex (11 May 2014). "David Cameron's European Parliament group fights for survival". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  55. ^ Der Bundeswahlleiter (n.d.). "Endgültiges Ergebnis der Europawahl 2014". Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. 
  56. ^ a b c Nicolaou, Anna; Barker, Luke (12 June 2014). "Anti-euro German AfD joins Cameron's EU parliament group". Reuters. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  57. ^ "Landtagswahl 2014" (in German). Free State of Saxony. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  58. ^ Torry, Harriet (31 August 2014). "Alternative for Germany Party Takes Its First Seats in a State Parliament". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  59. ^ "Anti-euro party makes big leap in Thuringia, Brandenburg state elections". Deutsche Welle. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  60. ^ Exner, Ulrich; Sturm, Daniel Friedrich (15 February 2015). "Wer bei Scholz Führung bestellt, wird sie bekommen". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  61. ^ "Setback for SPD after narrow win in Bremen". Deutsche Welle. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  62. ^ "Germany's Far-Right Populists Have an Infighting Problem". The Atlantic. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017. 
  63. ^ "Germany's euroskeptic AfD elects conservative leader Petry". Deutsche Welle. 4 July 2015. 
  64. ^ "Alternative for Germany's New Leader Promises Closer Ties With Russia". Sputnik. 5 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  65. ^ Schneider, Jens (6 July 2015). "Lucke und der Auszug der Gemäßigten". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  66. ^ "Nach "Richtungsentscheidung" AfD meldet Hunderte Austritte" (in German). N-TV. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
  67. ^ Barkin, Noah (8 July 2015). "German AfD founder leaves party decrying xenophobic shift". Reuters. Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
  68. ^ "Ousted chief of Germany's euroskeptic AfD sets up new political party". Deutsche Welle. 19 July 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  69. ^ a b Deutsche AfD und FPÖ beschließen Zusammenarbeit (in German). Der Standard. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  70. ^ a b Crisp, James. "AfD links to Austrian far-right 'final straw' for ECR MEPs –". Euractiv.com. Retrieved 13 March 2016. 
  71. ^ a b Peter Teffer (9 March 2016). "EU parliament group tells German AfD party to leave". EU Observer. Retrieved 13 April 2016. 
  72. ^ a b Peter Teffer (8 April 2016). "Right-wing German MEP quits parliament group". EU Observer. Retrieved 13 April 2016. 
  73. ^ a b "German AfD lawmaker joins eurosceptic group in European Parliament". Europe online. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016. 
  74. ^ a b c "German AfD lawmaker evicted from conservative group in EU legislature". Europe online. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. 
  75. ^ Philip Oltermann (13 March 2016). "Anti-refugee AfD party makes big gains in German state elections". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2016. 
  76. ^ "Landtagswahlen 2016: Die sechs Datenanalysen zur Wahl". Der Spiegel. 14 March 2016. 
  77. ^ "Right-wing AfD beats Merkel party in regional elections – exit polls". RT. 4 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016. 
  78. ^ "Nationalists overtake Merkel's party in German state vote | Fox News". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 4 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016. The three-year-old Alternative for Germany, or AfD, won 21 to 22 percent of votes in the election for the state legislature in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, according to projections for ARD and ZDF television based on exit polls and partial counting. They put support for Merkel's Christian Democrats between 19 and 20 percent, their worst result yet in the state. 
  79. ^ "Anti-migrant AfD makes Berlin breakthrough, as Merkel's CDU slumps". RT. 18 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  80. ^ "Berlin 2016". 19 September 2016. 
  81. ^ Ruth Bender (1 May 2016). "Germany's AfD Adopts Anti-Islam Stance at Party Conference". The Wall Street Journal. 
  82. ^ "Germany's AfD party adopts anti-Islamic manifesto". Financial Times. 
  83. ^ Tina Bellon (1 May 2016). "Anti-immigrant AfD says Muslims are not welcome in Germany". The Independent. 
  84. ^ "German fury at AfD Hoecke's Holocaust memorial remark". BBC. 18 January 2017. 
  85. ^ Huggler, Justin. "German far-right leader stuns party by quitting chancellor race". The Telegraph. 
  86. ^ Wehner, Markus. "AfD-Vizechef im Porträt - Die drei Leben des Alexander Gauland". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 
  87. ^ a b Troianovski, Anton (23 April 2017). "Head of Germany's Upstart Anti-Immigrant Party Pushed Aside". The Wall Street Journal. 
  88. ^ a b "CDU/CSU remains strongest parliamentary group in the Bundestag despite losses". German Bundestag. 27 September 2017. 
  89. ^ a b "Bundestagswahl am 24. September 2017". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 26 September 2017. 
  90. ^ a b "Frauke Petry, co-chair of the far-right AfD, to quit the party | Germany". Deutsche Welle. 
  91. ^ Elwazer, Schams; Clarke, Hilary. "German far-right party AfD in disarray". CNN. 
  92. ^ Stijn van Kessel (2015). Populist Parties in Europe: Agents of Discontent?. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-1-137-41411-3. 
  93. ^ Wayne C. Thompson (2014). Nordic, Central, and Southeastern Europe 2014. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 283. ISBN 978-1-4758-1224-4. 
  94. ^ Lee McGowan; David Phinnemore (2015). A Dictionary of the European Union. Taylor & Francis. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1-317-44515-9. 
  95. ^ "AfD chief Lucke denies plans to split the party". Deutsche Welle. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  96. ^ Werner, Alban. "Germany's Shift to the Right". Jacobin. Retrieved 2 October 2017. 
  97. ^ "Bavarian AfD wants to shut down mosques". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 October 2017. 
  98. ^ "'Nazi word' revived by German AfD chief". BBC News. 12 September 2016. 
  99. ^ Chambers, Madeline (18 January 2017). "German AfD rightist triggers fury with Holocaust memorial comments". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2018. 
  100. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (19 January 2017). "German AfD politician 'attacks Holocaust memorial' and says Germans should be more positive about Nazi past". Independent. Retrieved 7 March 2018. 
  101. ^ a b c d "Grundsatzprogramm Alternative für Deutschland" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 14 June 2016. 
  102. ^ "Entwurf für AfD-Programm: Neue Asylpolitik, alte Genderrollen". die tageszeitung. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  103. ^ Heni, Clemens (1 August 2016). "Germany's Hot New Party Thinks America is 'Run by Zionists'". Tablet Magazine. 
  104. ^ Kemper, Andraes (March 2014) "Keimzelle der Nation? Familien- und geschlechter-politische Positionen der AfD – eine Expertise" (Germ cell of the nation? Family and gender political positions of the AfD - an expertise) Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Forum Politik und Gesellschaft
  105. ^ "Anti-euro party turns anti-feminist". Thelocal.de. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  106. ^ Knight, Ben (7 March 2016). "What does the AfD stand for?". Deutsche Welle. "Scientific research on the long-term development of the climate because of man-made CO2 emissions is fraught with uncertainty 
  107. ^ "Alternative für Deutschland Zurück zur Wehrpflicht". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 9 March 2016. ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  108. ^ Cite error: The named reference timesofisrael was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  109. ^ "AfD: A New Hurdle in the German-Israeli Relationship?". besacenter.org. Begin–Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. 28 November 2017. 
  110. ^ a b Brandt, Linda (2015). "Populist Parties in Germany, France, and the UK: Growing Support for a Radical Rejection of Globalization?". International ResearchScape Journal. 3: 19. Likewise, the AfD professes its desire to maintain an intimate security relationship with the US, stating NATO is and remains the bond of a transatlantic security architecture, whose crucial anchor is the alliance with the USA.”38 However, it also expresses a need for a closer relationship with Russia to resolve problems in Eastern Europe. However, a resolution passed that calls for an end to European sanctions imposed on Russia, and to abstain from further measures designed to bind Ukraine and EU or Ukraine and Russia closer together, has led some to charge the party with anti-Americanism.39 The debate about a more pro-American or pro-Russian course appears to divide the AfD deeply, and opinions differ significantly among even the party leadership, as a Die Welt article reports. 
  111. ^ a b c d Bildung, Bundeszentrale für politische. "Mitgliederentwicklung der Parteien | Infografiken | Parteien in Deutschland | bpb". www.bpb.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-08-21. 
  112. ^ a b "Home - Alternative für Deutschland". www.afd.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-08-21. 
  113. ^ Petterdorff-Campen, Winand von (21 April 2013). ""Alternative für Deutschland" Haste mal 'ne Mark?" (in German). Retrieved 21 September 2013. 
  114. ^ Verzählt – Nachschlag für die AfD in Frankfurt (in German, Subsidies for AfD). Die Welt. 28 September 2013
  115. ^ [1] AfD erhält rund 400 Millionen Euro vom Staat
  116. ^ "German AfD lawmaker to align with faction of France's National Front". 
  117. ^ "AfD: EU-Abgeordneter Pretzell wechselt zur Front-National-Fraktion". Die Zeit. 30 April 2016. 
  118. ^ a b c d Wittrock, Philipp (12 April 2013). "The Know-It-All Party: Anti-Euro 'Alternative for Germany' Launches". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 13 May 2013. 
  119. ^ a b Nicholas Kulish and Melissa Eddy, German elites drawn to anti-Euro party, spelling trouble for Merkel The New York Times (15 April 2013)
  120. ^ Connelly, Kate (14 April 2013). "Leading German economist calls for dissolution of eurozone to save EU". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  121. ^ Scally, Derek (13 April 2013). "Upstart political party challenges Germany's consensus on the euro". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  122. ^ Barkin, Noah (14 April 2013). "Analysis: Don't underestimate Germany's new anti-euro party". Reuters. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  123. ^ Mayntz, Gregor (24 April 2013). "AfD hat schon fast 10.000 Mitglieder". Rheinische Post (in German). Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  124. ^ Schneider, Theo. "Neo-Nazis rally against Alternative for Germany party congress". demotix.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  125. ^ Alling, Daniel (13 March 2013). "Nytt eurokritiskt parti i Tyskland". Sveriges Radio (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 May 2013. 
  126. ^ Alexander, Harriet; Jeevan Vasagar (7 April 2013). "Bernd Lucke interview: 'Why Germany has had enough of the euro'". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 13 May 2013. 
  127. ^ a b c d e Heine, Friederike. "Popular with Populists: Euroskeptic Party Attracts Right Wing". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  128. ^ a b c d Heine, Friederike (14 August 2013). "Hard Knocks for Anti-Euro Party". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  129. ^ "Angriff auf AfD-Chef übertrieben dargestellt". 
  130. ^ a b c Hebel, Christina (1 October 2013). ""Die Freiheit": Anti-Islam-Partei will sich der AfD anschließen". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  131. ^ a b Leber, Fabian (1 October 2013). "Alternative für Deutschland und "Die Freiheit" Islamkritiker empfehlen jetzt die AfD". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  132. ^ dk (19 February 2015). "Frauke Petry will an Schulen die "normale" Familie schützen". queer.de (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  133. ^ Philip Oltermann. "Liberals quit Alternative for Germany party as it embraces a domestic agenda". The Guardian. 
  134. ^ "Fear and the German Far Right: Conversations with Falk Richter, by Joseph Pearson". Schaubühne Pearson's Preview. 
  135. ^ "Aufregung um Theaterstück. AfD Populisten wollen keine Zombies sein". Süddeutsche Zeitung. 
  136. ^ "Fear siegt ueber die Angst von AfD und Pegida". Tagespiele. 
  137. ^ "AfD Unterliegt im Zombie Streit". Handelsblatt. 
  138. ^ Beale, Charlotte (31 January 2016). "Refugees should be shot 'if necessary', says party leader in Germany". The Independent. 
  139. ^ Hartmut Wagner for the Rhein-Zeitung. 4 February 2016 Lügenpresse? AfD-Chefin Frauke Petry schreibt ihr Interview dreist um.
  140. ^ Stern (14 September 2017). "SPD fällt in Umfrage auf 20 Prozent". Stern. Retrieved 15 September 2017. 
  141. ^ a b Huggler, Justin (10 December 2014). "German Eurosceptics embrace anti-Islam protests". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  142. ^ Withnall, Adam (15 December 2014). "Germany sees 'visible rise' in support for far-right extremism in response to perceived 'Islamisation' of the West". The Independent. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  143. ^ "Gone boy on the right: How an anti-foreigner, anti-establishment group is changing German politics". The Economist. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  144. ^ Polke-Majewski, Karsten (18 February 2016). "Björn Höcke: Mein Mitschüler, der rechte Agitator". Die Zeit. 
  145. ^ "Landtagswahl 2014: Welche Koalitionen sind in Thüringen möglich?"". Thüringische Landeszeitung. 16 July 2014. 
  146. ^ "AfD Vorstand Thüringen". 
  147. ^ "Thüringen: Ausschuss hebt Immunität von AfD-Fraktionschef Höcke auf". Der Spiegel. 3 July 2015. 
  148. ^ a b c "AfD-Mann Höcke löst mit Kritik an Holocaust-Gedenken Empörung aus". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 18 January 2017. 
  149. ^ Matthias Kamann (19 January 2017). "Was Höcke mit der "Denkmal der Schande"-Rede bezweckt". Die Welt (in German). 
  150. ^ "AfD-Chefin Petry: "Höcke ist eine Belastung für die Partei"". Junge Freiheit (in German). 18 January 2017. 
  151. ^ "Germany's right-wing AfD seeks to expel state leader over Holocaust remarks". Deutsche Welle. 
  152. ^ "Gauland open for Höcke as federal board". 30 August 2017. 
  153. ^ a b Lamparski, NIna (12 May 2014). "Germany's youth rebels against EU". BBC News. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  154. ^ Krass, Sebastian (31 March 2014). "Zu weit rechts". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  155. ^ White, J. Arthur (31 March 2014). "Anti-euro party turns anti-feminist". The Local (de). Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  156. ^ "Anti-feminist campaign targets German gender quota proposal". Al Jazeera. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  157. ^ "Bundestagswahl am 22. September 2013". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  158. ^ "Wahlergebnisse – Europawahl (Europaparlament)". wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  159. ^ "Landtagswahl in Hessen am 22. September 2013". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  160. ^ "Landtagswahl in Sachsen am 31 August 2014". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  161. ^ "Landtagswahl in Thüringen am 14. September 2014". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  162. ^ "Landtagswahl in Brandenburg am 14. September 2014". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  163. ^ "Bürgerschaftswahl in Hamburg am 15. Februar 2015". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  164. ^ "Bürgerschaftswahl in Bremen am 10. Mai 2015". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  165. ^ "Landtagswahl in Baden-Württemberg am 13. März 2016". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  166. ^ "Landtagswahl in Rheinland-Pfalz am 13. März 2016". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  167. ^ "Landtagswahl in Sachsen-Anhalt am 13. März 2016". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  168. ^ "Landtagswahl in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern am 4. September 2016". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  169. ^ "Abgeordnetenhauswahl in Berlin am 18. September 2016". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  170. ^ "Landtagswahl im Saarland am 26. März 2017". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2017. 
  171. ^ "Landtagswahl am 7. Mai 2017 in Schleswig-Holstein". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 8 May 2017. 
  172. ^ "Landtagswahl am 14. Mai 2017 in Nordrhein-Westfalen". Wahlrecht.de (in German). Retrieved 14 May 2017. 
  173. ^ "Election results PDF" (PDF) (in German). 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017. 

Further reading

External links