Altretamine

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Altretamine
Skeletal formula of altretamine
Ball-and-stick model of the altretamine molecule
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N2,N2,N4,N4,N6,N6-Hexamethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine
Clinical data
Trade names Hexalen
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a601200
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: D
  • US: D (Evidence of risk)
Routes of
administration
Oral (capsules)
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 94%
Metabolism Extensive liver
Metabolites Pentamethylmelamine, tetramethylmelamine
Biological half-life 4.7–10.2 hours
Identifiers
CAS Number 645-05-6 YesY
ATC code L01XX03 (WHO)
PubChem CID 2123
IUPHAR/BPS 7112
DrugBank DB00488 YesY
ChemSpider 2038 YesY
UNII Q8BIH59O7H YesY
KEGG D02841 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:24564 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1455 YesY
Synonyms 2,4,6-Tris(dimethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine
Chemical data
Formula C9H18N6
Molar mass 210.28 g/mol
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Altretamine (trade name Hexalen) is an antineoplastic agent. It was approved by the U.S. FDA in 1990.

Uses[edit]

It is indicated for use as a single agent in the palliative treatment of patients with persistent or recurrent ovarian cancer following first-line therapy with cisplatin and/or alkylating agent-based combination.[1]

It is not considered a first-line treatment,[2] but it can be useful as salvage therapy.[3] It also has the advantage of being less toxic than other drugs used for treating refractory ovarian cancer.[4]

Mechanism[edit]

The precise mechanism by which altretamine exerts its anti-cancer effect is unknown but it is classified by MeSH as an alkylating antineoplastic agent.[5]

This unique structure is believed to damage tumor cells through the production of the weakly alkylating species formaldehyde, a product of CYP450-mediated N-demethylation. Administered orally, altretamine is extensively metabolized on first pass, producing primarily mono- and didemethylated metabolites. Additional demethylation reactions occur in tumor cells, releasing formaldehyde in situ before the drug is excreted in the urine. The carbinolamine (methylol) intermediates of CYP450-mediated metabolism also can generate electrophilic iminium species that are capable of reacting covalently with DNA guanine and cytosine residues as well as protein. Iminium-mediated DNA cross-linking and DNA-protein interstrand cross-linking, mediated through both the iminium intermediate and formaldehyde, have been demonstrated, although the significance of DNA cross-linking on altretamine antitumor activity is uncertain.[6]

Side effects[edit]

Side effects include nausea, vomiting, anemia and peripheral sensory neuropathy.[7]

Interactions[edit]

Combination with pyridoxine (vitamin B6) decreases neurotoxicity but has been found to reduce the effectiveness of an altretamine/cisplatin regime.[8] MAO inhibitor can cause severe orthostatic hypotension when combined with altretamine; and cimetidine can increase its elimination half-life and toxicity.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hexalen (altretamine) Capsule. Human Prescription Drug Label". dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. Eisai Inc. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  2. ^ Keldsen N, Havsteen H, Vergote I, Bertelsen K, Jakobsen A (2003). "Altretamine (hexamethylmelamine) in the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: a phase II study". Gynecol. Oncol. 88 (2): 118–22. doi:10.1016/S0090-8258(02)00103-8. PMID 12586589. 
  3. ^ Chan JK, Loizzi V, Manetta A, Berman ML (2004). "Oral altretamine used as salvage therapy in recurrent ovarian cancer". Gynecol. Oncol. 92 (1): 368–71. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2003.09.017. PMID 14751188. 
  4. ^ Malik IA (2001). "Altretamine is an effective palliative therapy of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer". Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 31 (2): 69–73. doi:10.1093/jjco/hye012. PMID 11302345. 
  5. ^ Damia G, D'Incalci M (1995). "Clinical pharmacokinetics of altretamine". Clinical pharmacokinetics. 28 (6): 439–48. doi:10.2165/00003088-199528060-00002. PMID 7656502. 
  6. ^ Lemke, Thomas L.; Williams, David A., eds. (2008). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-6879-5. 
  7. ^ a b Drugs.com: Altretamine Monograph
  8. ^ Wiernik, P. H.; Yeap, B.; Vogl, S. E.; Kaplan, B. H.; Comis, R. L.; Falkson, G.; Davis, T. E.; Fazzini, E.; Cheuvart, B.; Horton, J. (1992). "Hexamethylmelamine and low or moderate dose cisplatin with or without pyridoxine for treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma: A study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group". Cancer investigation. 10 (1): 1–9. doi:10.3109/07357909209032783. PMID 1735009.