Alternative civilian service
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Alternative civilian service is a form of national service performed in lieu of conscription for various reasons, such as conscientious objection, inadequate health, or political reasons. See "labour battalion" for examples of the latter case. Alternative service usually involves some kind of labor.
Alternative civilian service is service to a government made as a civilian, particularly such service as an option for conscripted persons who are conscientious objectors and object to military service.
Civilian service is usually performed in the service of non-profit governmental bodies or other institutions. For example, in Germany (before conscription was abolished), those in civilian service worked extensively in healthcare facilities and retirement homes, while other countries have a wider variety of possible placements.
Common synonyms for the term are alternative service, civilian service, non-military service and substitute service.
Examples of countries with thriving civilian service programmes are Cyprus, Switzerland (Swiss Civilian Service), Finland (siviilipalvelus/civiltjänstgöring) and Austria (Zivildienst). Norway abolished civilian service (Siviltjenesten) in 2012.
- Conscription in Greece
- Conscription in Taiwan
- Alternative Service Program, United States
- Selective Service System, United States
- Civilian Public Service, United States
- Forestry service (Russia)
- Zivildienst, Austria and Switzerland
- Siviilipalvelus, Finland
- Sherut Leumi, Israel
The Twenty Classes was a program used by the Turkish government during World War II to conscript the male non-Turkish minority population mainly consisting of Armenians, Greeks and Jews. The prevailing and widespread point of view on the matter was that, anticipating entry to World War II, Turkey gathered in advance all unreliable non-Turkish men regarded as a potential "fifth column".
Non-governmental alternative services
- Austrian Service Abroad
- Conscientious objection
- Swiss Civilian Service
- Service Civil International
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