Amazônia National Park
|Amazônia National Park|
|Parque Nacional da Amazônia|
|Area||8,600 km2 (3,300 sq mi)|
The Amazônia National Park (Parque Nacional da Amazônia) was created in 1974, as a national park comprising 1,070,737 ha. It is situated in Itaituba and Trairão municipalities, Pará state, in the north region of Brazil. It is located in the watershed of the Tapajós River, about halfway between Manaus and Belém. It has expanded since its inception and now covers 8,600 square kilometres (3,300 sq mi). It is a very biodiverse habitat and contains a wide range of animals and plants. The specific objectives of the park are the preservation of various Amazonic ecosystems, through scientific, educational and recreational means. 
The park lies on either side of the Tapajós River. The habitat is dense lowland rain forest and there are areas of white-sand grasslands beside the upper reaches of the Tapajós. This river rises in the Precambrian crystalline shields area of ancient igneous rock and carries little sediment. The river acts as a barrier so that some of the animals and plants on one bank are not found on the other. The first base in the park is about 53 km (33 mi) from Itaituba, and there is some illegal cutting of timber and gold mining in the eastern parts closest to Itaituba and Trairão.
Law 12678 of 25 June 2012 amended the limits of the Amazônia, Campos Amazônicos and Mapinguari national parks, the Itaituba I, Itaituba II and Crepori national forests and the Tapajós Environmental Protection Area. All of these were reduced in size except the Campos Amazônicos.
Flora and fauna
Except for about 2% of more open forest, the whole park consists of dense humid tropical forest. The larger trees reach a height of about 50 m (160 ft), and the light filtering through the canopy is sufficient to produce a biodiverse understorey of vines, lichens, mosses and orchids. Many of the mammals in the park are nocturnal, and some such as the giant otter, Amazonian manatee and giant anteater are endangered. There are also large numbers of reptiles, fish and other aquatic creatures.
Visiting the park
The park can be reached from the city of Itaituba. The Trans-Amazonian Highway runs from east to west through the park but does not really live up to its name. The road is paved as far as Itaituba but other parts are unpaved earth roads topped with gravel that deteriorate during the rainy season, November to April, and need much repair work each May and June. The park can be accessed from Santarém, Pará, which is at the confluence of the Tapajós with the Amazon River. Santarém has an airport. Any roads usually require four-wheel-drive vehicles and river transport is normally used in this region.
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- PARNA dos Campos Amazônicos – ISA.
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- PARNA dos Campos Amazônicos (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-06-03