Amanita ovoidea

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Amanita ovoidea
Amanita ovoidea 1.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Subclass: Hymenomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Amanitaceae
Genus: Amanita
Species: A. ovoidea
Binomial name
Amanita ovoidea
Bull., Quél (1833)
  • Agaricus albus
  • Agaricus cuddle
Amanita ovoidea
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is convex
hymenium is free
stipe has a ring and volva

spore print is white

to cream
ecology is mycorrhizal

edibility: edible

but not recommended

The European white egg (Amanita ovoidea), Bearded Amanita or European Egg Amidella, is a species of fungus of the genus Amanita in the family Amanitaceae. It is a large, white-colored fungus, often tinged with cream. Native to Europe, it is found on plains as well as mountains in the Mediterranean region. The species was first described in 1833 by Pierre Bulliard, a French physician and botanist, and Lucien Quélet, a French mycologist and naturalist.


A. ovoidea mushroom in a forest.

The mushroom is white to cream-coloured and can reach very large sizes, over 15 cm, or in exceptional cases over 30 cm. The cap is smooth, fleshy, silky, hemispherical when young, but soon becoming convex to shield shaped. The cap margin is usually covered with hanging, cottony remains of the partial veil. The lamellae are thick, rounded, broad and are free from the stipe. The stipe is thick, cylindrical, powdery, has a fragile, cottony ring, and a large, white to ochraceous-cream volva at the base. The flesh is thick, white and has a strong, unpleasant smell. The spore print is white, and the elliptical spores measure 10–12 × 6.5–8 μm.[2][3]

Amanita proxima, a poisonous species containing allenic norleucine, is very similar to A. ovoidea. It is separated by the deep ochraceous to russet-orange colour of its volva, the persistent pendulous ring on the stipe, and the smooth cap margin, without vellar remains. A. proxima is found in the same habitats as A. ovoidea, and can cause cytolytic hepatitis and acute renal failure.[4]

Habitat and ecology[edit]

Amanita ovoidea is a symbiotic fungus, forming mycorrhizal associations with pine trees, as well as evergreen and deciduous oaks.[5][6] It is found in coniferous forests, deciduous forests, coastal regions, mountains, roadsides and grassy areas,[5][7] growing on limy, sandy and alkaline soils.[8]

In Bulgaria, the species is in danger due to habitat loss caused by selective logging, human settlements and natural causes like acid rain and soil pollution.[8]


The edibility of Amanita ovoidea is dubious. In the past, the fungus has been reported as "edible" in some books and "poisonous" in others. Moreover, it can easily be confused with other all-white, deadly poisonous Amanita species, such as Amanita virosa, Amanita verna and, in particular, Amanita proxima.[9] In southern France, some people were inflicted with acute renal insufficiency because they accidentally consumed A. proxima, mistaking it for A. ovoidea.[10][11] Similar cases of poisoning have also been reported from Cyprus.[12]

A study on the minerals in fungi from northwest Turkey, including this species, concluded A. ovoidea was safe to eat and could fulfill nutritional needs.[13]

However, recent chemical analyses performed on A. ovoidea, have reported the presence of polyphenols and polysaccharides, together with sterol and triterpene glycosides, as well as low levels of allenic norleucine, the same potentially deadly nephrotoxin present in A. proxima. The authors of this study advise against the consumption of this mushroom.[14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Amanita ovoidea" (in German). 
  2. ^ Galli R. 2007. Le Amanite 2nd Edition. Edinatura.
  3. ^ Neville P, Poumarat S. 2004. Fungi Europaei 9: Amanitae. Edizioni Candusso, Italia.
  4. ^ Ducros J, Labastie J and Saingra S. (1995). Una observation supplementaire d’intoxication par Amanita proxima a l’origine d’insuffisance renale aigue. Nephrologie, 16: 341.
  5. ^ a b "Amanita ovoidea". Roger's Mushrooms. Retrieved 2010-05-24. 
  6. ^ "Amanita ovoidea (Bull.: Fr)". Agraria. Retrieved 2010-05-24. 
  7. ^ R E, Tulloss. "Amanita ovoidea". 
  8. ^ a b "Amanita ovoidea". Red Data Book of Bulgaria. 
  9. ^ Pérez Calvo200, Javi (2009-01-23). "Amanita ovoid". Fungipedia. Retrieved 2010-05-24. 
  10. ^ de Haro L, Jouglard J, Arditti J, David JM. (1998). Acute renal insufficiency caused by Amanita proxima poisoning: experience of the Poison Center of Marseille. Nephrologie (19): 21–4.
  11. ^ Leray H, Canaud B, Andary C, Klouche K, Béraud JJ and Mion C. (1994). Intoxication par Amanita proxima. Néphrologie 15: 197-199.
  12. ^ Loizides M., Kyriakou T., Tziakouris A. (2011). Edible & Toxic Fungi of Cyprus. 1st Edition, 304 p. ISBN 978-9963-7380-0-7
  13. ^ "Minor element and heavy metal content of edible wild mushrooms native to Bolu, North-West Turkey". Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 17 (2): 249–252. 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-24. 
  14. ^ Biagi, M., Martelli, L., Perini, C., Di Lella, L., Miraldi, E. (2014). Investigations into Amanita ovoidea (Bull.) Link.: Edible or Poisonous? Natural Resources, 2014, 5, 225-232. Published Online DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.56021.