Alternative media are media that differ from established or dominant types of media in terms of their content, how they are produced or how they are distributed. Alternative media take many forms including print, audio, video, Internet and street art. Some examples include the counter-culture zines of the 1960s, ethnic and indigenous media such as the First People's television network in Canada (later rebranded Aboriginal Peoples Television Network), and more recently online open publishing journalism sites such as Indymedia.
While mainstream mass media on the whole represent government and corporate interests, alternative media tend to be non-commercial projects that advocate the interests of those excluded from the mainstream, for example, the poor, political and ethnic minorities, labor groups, feminists, and GLBTQ identities. These media broadcast ignored or overlooked viewpoints, such as those heard in the progressive news program Democracy Now!, and create communities of identity, as seen for example in the It Gets Better Project that was created on YouTube in response to a rise in gay teen suicides at the time it was created.
Alternative media have historically been counter-hegemonic, in other words, they challenge the dominant set of beliefs and values of a culture (see Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony). Defining alternative media as simply counter to mainstream is limiting, however, and modern approaches to the study of alternative media also address how and where these media are created, as well as the dynamic relationship between the media and the participants that create and use them.
- 1 Common approaches and practices
- 2 Forms of media
- 3 Aesthetics
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Common approaches and practices
Approaches to the academic study of alternative media attempt to understand the ways in which these media are significant, each emphasizing a different aspect of media, including the role of the public sphere, social movements, and the participation by communities that create the media.
Democratic theory and the public sphere
One way of understanding alternative media is to consider their role in the process of democratic communication. Philosopher Jürgen Habermas proposed that a healthy democratic community requires a space where rational debate can take place between engaged citizens. It is essential that the dialogue in this public sphere occurs outside the control of any authority so that citizens can exchange ideas as equals. This translates to the need for free speech and a free press.
In Habermas's idea of the public sphere, participation is open to everyone, all participants are considered equal, and any issue can be raised for debate. However, this view fails to note the inherent exclusion of women and minorities (and their interests) from debate in the public sphere. In light of this social inequality, philosopher Nancy Fraser argues for the importance of multiple independent public spheres, in which members of subordinated groups can first deliberate their issues and concerns among themselves and later assert those issues into the larger public sphere. The alternative media associated with these counter-public spheres are critical in developing the needs and identity of the group and in challenging the larger dominant public sphere. A feminist counter-public sphere is, for example, responsible for circulating the view that women's issues such as domestic abuse and reproductive rights are deserving of debate in the larger public sphere.
Social movement media
Social movements are defined as a type of group action. They are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. In other words, they carry out, resist or undo a social change. Social movement media is how social movements use media, and oftentimes, due to the nature of social movements, that media tends to be alternative.
Communication is vital to the success of social movements. Research shows that social movements experience significant difficulties communicating through mainstream media because the mainstream media often systematically distort, negatively cast, or ignore social movement viewpoints. They may deny social movements' access or representation at critical moments in their development, employ message frames that undermine or weaken public perceptions of a movement's legitimacy or implicitly encourage movement actors who seek coverage to cater to the questionable values of mainstream reportage on social activism, including a heightened interest in violence, emotionality, and slogans. This problematic coverage of social movements is often referred to as the protest paradigm: the idea that mass media marginalizes protest groups through their depictions of the protesters, and, by doing so, subsequently support the status quo. As a result, social movements often turn to alternative media forms and practices in order to more effectively achieve their goals.
An example of how the mainstream media problematically covers social movements is the Occupy movement, which began with Occupy Wall Street in September 2011. The Occupy movement protests against social and economic inequality around the world, its primary goal being to make the economic and political relations in all societies less vertically hierarchical and more flatly distributed. Local groups often have different focuses, but among the movement's prime concerns deal with how large corporations and the global financial system control the world in a way that disproportionately benefits a minority, undermines democracy, and is unstable. In comparing the mainstream news coverage of the Occupy movement against coverage from alternative press several trends emerge. First, mainstream media used confusion over the event as the dominant frame while alternative media focused on what the demonstrators were actually trying to accomplish. Second, the mainstream media placed the protesters at fault of any violence while the alternative media focused on the brutality of the police and their violent acts on the peaceful protesters.
For more information about social movements, and alternative media, see Social movement theory.
Alternative media has been a significant tool for social movements. Social movements in areas such as human rights, the environmental movement, and civil rights, have used alternative media to meet the goals of the movement and to foster advocacy, change and participation. The following a just a few examples of social movements that have used alternative media practices to achieve their goals, spread awareness, and inspire participation and support.
An example of a human rights social movement using alternative media is the group WITNESS. WITNESS is a human rights non-profit organization and its mission is to partner with on-the-ground organizations to support the documentation of human rights violations and their consequences, in order to further public engagement, policy change, and justice. They rely on video recordings using technology such as handheld camcorders and smart phones to capture the world's attention and viscerally communicate human rights abuses. They have documented human rights abuses from the police in the favelas of Brazil, children soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, human trafficking in Brazil and the United States, and many other human rights issues, all through the use of alternative media.
An example of an environment movement using alternative media is the group Green Peace. Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization whose goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity and focuses its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues. It uses direct action, lobbying, and research to achieve its goals, as well as alternative media. They use online tactics such as podcasts and blogs as well as performance art.
An example of a civil rights movement group using alternative media was the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). SNCC was one of the most important organizations of the American Civil Rights movement in the 1960s. SNCC was involved in voter registration rights in the south, established Freedom Schools, organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), among many other accomplishments. Alternative media tactics used by SNCC included establishing a dedicated Communication Section which included a photography arm, its own printing press (which published its newsletter the Student Voice), published publicity materials, and created an alternative wire press.
Participatory culture is defined as a culture in which individual citizens to do not act as consumers only, but also act as contributors or producers. Participatory culture is a space, other than the mainstream media, for civic engagement and creative expression, and it emphasizes that democratic media potentials can be realized by opening up access to media production. Alternative media have frequently been studied analogous to participatory culture because both share a vision of a more democratic media structure and generally because producing alternative media requires participation in media production.
Participatory culture has been around longer than the Internet. The emergence of the Amateur Press Association in the middle of the 19th century is an example of historical participatory culture; at that time, young people were hand typing and printing their own publications. These publications were mailed throughout a network of people and resemble what are now called social networks. The evolution from zines, radio shows, group projects, and gossips to blogs, podcasts, wikis, and social networks has impacted society greatly. With web services such as Wikipedia, Tumblr, Imgur, Reddit, Vine, and YouTube, all of which allow users the opportunity to create and upload original content, it is no wonder that culture and media production has become more participatory.
Participatory journalism is also an example of how citizens generate alternative media. Also referred to as citizen journalism, participatory journalism is defined as when public citizens play an active roles in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information. It is also an alternative and activist form of newsgathering and reporting that functions outside mainstream media institutions, often as a response to shortcomings in the professional journalistic field, it uses similar journalistic practices but is driven not by profit making goals primarily but by different ideals and relies on alternative sources of legitimacy than tradition or mainstream journalism.
For an index of alternative news presses check out The Alternative Press Center http://www.altpress.org/
Participatory media approaches consider participation in producing media content as well as in making decisions about media production processes as a central defining feature of alternative media. Participatory culture can be realized in a number of ways. Media literacy is a way to begin participating by understanding media systems' conventions and means of production. Individuals learning to produce media themselves is the step that moves citizens from literacy to participation. Fan fiction, community radio or low-power FM, home videos, are but just a few ways that citizens can produce media content to participate in culture and to produce alternative media.
By fostering participation, alternative media contribute to the strengthening of a civic attitude and allow citizens to be active in one of the main spheres relevant to daily life and to put their right to communication in to practice. To demonstrate the relationship between democracy and participation in media production, the term citizen's media illustrates that alternative media can help those who are producing media also become active citizens – particularly in a democracy. This idea is tied very closely to community media (see next section).
Community media includes citizens′ media, participatory media, activist and radical media and the broader forms of communication that local or regional specific platforms engage in. Like other forms of alternative media, community media seeks to bypass the commercialization of media. The elimination or avoidance of sole ownership or sponsorship is motivated by a desire to be free of oversight or obligation to cater to a specific agenda. Community media is often categorized as grassroots, a description that applies to both the financial structure and the process of content creation. While there is diversity in community media, which varies by media platform (radio, TV, web or print), it is typical that the media source is open to the public/community to submit material and content. This open policy aligns with the values of community media to maintain a democratic approach and ethos. Historically community media has served to provide an alternative political voice. Across the world forms of community media are used to elevate the needs and discourse of a specific space, typically connected by geographical, cultural, social, or economic similarities.
Race and indigenous media
Minority community media can be both localized and national, serving to disseminate information to a targeted demographic. They provide a platform for discussion and exchange within the minority communities as well as between the minority and the majority communities. Oftentimes minority focused media serves an essential resource, providing their audiences with essential information, in their own language of origin, helping the specified group to participate as equal citizens of their country of residence. These media platforms and outlets create opportunity for cultural exchange and the elevation or empowerment of a disenfranchised or marginalized group, based on racial, ethnic or cultural identity. Historically, these forms of media have served dual purpose, to disseminate information to a community that is traditionally ignored or overlooked by major media outlets and as a vehicle for political protest or social reform.
Spaces created to address minority discourse typically straddle the line of both alternative and activist media, working to provide a resource unavailable through mainstream measures and to shift the universally accepted perspective or understanding of a specific group of people. Sociologist Yu Shi's exploration of alternative media provides opposing arguments about the role of minority media to both facilitate cultural place making and hinder community assimilation and acculturation. Shi expounds a widely shared understanding that racially informed media provide place, power, and political agency.
Throughout the 20th century media spaces were developed to accommodate the growing multi-cultural state of the United States. African-Americans created local publications like the Chicago Defender to share critical information to protect citizens from discriminatory practices by police and policy-makers, while Jet and Ebony magazine served to empower the national black identity, lauding the achievements and thought leadership of black Americans. Similar practices became increasingly common for Latino/Latina and Asian groups. As immigration increased post 1965, Spanish-language newspapers and television stations, along with the creation of television networks like ICN-TV specifically for Chinese immigrants. A critical awareness of an increasingly participatory global media culture in multicultural societies is becoming widespread and a necessary approach to explain the success and impact of ethnic or minority media, as well as to embrace the changing ways in which people 'use' their media.
Connections to subaltern studies
Not much has been written about the related aims found in both alternative media discourse and subaltern studies discourse, yet a concern for disenfranchised and oppressed voices and communities can be found in both academic circles.
There are various definitions for "alternative media," as suggested above. John Downing, for example, defines "radical alternative media" as media "that express an alternative vision to hegemonic policies, priorities, and perspectives". In his assessment of a variety of definitions for the term, Chris Atton notes repeatedly the importance of alternative media production originating from small-scale, counter-hegemonic groups and individuals.
Subaltern studies as well has a varied history in academic thought. Growing out of South Asian studies, subaltern studies draws on Antonio Gramsci's discussion of "subaltern" groups, that is, groups of people considered to be of inferior rank socially, economically, and politically. One of the most significant ideas found throughout subaltern studies is the question posed by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, "Can the subaltern speak?" which was posed in her seminal essay of the same name. In her piece, Spivak investigates whether the subaltern have a voice within hegemonic political discourses, and if so if their voices are being heard, allowing them to participate. This is important, as the subaltern's ability to participate in politics and other social and cultural practices is key in establishing—as well as challenging—their subaltern status. This particular body of scholarship is useful to the study and discussion of alternative media due to their shared preoccupation with the ability of disenfranchised peoples to participate and contribute to mainstream hegemonic discourses, especially in regards to ethnic and racial media in which these groups speak from a subaltern position.
This connection is strengthened in the work of alternative media scholar Clemencia Rodriguez. In her discussion of citizenship, Rodriguez comments that, "Citizens have to enact their citizenship on a day-to-day basis, through their participation in everyday political practices...As citizens actively participate in actions that reshape their own identities, the identities of others, and their social environments, they produce power." So it could be said that by subaltern groups creating alternative media, they are indeed expressing their citizenship, producing their power, and letting their voice be heard.
Forms of media
Press – print
The alternative press consists of printed publications that provide a different or dissident viewpoint than that provided by major mainstream and corporate newspapers, magazines, and other print media.
Factsheet Five publisher Mike Gunderloy described the alternative press as "sort of the 'grown-up' underground press. Whole Earth, the Boston Phoenix, and Mother Jones are the sorts of things that fall in this classification." In contrast, Gunderloy described the underground press as "the real thing, before it gets slick, co-opted, and profitable. The underground press comes out in small quantities, is often illegible, treads on the thin ice of unmentionable subjects, and never carries ads for designer jeans."
An example of alternative media is tactical media, which uses 'hit-and-run' tactics to bring attention to an emerging problem. Often tactical media attempts to expose large corporations that control sources of mainstream media.
One prominent NGO dedicated to tactical media practices and info-activism is the Tactical Technology Collective which assists human rights advocates in using technology. They have released several toolkits freely to the global community, including NGO In A Box South Asia, which assists in the setting up the framework of a self-sustaining NGO, Security-In-A-Box, a collection of software to keep data secure and safe for NGOs operating in potentially hostile political climates, and their new short form toolkit 10 Tactics, which "... provides original and artful ways for rights advocates to capture attention and communicate a cause".
Radio has been a significant medium for alternative media makers due to its low cost, ease of use, and near ubiquity globally. Alternative radio has arisen in response to capitalist and/or state-sponsored mainstream radio broadcasts. For example, in early 1970s Australia, a new alternative radio sector was created by those who felt excluded from the two-sector national broadcasting system, consisting of a national public service broadcaster and commercial services. In the US, the first listener-supported independent station, KPFA, began in 1949 in order to provide an avenue for free speech unconstrained by the commercial interests that characterized mainstream radio.
Their content ranges broadly; while some stations' primary aims are explicitly political and radical, others namely seek to broadcast music that they believe to be excluded from mainstream radio. Alternative radio often, though not always, takes the form of community radio, which is generally understood as participatory, open, non-profit, and made by and for a community. These radio stations may broadcast legally or illegally, as pirate radio. Alternative radio is a global phenomenon. Examples of community and alternative radio endeavors include Tilos Rádió (Hungary), Missinipi Broadcasting Corporation (Canada), Pacifica Radio and the Prometheus Radio Project (both in the United States), and Radio Sagarmatha (Nepal).
Video and film
Alternative film and video is generally produced outside of the mainstream film and video industries and features content and/or style that is rarely seen in mainstream product. However, its particular genre, content, and form vary widely. It is often produced in non-profit organizational contexts, such as video art collectives (e.g. Videotage, Los Angeles Filmmakers' Cooperative) or grassroots social justice organizations (e.g. Line Break, CINEP—Center for Research and Popular Education). Participatory video projects in which marginalized or under-resourced groups tell their stories through video demonstrate the possibility for access and participation in video-making to empower those involved, circulate representations unseen in mainstream media, and challenge existing power relations.
Alternative film in the United States is evident in the work of The Film & Photo League chapters of the 1930s, which drew attention to union and class issues through social documentary film and the editing of newsreels. Though initiated in the 60's and 70's, radical video making reached an apex in the 80's as technology became more accessible. Public access television provided a broadcast outlet for oftentimes punk and hip-hop-influenced radical cultural critique. Deep Dish TV, for instance, is a television network which seeks to provide media access to grassroots organizations and to marginalized or misrepresented perspectives through public access television. Today, portable, accessible recording technology and the internet allow increasing opportunities for global participation in the production, consumption, and exchange of alternative video content.
With the increasing importance attributed to digital technologies, questions have arisen about where digital media fit in the dichotomy between alternative and mainstream media. First, blogs, Facebook, Twitter and other similar sites, while not necessarily created to be information media, increasingly are being used to spread news and information, potentially acting as alternative media as they allow ordinary citizens to bypass the gatekeepers of traditional, mainstream media and share the information and perspectives these citizens deem important.
Second, the Internet provides an alternative space for mobilization through the cultivation of interpersonal networks, collective action towards social change, and making information much readily accessible.Typically, among those with deviant, dissident or non-traditional views, Internet platforms allow for the creation of new, alternative communities that can provide a voice for those normally marginalized by the mainstream media.
In addition, Internet have also led to an alternative form of programming, which allows both professionals and amateurs to subvert or evade commercial and political restraints on open access to information and information technologies. Some examples of alternative computing are hacking,open source software or systems, and file sharing.
Lastly, Internet also breeds a new way of creation and dissemination of knowledge —commons knowledge— that is different from the top-down manner. It seeks out and encourages the participation of multiple users, fostering forms of collaborative knowledge production and folksonmoies. Wikipedia is an excellent example of this genre.
Often considered guerilla-art, street art operates free from the confines of the formal art world. In the form of graffiti, stencil, mural, and print, street art appropriates or alters public spaces as a means of protest and social commentary. Important aspects of street art as an alternative form are its blend of aesthetics and social engagement, use of urban spaces, and interaction with the social landscape of the area in which the art is made.
The street art movement gained popularity in the 1980s as a form of art distinct from high art and commercial venues, but as popularity grew, some street artists moved from the alternative venues of the streets to gallery and museum showings. Cities such as Paris, Buenos Aires, and São Paulo rose to prominence in using street art as legitimate alternative media through artist collectives and competitions, bringing attention to alternative voices. The internet has also influenced street art greatly by functioning as a platform for artists and fans to share pictures of street art from around the world. Websites like Streetsy.com and WoosterCollective.com are among the most popular of street art sharing sites.
Performance as an alternative medium uses theater, song, and performance art as a means of engaging audiences and furthering social agendas. Performance art is an avant garde art form that typically uses live performances to challenge traditional forms of visual art. It operates as "the antithesis of theatre, challenging orthodox art forms and cultural norms." Playing an important role in social and cultural movements from Dada and Surrealism to Post-Minimalism, performance art reflects the political environment of the time. While performance art is often relegated to high art, street theater is typically used in a grassroots fashion, utilizing local communities for performance or conversation. It can be used as a form of guerilla theater to protest, like in the case of The Living Theatre which is dedicated to transforming the hierarchy of power in society through experimental theater.
Certain genres of music and musical performance can be categorized as alternative media. Independent music, or indie music, is music that is produced separate from commercial record labels. Professor David Hesmondhalgh describes indie music's alternative nature as a "hard-headed network of post-punk companies which made significant challenges to the commercial organization of cultural production favoured by the major record companies." Its subversive roots of sound or lyrics and alternative models of distribution distinguish it from the commercial record companies.
Genres of alternative and activist new media
Primarily concerned with the growing role of new media in alternative media projects, communication scholar Leah Lievrouw identifies 5 genres of contemporary new media based alternative and activist media: culture jamming, alternative computing, participatory journalism, mediated mobilization, and commons knowledge.
- Culture jamming generally attempts to critique popular culture such as entertainment, advertising, and art. It tends to comment on issues of corporate capitalism and consumerism, and seeks to provide political commentary. Characteristics of culture jamming texts include the appropriation or repurposing of images, video, sound, or text and that they are ironic or satirical in some sense. Today, culture jamming can come in the form of internet memes and guerrilla marketing.
- Alternative computing deals with the material infrastructure of informational and communications technologies. It seeks to critique and reconfigure systems with the intention of subverting or evading commercial and political restraints on open access to information and information technologies. Some examples of alternative computing are hacking, open source software or systems, and file sharing.
- Participatory journalism refers to web-based sources of critical or radical news either in the form of online news services or blogs. These alternative outlets of news often adopt the philosophies of citizen journalism and view themselves as providing an alternative to mainstream news and opinion. Participatory journalism projects may cover underreported groups and issues. Within this genre authors and readers of some of these alternative media projects have the ability contribute alike and therefore has the characteristic of being participatory or interactive. An example of participatory journalism is Indymedia
- Mobilization media relate to communication practices that mobilization or organization social movements, identity, or cultural projects through the use of new media tools and platforms such as Facebook or YouTube. Characteristics of this genre include the cultivation of interpersonal networks, collective action towards social change, and making information much readily accessible.
- Commons knowledge as a genre refers to projects that provide alternatives to the traditional top-down creation and dissemination of knowledge. It seeks out and encourages the participation of multiple users, fostering forms of collaborative knowledge production and folksonmoies. Wikipedia is an excellent example of this genre.
Thinking of current forms of alternative media in terms of genre not only allow us to identify the features and conventions of certain modes of communication, but also how "they allow people to express themselves appropriately, and to achieve their various purposes or intentions." In other words, we can begin to understand how the creators and participants of alternative new media projects actively shape their communication practices.
YouTube is considered to be not only a commercial enterprise, but also a platform designed to encourage cultural participation by ordinary citizens. Although YouTube aimed to be foremost a commercial enterprise, nevertheless, it has become a community media as one of the forms of alternative media. Scholars assume that YouTube's commercial drive may have increased the probability of participation in online video culture for a broader spectrum of participants than before. This idea allows us to shift our concern away from the false contradiction between market-driven and non-market-driven culture towards the tensions between corporate logics and unruly and emergent traits of participatory culture, and the limits of YouTube model for cross-cultural diversity and global communication. In theory, YouTube stands as a site of cosmopolitan cultural citizenship. Uploading foreign soap opera episodes and dividing into several pieces to pass YouTube's content limits, can be seen as acts of cultural citizenship similar to the media sharing practices of diverse communities identified by Cunningham and Nguyen (2000). However, people who have the highest chance of encountering other cultural citizens are those who have the access to various contents, information and platforms; this is commonly referred to as the 'participation gap.' The notion of participation gap makes both digital literacy and digital divide such important issues for cultural politics. Therefore, it is still controversial whether YouTube is just another conduit for strengthening cultural imperialism or one of alternative media.
The role of aesthetics in alternative media can be seen as an inherently political tool used to subvert dominant power, and associated with more experimental and innovative modes of production and collaboration. Like many makers of alternative media, scholar Crispin Sartwell identifies politics as an aesthetic environment. As such, these artpolitical systems not only use aesthetics as a tool to gain power, but are also produced via aesthetic forms within all media. Thus, it is not uncommon for alternative media to seek new artistic, non-traditional, or avant-garde means to represent its content. In this case, the use of aesthetics allows alternative media to address what might seem to be otherwise banal content in a manner which re-aligns, re-negotiates, or exposes the politics at work within it.
Scholars have linked the Avante-garde art movements as one arena where alternative aesthetics are used as a political tool. Movements such as Futurism, Dada, and Situationism looked to challenge the formal rules regarding what art was, how it looked or sounded like, or where it could be in order to radically alter public and political ideology. The logic, reason, and rules of style and beauty, mandated by the dominant class, was rejected as an affirmation of subjugation.
While some alternative makers looks to radically break away from the suffocating restraints of the dominant class by rejecting their dominant visual dogma, others appropriate, twist, and remix in order to subvert dominant language and messaging through mimicry, mockery, and satire. The détournement (and its successor culture-jamming) of the Situationists, the mimicry of Pop Art, and the reworking of normative narratives in slash fiction are examples of appropriation of mainstream media texts.
Some avant-garde movements which emphasize on the role of the audience and participation within their conception include Futurism, Dadaism, Surrealism, Situationism, Pop art, Neo-concretism, and the Theatre of the Oppressed. By inviting the audience to participate in the creation of media, collaborators look to subvert or critique hierarchical structures of power (capitalism, the ivory tower) within society by embracing democratic modes of production. Strategies that involve the input or collaboration of all stakeholders often result in less formally 'correct' aesthetics.
||This "see also" section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant suggestions are given and that they are not red links, and consider integrating suggestions into the article itself. (November 2013)|
- Alternative media in South Africa
- Alternative media (U.S. political left)
- Alternative media (U.S. political right)
- Citizen media
- Concentration of media ownership
- Democracy Now!
- Jesse Macbeth
- List of independent television stations in the U.S.
- Mass media
- Media democracy
- Media justice
- New Internationalist
- New Internationalist Australia
- Nexus (magazine)
- Pete Wagner
- Pirate television
- Positive News
- Prometheus Radio Project
- Public access television
- Radical media
- Underground press
Alternative media scholars
- John DH Downing
- Chris Atton
- Clemencia Rodriguez
- Leah Lievrouw
- Rodney Benson
- Jean Burgess
- John DH Downing
- Lauren Kessler
- Åsa Wettergren
- Downing, John. (2001). Radical Media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Herman, E., & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. New York: Pantheon Books.
- Atton, Chris. (2002). Alternative Media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Lievrouw, L. (2011). Introduction. In Alternative and Activist New Media (pp. 1–27). Polity.
- Rodriguez, C. (2001). Fissures in the Mediascape. Cresskill, NJ:Hampton Press.
- Habermas, J. (1991). The structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society. MIT press.
- Fraser, N. (1990). Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. Social text, 56-80.
- Stein, Laura (2009). "Social movement web use in theory and practice: a content analysis of US movement websites". New Media & Society. doi:10.1177/1461444809105350.
- Cissell, M (2012). "Media framing: A comparative content analysis on mainstream and alternative news coverage of occupy wall street". The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- Coyer, K; Dowmunt, T; Fountain, A (2011). The Alternative Media Handbook. New York: Routledge.
- Waltz, M (2005). Alternative and Activist Media. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
- Walmsley, M (2014). "Tell it like it isn't: SNCC and the media, 1960-1965". Journal of American Studies. doi:10.1017/S0021875813002545.
- Sandoval, M; Fuchs, C (2009). "Towards a critical theory of alternative media". Telematics and Informatics. doi:10.1016/j.tele.2009.06.011.
- Downing, J. (2001). "Preface." In Radical Media. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
- Atton, C. (2002). "Approaching Alternative Media: Theory and Methodology." In Alternative Media. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
- Pandey G. (2000). "Voices from the Edge: The Struggle to Write Subaltern Histories." In Mapping Subaltern Studies and the Postcolonial. Ed. by Vinayak Chaturvedi.
- Spivak, G. (2010). "Can the Subaltern Speak?" In Can the Subaltern Speak? Reflections on the History of an Idea. Ed. by Rosalind Russel.
- Rodriguez, C. (2001). "From Alternative Media to 'Citizens' Media." In Fissures in the Mediascape. Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
- Gunderloy, Mike (August 1991), "Glossary", Factsheet Five, Rensselaer, NY: Pretzel Press (44), p. 86, ISSN 0890-6823, retrieved 2007-11-05
- 10 Tactics
- "10 tactics for turning information into action". Tactical Technology Collective. Tactical Technology Collectiv. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Barlow, D. (2002). Conceptions of access and participation in Australian community radio stations. In N. Jankowski (Ed.), Community Media in the Information Age: Perspectives and Prospects, pp. 141-161. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
- Ke, Shun-Chih (2000). "The emergence, transformation, and disintegration of alternative radio in Taiwan: From underground to community radio". Journal of Communication Inquiry. 24 (4).
- Coyer, K. (2007). Access to broadcasting: Radio. In K. Coyer, T. Dormant & A. Fountain (Eds.) The Alternative Media Handbook. (112-123). London, UK: Routledge.
- Fountain, A. (2007) Alternative film, video and television 1965-2005. In K. Coyer, T. Dowmunt & A. Fountain (Eds). The Alternative Media Handbook. (29-46). London, UK: Routledge.
- "Videotage". www.newmuseum.org. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
- "LAFCO: Los Angeles Filmmakers' Cooperative". www.lafco.tv. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
- "Mission + Vision | Line Break Media". linebreakmedia.org. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
- Rodriguez, C. (2001). A process of identity deconstruction: Colombian women producing video stories. In Fissures in the Mediascape. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
- Leshne, C (2006). "The Film & Photo League of San Francisco". Film History. 18: 361.
- Drew, J. (2007) The collective camcorder in art and activism. In B. Stimson & G. Sholette (Eds.), Collectivism after modernism: The art of social imagination (95-113). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
- "Mission - Deep Dish TV". Deep Dish TV. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
- Lievrouw, L. (2011). Breaking through the blockade. In Alternative and activist new media. (119-148) Cambridge: Polity Press.
- Schwartzman, Allan, Street Art, The Dial Press, Doubleday & Co., New York, NY 1985 ISBN 0-385-19950-3
- Irvine, Martin. "The Work on the Street: Street Art and Visual Culture." The Handbook of Visual Culture. London: Berg, 2012. 235-278. Print.
- "The History of Street Art". WideWalls. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
- "Wooster Collective". Wooster Collective. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
- Hellerman and Goddard 1983
- Performance Art Movement, Artists and Major Works." The Art Story.
- Hesmondhalgh, David. "Indie: The Aesthetics and Institutional Politics of Popular Music Genre."
- Lievrouw, L. (2011). Introduction. In Alternative and Activist New Media (pp. 1–27). Polity. (p.19)
- Lievrouw, L. (2011). Introduction. In Alternative and Activist New Media (pp. 1–27). Polity. (p.22-23)
- Lievrouw, L. (2011). Chapter 4. In Alternative and Activist New Media (pp. 98-108). Polity. (98)
- Lievrouw, L. (2011). Introduction. In Alternative and Activist New Media (pp. 1–27). Polity. (p.25)
- Lievrouw, L. (2011). Chapter 7. In Alternative and Activist New Media (pp. 178). Polity. (p.178)
- Lievrouw, L. (2011). Introduction. In Alternative and Activist New Media (pp. 1–27). Polity. (p.20)
- Burgess, Jean; Green, Joshua (2009). YouTube: Online video and participatory culture. Boston, MA: Polity.
- Cunningham, Stuart; Nguyen, T (2000). Popular media of the Vietnamese Diaspora (Floating lives: The media and Asian diasporas ed.). Saint Lucia: University of Queensland Press. pp. 91–135.
- Sartwell, Crispin (2010). Political Aesthetics. London: Cornell University Press.
- Carpentiere, Nico (2011). Media and Participation: A Site of Ideological Democratic Struggle. Chicago: Intellect. pp. 55–64.