Aluminium phosphate

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Aluminium phosphate
Aluminium phosphate
Names
Other names
Aluminum phosphate
Aluminium monophosphate
Phosphoric acid, aluminium salt (1:1)
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.142
RTECS number TB6450000
UNII
Properties
AlPO4
Molar mass 121.9529 g/mol
Appearance White, crystalline powder
Density 2.566 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 1,800 °C (3,270 °F; 2,070 K)
Boiling point Decomposes
insoluble
6.3×10−19
Solubility Very slightly soluble in HCl and HNO3
1.546 [1]
Pharmacology
A02AB03 (WHO)
Hazards
Xi
R-phrases (outdated) R36/37/38
S-phrases (outdated) S26
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
2
0
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
4640 mg/kg (rat, oral)
> 4640 mg/kg (rabbit, dermal)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☑Y verify (what is ☑Y☒N ?)
Infobox references

Aluminium phosphate is a chemical compound. In nature it occurs as the mineral berlinite.[2] Many synthetic forms of aluminium phosphate are known. They have framework structures similar to zeolites and some are used as catalysts, ion-exchangers or molecular sieves.[3] Commercial aluminium phosphate gel is available.

Berlinite[edit]

AlPO4 is isoelectronic with Si2O4, silicon dioxide. Berlinite looks like quartz and has a structure that is similar to quartz with silicon replaced by Al and P. The AlO4 and PO4 tetrahedra alternate. Like quartz, AlPO4 exhibits chirality[4] and piezoelectric properties.[5] Crystalline AlPO4 (berlinite) when heated, converts to tridymite and cristobalite forms, and this mirrors the behaviour of silicon dioxide.[6]

Uses[edit]

Molecular sieves[edit]

There are many of aluminium phosphate molecular sieves, generically known as "ALPOs". The first ones were reported in 1982.[7] They all share the same chemical composition of AlPO4 and have framework structures with microporous cavities. The frameworks are made up of alternating AlO4 and PO4 tetrahedra. The denser cavity-less crystalline berlinite, shares the same alternating AlO4 and PO4 tetrahedra.[6] The aluminophosphate framework structures vary one from another in the orientation of the AlO4 tetrahedra and PO4 tetrahedra to form different-sized cavities, and in this respect they are similar to the aluminosilicate zeolites, which differ in having electrically charged frameworks. A typical preparation of an aluminophosphate involves the hydrothermal reaction of phosphoric acid and aluminium in the form of hydroxide, an aluminium salt such as aluminium nitrate salt or alkoxide under controlled pH in the presence of organic amines.[8] These organic molecules act as templates (now termed structure directing agents, SDAs) to direct the growth of the porous framework.[9]

Other[edit]

Along with aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate is one of the most common immunologic adjuvants (efficiency enhancers) in vaccinations. Aluminium adjuvant use is widespread due to their cheap price, long history of use, safety and efficiency with most antigens. Its unknown how such salts function as adjuvants.[10]

Similar to aluminum hydroxide, AlPO4 is used as an antacid. It neutralizes stomach acid (HCl) by forming AlCl3 with it. Up to 20% of aluminum from ingested antacid salts can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract – despite of some unverified concerns about the neurological effects of aluminum,[11] aluminum phosphate and hydroxide salts are thought to be safe as antacids in normal use, even during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[12][11]

Additional uses for AlPO4 in combination with or without other compounds are white colorants for pigments, corrosion inhibitors, cements and dental cements. Related compounds have also similar uses. For example, Al(H2PO4)3 is used in dental cements, metal coatings, glaze compositions and refractory binders; and Al(H2PO4)(HPO4) is used cement and refractory binders and adhesives.[13]

Related compounds[edit]

AlPO4·2H2O dihydrate is found as the minerals variscite and meta-variscite.[14] Aluminium phosphate dihydrate (variscite and meta-variscite) has a structure that can be regarded as an assembly of tetra- and octahedral units of phosphate anions, aluminium cations and water. Al3+ are 6-coordinate and PO43- are 4-coordinate.[2]

A synthetic hydrated form, AlPO4·1.5H2O is also known.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • DEC, Corbridge. (2013). Phosphorus: chemistry, biochemistry and technology (6th ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9781439840894.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  2. ^ a b Corbridge, p. 207-208
  3. ^ Corbridge, p. 310
  4. ^ Tanaka, Y; et al. (2010). "Determination of structural chirality of berlinite and quartz using resonant x-ray diffraction with circularly polarized x-rays". Physical Review B. 81 (14). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.144104. ISSN 1098-0121.
  5. ^ Crystal growth of an α-quartz like piezoelectric material, berlinite, Motchany A. I., Chvanski P. P., Annales de Chimie Science des Materiaux properties, 2001, 26, 199
  6. ^ a b Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 527. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  7. ^ Wilson, ST; et al. (1982). "Aluminophosphate molecular sieves: a new class of microporous crystalline inorganic solids". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 104 (4): 1146–1147. doi:10.1021/ja00368a062. ISSN 0002-7863.
  8. ^ Kulprathipanja, S, ed. (2010-02-17). Zeolites in Industrial Separation and Catalysis. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9783527629565.
  9. ^ Xu, R; et al. (2007). Chemistry of zeolites and related porous materials: synthesis and structure. John Wiley & Sons. p. 39. ISBN 9780470822333.
  10. ^ RJ, Crowther (2010). Vaccine adjuvants: preparation methods and research protocols. Humana. pp. 65–66, 82. ISBN 9781617371592.
  11. ^ a b Schaefer, Christof; Peters, Paul W. J.; Miller, Richard K. (2015). Drugs during pregnancy and lactation: treatment options and risk assessment. C Schaefer, P Peters, RK Miller (3. ed.). p. 94. ISBN 9780124080782.
  12. ^ S, Pratiksha; TM, Jamie (2018), "Antacids", StatPearls, StatPearls Publishing, PMID 30252305, retrieved 2019-02-28
  13. ^ Corbridge, p. 1025
  14. ^ Roncal-Herrero, T; et al. (2009-12-02). "Precipitation of Iron and Aluminum Phosphates Directly from Aqueous Solution as a Function of Temperature from 50 to 200 °C". Crystal Growth & Design. 9 (12): 5197–5205. doi:10.1021/cg900654m. ISSN 1528-7483.
  15. ^ Lagno, F; et al. (2005). "Synthesis of Hydrated Aluminium Phosphate, AlPO4·1.5H2O (AlPO4−H3), by Controlled Reactive Crystallization in Sulfate Media". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 44 (21): 8033–8038. doi:10.1021/ie0505559. ISSN 0888-5885.

External links[edit]