Amanita cokeri

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Amanita cokeri
Amanita cokeri 52268.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Amanitaceae
Genus: Amanita
Species: A. cokeri
Binomial name
Amanita cokeri
(E.-J.Gilbert & Kühner) E.-J.Gilbert
Synonyms[1]

Lepidella cokeri E.-J.Gilbert & Kühner (1928)
Aspidella cokeri (E.-J.Gilbert & Kühner) E.-J.Gilbert (1940)

Amanita cokeri
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is convex
hymenium is free
stipe has a ring and volva
spore print is white
or mycorrhizal
edibility: poisonous

Amanita cokeri, commonly known as Coker's Amanita and Solitary Lepidella,[2] is a mushroom in the Amanitaceae family. The mushroom is poisonous.[3] First described as Lepidella cokeri in 1928, it was transferred to the genus Amanita in 1940.

Taxonomy[edit]

A. cokeri was first described as Lepidella cokeri by mycologists E.-J.Gilbert and Robert Kühner in 1928. It was in 1940 when the species was transferred from genus Lepidella to Amanita by Gilbert.[1] Presently, A. cokeri is placed under genus Amanita and subsection Lepidella. The epithet cokeri is in honour of American mycologist and botanist William Chambers Coker.[4][5]

Description[edit]

Close view of gills. Also note the cap and stipe.

Its cap is white in colour, and 7–15 cm (2.8–5.9 in) across. It is oval to convex in shape. The surface is dry but sticky when wet. The cap surface is characterized by large pointed warts, white to brown in colour.[6]

Gills are closely spaced and free from the stem. They are cream at first, but can turn white as the mushroom matures. Short-gills are frequent. Stem is white, measuring 10–20 cm (3.9–7.9 in) long and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) thick. It tapers slightly to the top, smooth to shaggy in texture. There is a ring, thick and often double-edged, the underside being tissuelike. The universal veil hangs from the top of the stipe.[7] The basal bulb is considerably large in size, with concentric circles of down-turned scales. The volval remnants stick to it and cause irregular patches.[7]

Spores are white, elliptical and amyloid. They measure 11-14 x 6-9 µ, and feel smooth. Flesh is white, and shows no change when exposed. There is no distinctive odour,[2][6] but some specimens may develop the smell of decaying protein.[8]

Lookalikes[edit]

Amanita solitaria is a closely related species, though a completely different European taxa.[9] The notable similarity is that both it and A. cokeri are double-ringed.[10] A. timida, from the tropical South Asia, resembles A. cokeri in its volval structure, thick and notable ring and the large bulbal base.[11][12]

Toxicity[edit]

In a study, the presence of non-protein amino acids 2-amino-3-cyclopropylbutanoic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid was revealed. The former acid was found to be toxic to the fungus Cercospora kikuchii, the arthropod Oncopeltus fasciatus and the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia amylovora, and Xanthomonas campestris. The toxicity for bacteria could be eliminated by adding isoleucine to the medium. The other acid did not prove toxic.[13]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

A. cokeri inhabits mixed coniferous or deciduous woods and also grows on the ground. It grows mainly on oak and pine trees, and leaves a white deposit. It grows isolated or in groups.[14] It is mostly distributed in southeastern North America.[15] It fruits from July to November.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Amanita cokeri (E.-J. Gilbert & Kühner) E.-J. Gilbert". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 
  2. ^ a b McKnight, Kent H.; McKnight, Vera B. McKnight; illustrations by Vera B. (1987). A field guide to mushrooms, North America (2. ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 222. ISBN 0-395-42101-2. 
  3. ^ Miller HR, Miller OK. (2006). North American Mushrooms: a Field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi. Guilford, Connecticut: Falcon Guide. p. 46. ISBN 0-7627-3109-5. 
  4. ^ Roody, William C. (2003). Mushrooms of West Virginia and the Central Appalachians. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. p. 50. ISBN 0-8131-9039-8. 
  5. ^ Bessette, A. E. (2007). Mushrooms of the southeastern United States (1 ed.). Syracuse: Syracuse Univ. Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-8156-3112-X. 
  6. ^ a b Kuo M. (August 2003). "Amanita cokeri". MushroomExpert.com. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 
  7. ^ a b Fergus, C. Leonard; Fergus, Charles (2003). Common edible and poisonous mushrooms of the northeast (1st ed.). Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books. p. 22. ISBN 0-8117-2641-X. 
  8. ^ Tulloss, RE. "Amanita cokeri". Amanitaceae.org. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  9. ^ Fuller, Thomas C.; McClintock, Elizabeth (1986). Poisonous plants of California. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-520-05568-3. 
  10. ^ Tulloss, RE. "Amanita solitaria". Amanitaceae.org. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  11. ^ Bas, Cornelis (1969). Morphology and subdivision of Amanita and a monograph on its section Lepidella. p. 390. 
  12. ^ Tulloss, RE. "Amanita timida". Amanitaceae.org. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  13. ^ Drehmel, Dennis C.; Chilton, William Scott (2002). "Characterization and toxicity of Amanita cokeri extract". Journal of Chemical Ecology 28 (2): 333–41. doi:10.1023/A:1017986108720. ISSN 0098-0331. 
  14. ^ a b Phillips, Roger. "Amanita cokeri". Rogers Mushrooms. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  15. ^ Gibbons, Whit; Haynes, RR.; Thomas, JL.; with a foreword by Geller, Robert J. (1990). Poisonous plants and venomous animals of Alabama and adjoining states. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-8173-0442-8. 

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