|Directed by||Miloš Forman|
|Screenplay by||Peter Shaffer|
by Peter Shaffer
|Produced by||Saul Zaentz|
|Box office||$90 million|
Amadeus is a 1984 American period biographical drama film directed by Miloš Forman and adapted by Peter Shaffer from his 1979 stage play of the same name. Set in Vienna, Austria, during the latter half of the 18th century, the film is a fictionalized story of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart from the time he left Salzburg, described by its writer as a "fantasia on the theme of Mozart and Salieri". Mozart's music is heard extensively in the soundtrack. The film follows a fictional rivalry between Mozart and Italian composer Antonio Salieri at the court of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor. The film stars F. Murray Abraham as Salieri and Tom Hulce as Mozart. Abraham and Hulce were both nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor, with Abraham winning.
Amadeus was released by Orion Pictures on September 19, 1984, thirteen days after its world premiere in Los Angeles on September 6, 1984. Upon release, it received widespread acclaim and was a box office hit, grossing over $90 million. Considered by many to be one of the greatest films of all time, Amadeus was nominated for 53 awards and received 40, including eight Academy Awards (including the Academy Award for Best Picture), four BAFTA Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, and a Directors Guild of America award. As of 2023[update], it was the most recent film to have more than one nomination in the Academy Award for Best Actor category. In 1998, the American Film Institute ranked it 53rd on its 100 Years... 100 Movies list. In 2019, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
In the winter of 1823, Antonio Salieri is committed to a psychiatric hospital after barring his doors and attempting suicide, during which his servants overhear him confess to murdering Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. A young priest, Father Vogler, approaches Salieri for elaboration on the latter's confession. Salieri plays two of his own melodies; Vogler admits that he doesn't know them. Salieri then plays Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, which Vogler knows perfectly well yet thinks Salieri made it. Confused that Vogler knows this melody but not who made it, Salieri recounts how (ever since he could remember) he desired to be a composer; much to his father's chagrin. He prays to God that if He allowed Salieri to become a famous composer, he would - in return - promise his faithfulness, chastity and diligence. Soon after, his father chokes on his food and dies; which Salieri takes as a sign that God has accepted his vow. By 1774, Salieri had become court composer to Emperor Joseph II in Vienna.
Seven years later, at a reception in honor of Mozart's patron, the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, Salieri anxiously awaits to meet his idol; guessing his identity. He is shocked to discover that the transcendentally talented Mozart is obscene, silly, and immature. Salieri, a devout Catholic, cannot fathom why God would endow such a great gift onto Mozart instead of him and concludes that God is using Mozart's talent to make Salieri a mediocrity. Salieri renounces God and vows to take revenge on Him by destroying Mozart.
Meanwhile, Mozart's alcoholism ruins his health, marriage, finances, and reputation at court; even as he continues to produce brilliant work. Salieri hires a young girl to work as Mozart's maid (against Mozart’s father Leopold's better judgment) so he may gain access to his apartment, where he discovers that Mozart is working on an opera based on the play The Marriage of Figaro, which the Emperor has forbidden, owing to its subversive theme. When Mozart is summoned to court to explain, he manages to convince the Emperor to allow his opera to premiere; despite Salieri and the advisors' attempts at sabotage. When Mozart is informed that his father has died, he writes Don Giovanni in his grief.
Salieri recognizes the dead commander in the opera as symbolic of Mozart's father and concocts a scheme; he leads Mozart to believe that his father has risen to commission a Requiem. He then plans to kill Mozart once the piece is finished and premiere it at Mozart's funeral, claiming the work as his own. Meanwhile, Mozart's friend Emanuel Schikaneder invites him to write an opera for his theatre. Mozart obliges, despite his wife Constanze's insistence that he finish the Requiem, as the opera is a riskier venture. After arguing with Mozart, Constanze leaves with their young son, Karl.
The opera in question, The Magic Flute, is a great success; but the overworked Mozart collapses during one performance. Salieri takes him home and persuades him to continue writing the Requiem, offering to take the bedridden Mozart's dictation; the two lay down the opening of the Confutatis together. The next morning, Mozart thanks Salieri for his friendship and Salieri admits that Mozart is the greatest composer he knows. Constanze returns and, appalled at finding Mozart working with Salieri, demands that Salieri leave immediately. In her guilt, she locks the unfinished Requiem away in a cabinet; keeping it away from both composers. Constanze and Salieri argue with each other, before she walks over to Mozart's bed to find that he has died. Mozart is taken out of the city on a rainy day and is unceremoniously buried in a mass grave.
Back in 1823, Vogler is too shaken to absolve Salieri, who surmised that the "merciful" God preferred to destroy His beloved Mozart rather than allow Salieri to share in the smallest part of his glory. Salieri promises, with bitter irony, to both pray for and absolve Vogler along with all the world's mediocrities as their "patron saint". As Salieri is wheeled down a hallway, absolving the hospital's other patients of their inadequacies as he passes by, Mozart's laughter rings in the air, as a reminder of his glee for his talent.
- F. Murray Abraham as Antonio Salieri
- Tom Hulce as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- Elizabeth Berridge as Constanze Mozart
- Roy Dotrice as Leopold Mozart
- Simon Callow as Emanuel Schikaneder
- Christine Ebersole as Caterina Cavalieri
- Jeffrey Jones as Emperor Joseph II
- Charles Kay as Count Orsini-Rosenberg
- Kenneth McMillan as Michael Schlumberger (Director's Cut)
- Kenny Baker as Parody Commendatore
- Lisabeth Bartlett as Papagena
- Barbara Bryne as Frau Weber
- Martin Cavani as young Salieri
- Roderick Cook as Count von Strack
- Milan Demjanenko as Karl Mozart
- Peter DiGesu as Francesco Salieri
- Michele Esposito as Salieri's student (Director's Cut)
- Richard Frank as Father Vogler
- Patrick Hines as Kapellmeister Giuseppe Bonno
- Nicholas Kepros as Count Hieronymus von Colloredo, Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg
- Philip Lenkowsky as Salieri's Servant
- Herman Meckler as Priest
- Jonathan Moore as Baron van Swieten
- Cynthia Nixon as Lorl, Mozart's maid
- Brian Pettifer as Hospital Attendant
- Vincent Schiavelli as Salieri's Valet
- Douglas Seale as Count Arco
- Miroslav Sekera as young Mozart
- Cassie Stuart as Gertrude Schlumberger (Director's Cut)
- John Strauss as Conductor
- Karl-Heinz Teuber as Wig Salesman
- Rita Zohar as Frau Schlumberger (Director's Cut)
Kenneth Branagh writes in his autobiography Beginning that he was one of the finalists for the role of Mozart, but was dropped from consideration when Forman decided to make the film with an American cast. Mark Hamill, who replaced Tim Curry as Mozart towards the end of the stage play's Broadway run, read with many actresses auditioning for the part of Mozart's wife Constanze. However, Forman ultimately decided not to cast him due to his association with the character of Luke Skywalker, feeling that audiences would not believe him as the composer. Meg Tilly was cast as Mozart's wife Constanze, but she tore a ligament in her leg the day before shooting started. She was replaced by Elizabeth Berridge. Simon Callow, who played Mozart in the original London stage production of Amadeus, was cast as Emanuel Schikaneder, the librettist of The Magic Flute.
The film was shot on location in Prague and Kroměříž. Notably, Forman was able to shoot scenes in the Count Nostitz Theatre in Prague, where Don Giovanni and La clemenza di Tito debuted two centuries before. Several other scenes were shot at the Barrandov Studios and Invalidovna building, former "hôtel des invalides", built in 1731–1737.
Tom Hulce reportedly used John McEnroe's mood swings as a source of inspiration for his portrayal of Mozart's unpredictable genius. He claimed he did not find Mozart’s signature laugh until he downed a bottle of whiskey.
Amadeus holds a score of 89% on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes based on 151 reviews, with an average rating of 8.9/10. The site's consensus states: "Amadeus' liberties with history may rankle some, but the creative marriage of Miloš Forman and Peter Shaffer yields a divinely diabolical myth of genius and mediocrity, buoyed by inspired casting and Mozart's rapturous music." Giving the film four out of four stars, Roger Ebert acknowledged that it was one of the "riskiest gambles a filmmaker has taken in a long time," but added that "there is nothing cheap or unworthy about the approach," and ultimately concluded that it was a "magnificent film, full and tender and funny and charming". Ebert later added the film to his Great Movies list. Peter Travers of People magazine said that "Hulce and Abraham share a dual triumph in a film that stands as a provocative and prodigious achievement." Stanley Kauffmann of The New Republic put it on his list of films worth seeing. In one negative review, Todd McCarthy of Variety said that despite "great material and themes to work with, and such top talent involved," the "stature and power the work possessed onstage have been noticeably diminished" in the film adaptation. The film's many historical inaccuracies have attracted criticism from music historians.
The film was nominated for eleven Academy Awards, winning eight (including Best Picture). At the end of the Oscar ceremony, Laurence Olivier came on stage to present the Oscar for Best Picture. As Olivier thanked the academy for inviting him, he was already opening the envelope. Instead of announcing the nominees, he simply read, "The winner for this is Amadeus." An AMPAS official quickly went onstage to confirm the winner and signalled that all was well before Olivier then presented the award to producer Saul Zaentz. Olivier (in his 78th year) had been ill for many years, and it was because of mild dementia that he forgot to read the nominees. Zaentz then thanked Olivier, saying it was an honour to receive the award from him, before mentioning the other nominees in his acceptance speech: The Killing Fields, A Passage to India, Places in the Heart and A Soldier's Story. Maurice Jarre won Best Original Music Score for his scoring of A Passage to India. In his acceptance speech for the award, Jarre remarked "I was lucky Mozart was not eligible this year".
The film along with The English Patient, The Hurt Locker, The Artist, and Birdman are the only Best Picture winners never to enter the weekend box office top 5 after rankings began being recorded in 1982. The film peaked at No. 6 during its 8th weekend in theaters. Saul Zaentz produced both Amadeus and The English Patient.
From the beginning, writer Peter Shaffer and director Miloš Forman both were open about their desire to create entertaining drama only loosely based on reality, calling the work a "fantasia on the theme of Mozart and Salieri".
The idea of animosity between Mozart and Salieri was popularized by Alexander Pushkin in 1830 in his play Mozart and Salieri. In it, Salieri murders Mozart on stage. The play was made into the opera Mozart and Salieri by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov 67 years later, which in turn had its first screen adaptation by silent-film director Victor Tourjansky in 1914.
Another significant departure in the film is the portrayal of Salieri as a pious loner trapped in a vow of chastity when in reality he was a married family man with eight children and at least one mistress.
Amadeus premiered in 1984 as a PG-rated movie with a running time of 161 minutes. Director Miloš Forman introduced an R-rated version with nearly 20 minutes of restored footage. This version was released by the studios as a Director's Cut on September 24, 2002. Forman justified why those scenes were cut in the first place in the 1995 supplemental material for Pioneer's deluxe LaserDisc. However, he explained why the scenes were eventually restored in a subsequent 2002 interview with The A.V. Club:
When you finish a film, before the first paying audience sees it, you don't have any idea. You don't know if you made a success or a flop when it comes to the box office. And in the '80s, with MTV on the scene, we are having a three-hour film about classical music, with long names and wigs and costumes. Don't forget that no major studio wanted to finance the film, for these reasons. So we said, "Well, we don't want to be pushing the audience's patience too far". Whatever was not directly connected to the plot, I just cut it out. But it was a mutual decision [to limit the running time]. I wanted the best life for the film myself... Well, once we are re-releasing it on DVD, it doesn't matter if it is two hours and 40 minutes long, or three hours long. So why don't we do the version as it was written in the script?
- Music conducted and supervised by Neville Marriner
- Music coordinator: John Strauss
- Orchestra: Academy of St Martin in the Fields, conducted by Neville Marriner
- Instrumental soloists
- Parody backgrounds: San Francisco Symphony Chorus
- "Caro mio ben" by Giuseppe Giordani: Michele Esposito, soprano
Original soundtrack recording
The soundtrack album reached No. 1 in the Billboard Classical Albums Chart, No. 56 in the Billboard Popular Albums Chart, has sold over 6.5 million copies and received thirteen gold discs, making it one of the most popular classical music recordings of all time. It won the Grammy Award for Best Classical Album in 1984.
- Disc 1
- Mozart: Symphony No. 25 in G minor, K. 183, 1st movement
- Giovanni Battista Pergolesi: Stabat Mater: "Quando corpus morietur" and "Amen"
- Early 18th Century Gypsy Music: Bubak and Hungaricus
- Mozart: Serenade for Winds in B-flat major, K. 361, 3rd movement
- Mozart: The Abduction from the Seraglio, K. 384, Turkish Finale
- Mozart: Symphony No. 29 in A major, K. 201, 1st movement
- Mozart: Concerto for Two Pianos in E-flat major, K. 365, 3rd movement
- Mozart: Great Mass in C minor, K. 427, Kyrie
- Mozart: Symphonie Concertante in E-flat major, K. 364, 1st movement
- Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 15 in B-Flat, K. 450, 3rd movement
- Disc 2
- Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 22 in E-flat major, K. 482, 3rd movement
- Mozart: The Marriage of Figaro, K. 492, Act III, "Ecco la Marcia"
- Mozart: The Marriage of Figaro, K. 492, Act IV, "Ah, tutti contenti"
- Mozart: Don Giovanni, K. 527, Act II, Commendatore scene
- Mozart: Zaide, K. 344, Aria, "Ruhe sanft"
- Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Introitus (orchestral introduction)
- Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Dies irae
- Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Rex tremendae majestatis
- Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Confutatis
- Mozart: Requiem, K. 626, Lacrimosa
- Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466, 2nd movement
All tracks on the album were performed specifically for the film. According to the film commentary by Forman and Schaffer, Marriner agreed to score the film if Mozart's music was completely unchanged from the original scores. Marriner did add some notes to Salieri's music that are noticeable at the beginning of the film, as Salieri begins his confession.
The aria "Ruhe sanft" from the opera Zaide does not appear in the film.
More Music from the Original Soundtrack
In 1985 an additional album with the title More Music from the Original Soundtrack of the Film Amadeus was issued containing further selections of music that were not included in the original soundtrack release.
- Mozart: The Magic Flute, K. 620, Overture
- Mozart: The Magic Flute, K. 620, act 2, Queen of the Night aria
- Mozart: Masonic Funeral Music, K. 477
- Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor, K. 466, 1st movement
- Antonio Salieri: Axur, re d'Ormus, Finale
- Mozart: Eine kleine Nachtmusik (Serenade No. 13 for Strings in G major), K. 525, 1st movement, arranged for woodwind octet by Graham Sheen
- Mozart: Concerto for Flute and Harp in C major, K. 299, 2nd movement
- Mozart: Six German Dances (Nos. 1–3), K. 509
- Giuseppe Giordani: "Caro mio ben"
- Mozart: The Abduction from the Seraglio, K. 384, Chorus of the Janissaries (Arr.) and "Ich möchte wohl der Kaiser sein" ("Ein deutsches Kriegslied"), K. 539 (Arr.)
The Masonic Funeral Music was originally intended to play over the closing credits, but was replaced in the film by the second movement of the Piano Concerto No. 20 in D minor (included on the Original Soundtrack Recording).
Director's Cut soundtrack
In 2002, to coincide with the release of the Director's Cut of the film, the soundtrack was remastered with 24-bit encoding and reissued with the title Special Edition: The Director's Cut – Newly Remastered Original Soundtrack Recording on two 24-karat gold CDs. It contains most of the music from the previous two releases, but with the following differences.
The following pieces were added for this release:
- Salieri's March of Welcome turned into "Non più andrai" from The Marriage of Figaro (includes dialogue from the film)
- Adagio in C minor for Glass Harmonica, K. 617 (from a new 2001 recording)
The following pieces, previously released on More Music from the Original Soundtrack of the Film Amadeus, were not included:
- Masonic Funeral Music, K. 477
- Six German Dances (Nos. 1–3), K. 509
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