Alternative civilian service
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Alternative civilian service, also called alternative service, civilian service, non-military service, and substitute service, is a form of national service performed in lieu of military conscription for various reasons, such as conscientious objection, inadequate health, or political reasons. See "labour battalion" for examples of the latter case. Alternative service usually involves some kind of labor.
- 1 Definition
- 2 History and human rights
- 3 Countries and regions with mandatory alternative service programmes
- 4 Countries that abolished mandatory alternative services
- 5 Voluntary services as a substitute to mandatory alternative services
- 6 Earlier voluntary services as a substitute to mandatory alternative services
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Alternative civilian service is service to a government made as a civilian, particularly such service as an option for conscripted persons who are conscientious objectors and object to military service.
Civilian service is usually performed in the service of non-profit governmental bodies or other institutions. For example, in Germany (before conscription was abolished), those in civilian service worked extensively in healthcare facilities and retirement homes, while other countries have a wider variety of possible placements.
Common synonyms for the term are alternative service, civilian service, non-military service and substitute service.
Alternative service is often rejected by antimilitarist conscientious objectors, who still regard it as part of the military system. Many argue that it is not inconveniencing the military in any way, and in fact paints them in a good light. Moreover, in the past non-military service has often freed up people for work in the military, or enabled people to return to the military e.g. nursing. Those conscientious objectors who also reject alternative service are known as absolutists or total objectors.
History and human rights
The Twenty Classes was a program used by the Turkish government during World War II to conscript the male non-Turkish minority population mainly consisting of Armenians, Greeks and Jews. The prevailing and widespread point of view on the matter was that, anticipating entry to World War II, Turkey gathered in advance all unreliable non-Turkish men regarded as a potential "fifth column".
Countries and regions with mandatory alternative service programmes
- Austria: Zivildienst since 1975
- Finland: Siviilipalvelus established in 1931
- Iran: Amrieh
- Israel: Sherut Leumi
- Russia: Alternative Civilian Service (Russian: альтернативная гражданская служба) since 2004
- South Korea: Social Service Agent (Korean: 사회복무요원) (only for health reason)
- Switzerland: Swiss Civilian Service since 1992
Countries that abolished mandatory alternative services
- Germany: Zivildienst 1973–2011
- Italy: 1972–2005
- Norway: abolished Siviltjenesten in 2012
- Russian Empire: Forestry service (Russia)
- United States: Alternative Service Program, Civilian Public Service; Selective Service System
Voluntary services as a substitute to mandatory alternative services
- Austrian Service Abroad instead of Zivildienst in Austria
- European Voluntary Service instead of mandatory civilian service Austria
- Voluntary ecological year as a substitute to alternative civilian service in Austria
- Voluntary social year instead of the mandatory Zivildienst in Austria
- Unarmed service (vapenfri tjänst) as an alternative to the otherwise mandatory Värnplikt in Sweden
Earlier voluntary services as a substitute to mandatory alternative services
- American Friends Service Committee established in the United States during World War I
- International Voluntary Service in the United Kingdom starting in 1939 and during World War II. Later abolished as the UK abolished military service.
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