5 February 1922|
Campbellpur, British India
|Died||28 December 2007
New Delhi, India
|Occupation||sculptor, painter, art educator|
Amarnath Sehgal (5 February 1922 – 28 December 2007) was a noted Indian modernist sculptor, painter, poet and art educator. He started his career as an engineer in Lahore, and later turned to art. He shifted to Delhi after partition of India in 1947, and in 1950 studied art education from New York University School of Education. Subsequently, became an art educator, teaching at College of Art, Delhi, and in time a noted modern sculptor to his generation. Though he also ventured into painting, drawings and poetry.
Later in life, he also became a pioneer of intellectual property rights, especially moral rights in copyright for artists in India, after he fought a 13-year-long legal case with Government of India. A bronze mural which he created for the Vigyan Bhavan, Delhi in the 1960s, was removed without his consent, during renovations in 1979. He filed the case at Delhi High Court in 1992, and the courts finally awarded him damages in 2005.
1993, he was awarded the Lalit Kala Akademi Fellowship by the Lalit Kala Akademi, India's National Academy of Art, the highest honour in the fine arts conferred by the Government of India. In 2008, he was posthumously awarded the Padma Bhushan, by Government of India.
Early life and background
Born on 5 February 1922, Sehgal was originally from Campbellpur (Attock), in North Punjab (now in Pakistan). He shifted to Lahore in 1939 to study at Government College, Lahore where he graduated in 1941. Thereafter he studied industrial chemistry at Banaras Hindu University till 1942. Subsequently, he started worked as an engineer in Lahore, while studying arts privately.
During the riots that preceded the partition of India in 1947, he left Lahore in May 1947, and travelled to Eastern Punjab and Kangra-Kullu Valley, where he witnessed macabre killings of local Muslim minority. This was to have a lasting impact both of his psyche and his art. Finally he settled in Delhi, where he reestablished himself. He travelled on a freight for 47 days to New York. He later obtained a master's degree in art education from New York University School of Education (now rename Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development) in 1950. During this period he was exposed to world art and inspirations of Henri Matisse.
His first exhibition was inaugurated in New York in 1951, by India's permanent representative to the United Nations. Upon his return from US, Sehgal taught at the Modern School, New Delhi for a short while, and his wife Sheila Dhawan was also a teacher at its Junior School. Later he remained a faculty at College of Art, Delhi, University of Delhi and established his studio in Delhi. In time, he became a leading exponents of modernism in Indian sculptor. Themes of much of his oeuvre revolved around the importance of individual freedom and human dignity, and his response the horrors of political violence.
His works were exhibited in many places across the world, winning him international acclaim. Many of his sculptures in stone and metal are in the collection of National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi.
In 1957, he was commission to create mural for the Vigyan Bhavan, India's first state convention centre. The bronze mural spanned 140 feet by 40 feet, depicting rural and modern India, and was completed five years later and installed in the foyer of the building in 1962. Subsequently, in 1979, during renovations, the mural was removed without his consent, and shifted to the storehouse. When in the following years despite his request no action was taken, He filed a case at the Delhi High Court seeking damages. Thus Amar Nath Sehgal v. Union of India. After a 13-year-long legal proceeding, the case was finally decided in his favour on 21 February 2005. Thus it became a landmark case in Indian legal history, as for the first time uphold the moral right of an author under the Indian Copyright Act and awarded damages. The government was also asked to return his mural
Besides art, Sehgal was also a poet, he published two collection of his poems, Lonesome Journey (1996) and Awaiting a New Dawn (1998).
A bronze sculpture titled, The Captive, first designed by Sehgal for the U.N. conference on sanctions against South Africa, held at Paris in 1986 was later installed on Robben Island, Cape Town, Nelson Mandela's former island prison, on National Women's Day, 9 August 2011. In the following year, a large stone sculpture by him, "Aiming For Excellence" was installed at the DDA Yamuna Sports Complex in New Delhi. In October 2004, an exhibition of his paintings on Ramayana and Mahabharata, as "tribute to Rishi Valmiki and Rishi Vyasa" was inaugurated by then President A P J Abdul Kalam at the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts .
The Lalit Kala Akademi, India's National Academy of Art, in 1993, awarded him the 1993, awarded the Lalit Kala Akademi Fellowship, the highest honour in the fine arts conferred by the Government of India. He had a close to the first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and subsequently the Nehru–Gandhi family.
Monographs and other works
- Amarnath Sehgal; Mulk Raj Anand (1964). Armanath Sehgal. Published by Mulk Raj Anand for Marg Publications.
- Amar Nath Sehgal-Selected Sculptures, Graphics and Drawings 1947–1972. National Gallery of Modern Art, Jaipur House. 1972.
- Amarnath Sehgal; Pran Nath Mago (1993). Amarnath Sehgal. Lalit Kala Akademi.
- Amarnath Sehgal (1996). Lonesome journey. Har-Anand Publications.
- Amarnath Sehgal (1998). Awaiting a New Dawn. Haranand Publications Pvt. Limited. ISBN 978-81-241-0554-2.
- Amarnath Sehgal (2005). Epic Episodes: Paintings on Ramayana and Mahabharata. Amar Nath Sehgal.
- "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- The Punjab Bloodied, Partitioned and Cleansed. Rupa Publications. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-81-291-2125-7. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
Interviews: Amarnath Sehgal: Delhi, 20 October 1999
- "Renowned sculptor Amarnath Sehgal passes away". Zee News. 28 December 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "It is lonely at the top!". The Hindu. 7 January 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Shades of a single palette". Indian Express (Google News Archive). 8 November 1992. p. 21. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- A Dream Turns Seventy Five: The Modern School, 1920–1995. Allied Publishers. 1995. p. 96. ISBN 978-81-7023-499-9. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Renowned sculptor Amarnath Sehgal no more". The Hindu. 28 December 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- V. K. Subramanian (1 January 2003). Art Shrines of Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. p. 120. ISBN 978-81-7017-431-8. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Bhattacharya, p. 18
- Bhattacharya, p. 19
- "Interview : A journey called art". The Hindu. 24 June 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Artist has full rights over works: HC". The Times of India. 21 February 2005. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Pravin Anand; Keshav S Dhakad. "India Key milestones for intellectual property" (PDF). BuildingIPValue.com. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Radhakrishnan; Dr. R Radhakrishnan and Dr.S. Balasubramanian (2008). Intellectual Property Rights: Text and Cases. Excel Books India. pp. 62–. ISBN 978-81-7446-609-9. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "After Sale Service". Indian Express. 13 March 2005. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "S. African women caught in a contradiction". The Hindu. 12 August 2001. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Forget dead trends, go for new movements". Financial Express. 14 November 2004. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "NCR Briefs". The Tribune. 25 January 2002. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Exhibition – Creativity is in every mind – President A P J Abdul Kalam". IGNCA Newsletter Vol. V & VI. 2004. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "List of Fellows". Lalit Kala Akademi. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2009)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013.
- "Sculpture Today by Amarnath Sehgal". Art in India Today. United Nations Council of Indian Youth. 1972. pp. 99–106.
- Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya (1994). Trends in Modern Indian Art. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-85880-21-1.
- Pran Nath Mago (2001). Contemporary Art in India: A Perspective. National Book Trust, India. p. 185. ISBN 978-81-237-3420-0.
- "Amar Nath Sehgal v. Union of India". Indian Kanoon.