|Places of articulation|
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation. In the official IPA chart, alveolo-palatals would appear between the retroflex and palatal consonants but for "lack of space". Ladefoged and Maddieson characterize the alveolo-palatals as palatalized postalveolars (palatalized palato-alveolars), articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate, whereas Esling describes them as advanced palatals (pre-palatals), the furthest front of the dorsal consonants, articulated with the body of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge. These descriptions are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue (see schematic at right). They are front enough that the fricatives and affricates are sibilants, the only sibilants among the dorsal consonants.
Fricatives and affricates
The alveolo-palatal sibilants are often used in varieties of Chinese such as Mandarin, Hakka, and Wu, as well as other East Asian languages such as Japanese and Korean. Alveolo-palatal sibilants are also a feature of many Slavic languages, such as Polish, Russian, and Serbo-Croatian, and of Northwest Caucasian languages, such as Abkhaz and Ubykh. The alveolo-palatals included in the International Phonetic Alphabet are:
|ç͇, ç̟||Voiceless alveolo-palatal non-sibilant fricative||[example needed]|
|ɕ||Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative||Mandarin||小 (xiǎo)||[ɕiɑu˨˩˦]||small|
|ʝ͇, ʝ̟||Voiced alveolo-palatal non-sibilant fricative||[example needed]|
|ʑ||Voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative||Polish||zioło||[ˈʑɔwɔ]||herb|
|c͇͡ç͇, c̟͡ç̟, c͡ç˖||Voiceless alveolo-palatal non-sibilant affricate||[example needed]|
|t͡ɕ||Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate||Serbo-Croatian||kuća / кућа||[kut͡ɕa]||house|
|ɟ͇͡ʝ͇, ɟ̟͡ʝ̟, ɟ͡ʝ˖||Voiced alveolo-palatal non-sibilant affricate||[example needed]|
|d͡ʑ||Voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate||Japanese||地震 (jishin)||[d͡ʑiɕĩɴ]||earthquake|
The letters ⟨ɕ⟩ and ⟨ʑ⟩ are essentially equivalent to ⟨ ʃʲ⟩ and ⟨ʒʲ⟩. They are the sibilant homologues of the alveolo-palatal non-sibilant fricatives [ç̟] and [ʝ̟].
Stops, nasals and liquids
Symbols for alveolo-palatal stops (ȶ, ȡ), nasals (ȵ), and liquids (ȴ) are sometimes used in sinological circles (a circumflex accent is also sometimes seen), but these are not recognized by the IPA. They may actually be simple palatal or palatalized consonants, classified as alveolo-palatals because they pattern with the alveolo-palatal sibilants of the language rather than because they are actually alveolo-palatal in articulation. In standard IPA, they can be transcribed ⟨c͇, ɟ͇, ɲ͇, ʎ͇⟩ (alveolarized palatals), ⟨c̟, ɟ̟, ɲ̟, ʎ̟⟩ (advanced palatals), ⟨t͇͡c, d͇͡ɟ, n͇͡ɲ, l͇͡ʎ⟩ (simultaneous alveolars and palatals) or ⟨t̠ʲ, d̠ʲ, n̠ʲ, l̠ʲ⟩ (palatalized postalveolars), although the last transcription is ambiguous - it can denote either alveolo-palatals, or only somewhat palatalized postalveolars.
For example, the Polish nasal represented with the letter ń is an alveolo-palatal nasal. The "palatal" consonants of Indigenous Australian languages are also often judged closer to alveolo-palatal in their articulation.
|ȶ t̂||c͇, c̟, t̠ʲ||Voiceless alveolo-palatal stop||Korean||티끌 tikkeul||[c͇ʰiʔk͈ɯl]||dust|
|ȡ d̂||ɟ͇, ɟ̟, d̠ʲ||Voiced alveolo-palatal stop||Korean||반디 bandi||[b̥ɐnɟ͇i]||firefly|
|ȵ n̂||ɲ͇, ɲ̟, n̠ʲ||Voiced alveolo-palatal nasal||Yi language||ꑌ nyi||[ɲ͇i˧]||sit|
|ȴ l̂||ʎ͇, ʎ̟, l̠ʲ||Voiced alveolo-palatal lateral||Catalan||ull||[ˈuʎ͇]||eye|
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.