Criticism of Amazon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Amazon.com controversies)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Amazon.com has drawn criticism from multiple sources, where the ethics of certain business practices and policies have been drawn into question. Amazon has also faced numerous allegations of anti-competitive or monopolistic behavior.

Anti-competitive practices[edit]

One-click patent[edit]

The company has been controversial for its alleged use of patents as a competitive hindrance. The "1-Click patent"[1] is perhaps the best-known example of this. Amazon's use of the one-click patent against competitor Barnes & Noble's website led the Free Software Foundation to announce a boycott of Amazon in December 1999.[2] The boycott was discontinued in September 2002.[3] On February 22, 2000, the company was granted a patent covering an Internet-based customer referral system, or what is commonly called an "affiliate program". Industry leaders Tim O'Reilly and Charlie Jackson spoke out against the patent,[4] and O'Reilly published an open letter[5] to Jeff Bezos, the CEO of Amazon, protesting the 1-click patent and the affiliate program patent, and petitioning him to "avoid any attempts to limit the further development of Internet commerce". O'Reilly collected 10,000 signatures[6] with this petition. Bezos responded with his own open letter.[7] The protest ended with O'Reilly and Bezos visiting Washington, D.C. to lobby for patent reform. On February 25, 2003, the company was granted a patent titled "Method and system for conducting a discussion relating to an item on Internet discussion boards".[8] On May 12, 2006, the USPTO ordered a re-examination of the "One-Click" patent, based on a request filed by actor Peter Calveley, who cited the prior art of an earlier e-commerce patent and the Digicash electronic cash system.[9]

Canadian site[edit]

Amazon has a Canadian site in both English and French, but until a ruling in March 2010, was prevented from operating any headquarters, servers, fulfillment centers or call centers in Canada by that country's legal restrictions on foreign-owned booksellers.[10] Instead, Amazon's Canadian site originates in the United States, and Amazon has an agreement with Canada Post to handle distribution within Canada and for the use of the Crown corporation's Mississauga, Ontario shipping facility.[11] The launch of Amazon.ca generated controversy in Canada. In 2002, the Canadian Booksellers Association and Indigo Books and Music sought a court ruling that Amazon's partnership with Canada Post represented an attempt to circumvent Canadian law,[12] but the litigation was dropped in 2004.[13]

In January 2017, doormat products with the Indian flag on them went on sale on the Amazon Canada website. The use of the Indian flag in this way is considered offensive to the Indian community and in violation of the Flag code of India.[14] The Minister of External Affairs of India Sushma Swaraj threatened a visa embargo for Amazon officials if Amazon didn't tender an unconditional apology and withdraw all such products.[15][16]

In January 2017, Amazon.ca was required by the Competition Bureau to pay a $1M penalty, plus $100,000 in costs, overpricing practices for failing to provide "truth in advertising" according to Josephine Palumbo, the deputy commissioner for deceptive marketing practices. This fine was levied because some products on Amazon.ca were shown with an artificially high "list price", making the lower selling price appear to be very attractive, producing an unfair competitive edge over other retailers. This is a frequent practice among some retailers and the fine was intended to "send a clear message [to the industry] that unsubstantiated savings claims will not be tolerated".[17] The Bureau also indicated that the company has made changes to ensure that regular prices are more accurately listed.[18]

BookSurge[edit]

In March 2008, sales representatives of Amazon's BookSurge division started contacting publishers of print on demand titles to inform them that for Amazon to continue selling their POD-produced books, they were required to sign agreements with Amazon's own BookSurge POD company. Publishers were told that eventually, the only POD titles that Amazon would be selling would be those printed by their own company, BookSurge. Some publishers felt that this ultimatum amounted to monopoly abuse, and questioned the ethics of the move and its legality under anti-trust law.[19]

Direct selling[edit]

In 2008, Amazon UK came under criticism for attempting to prevent publishers from direct selling at discount from their own websites. Amazon's argument was that they should be able to pay the publishers based on the lower prices offered on their websites, rather than on the full recommended retail price (RRP).[20][21]

Also in 2008, Amazon UK drew criticism in the British publishing community following their withdrawal from sale of key titles published by Hachette Livre UK. The withdrawal was possibly intended to put pressure on Hachette to provide levels of discount described by the trade as unreasonable. Curtis Brown's managing director Jonathan Lloyd opined that "publishers, authors, and agents are 100% behind [Hachette]. Someone has to draw a line in the sand. Publishers have given 1% a year away to retailers, so where does it stop? Using authors as a financial football is disgraceful."[22][23]

In August 2013, Amazon agreed to end its price parity policy for marketplace sellers in the European Union, in response to investigations by the UK Office of Fair Trade and Germany's Federal Cartel Office.[24] It is not yet clear if this ruling applies to direct selling by publishers.

Price control[edit]

Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on January 27, 2010, Macmillan Publishers entered into a pricing dispute with Amazon.com regarding electronic publications. Macmillan asked Amazon to accept a new pricing scheme it had worked out with Apple, raising the price of e-books from $9.99 to $15.[25] Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both electronic and physical, from their website (although affiliates selling the books were still listed). On January 31, 2010, Amazon "capitulated" to Macmillan's pricing request.[26]

In 2014, Amazon and Hachette became involved in a dispute over agency pricing.[27] Agency pricing is when the agent (such as Hachette) determines the price of a book; normally, however, Amazon dictates the discount level of a book. High-profile authors became involved; hundreds of writers, including Stephen King and John Grisham, signed a petition saying "We encourage Amazon in the strongest possible terms to stop harming the livelihood of the authors on whom it has built its business. None of us, neither readers nor authors, benefit when books are taken hostage."[28] At the heart of the dispute is Amazon's practice of discounting books so low that authors and publishers are unable to earn a profit.[27]‹See TfM›[failed verification] Author Ursula K. Le Guin commented on Amazon's practice of making Hachette books harder to buy on its site, stating "We're talking about censorship: deliberately making a book hard or impossible to get, 'disappearing' an author." Although her statement was met with some outrage and disbelief, Amazon's actions such as eliminating discounts, delaying the delivery time, and refusing pre-publication orders did make physical Hachette books harder to get. Plummeting sales of Hachette books on Amazon indicated that its policies likely succeeded in deterring customers.[29]

On August 11, 2014, Amazon removed the option to preorder Captain America: The Winter Soldier in an effort to gain control over the online pricing of Disney films. Amazon has previously used similar tactics with Warner Bros. and Hachette Book Group. The conflict was resolved in late 2014 with neither having to concede anything. Then in February 2017, Amazon again began to block preorders of Disney films, just before Moana and Rogue One were due to be released to the home market.[30]

Removal of competitors' products[edit]

On October 1, 2015, Amazon announced that Apple TV and Google Chromecast products were banned from sale on Amazon.com by all merchants, with no new listings allowed effective immediately, and all existing listings removed effective October 29, 2015. Amazon argued that this was to prevent "customer confusion", as these devices do not support the Prime Video ecosystem. This move was criticized, as commentators believed that it was meant primarily to suppress the sale of products deemed as competition to Amazon Fire TV products, given that Amazon itself had deliberately refused to offer software for its own streaming services on these devices, and the action contradicted the implication that Amazon.com was a general online retailer.[31][32][33]

In May 2017, it was reported that Apple and Amazon were nearing an agreement to offer Prime Video on Apple TV, and allow the product to return to the retailer.[34] Prime Video launched on Apple TV December 6, 2017,[35] with Amazon beginning to sell the Apple TV product again shortly thereafter.

Amazon has since suppressed other Google products, including Google Home (which competes with Amazon Echo), Pixel phones, and recent products of Google subsidiary Nest Labs (despite the Nest Learning Thermostat having integration support for Amazon's voice assistant platform Alexa). In retaliation, Google announced on December 6, 2017 that it would block YouTube from the Amazon Echo Show and Amazon Fire TV products.[36][37][38][39] In December 2017, Amazon stated that it intended to start offering Chromecast again (which it would do a year later).[40] Meanwhile, Nest stated that it would no longer offer any of its future stock to Amazon until it commits to offering its entire product line.[41]

In April 2019, Amazon announced that it would add Chromecast support to the Prime Video mobile app and release its Android TV app more widely, while Google announced that it would, in return, restore access to YouTube on Fire TV (but not Echo Show).[42] Prime Video for Chromecast and YouTube for Fire TV were both released July 9, 2019.[43]

In December 2019, following the acquisition of Honey — a browser extension that automatically applies online coupons on online stores — by PayPal, the Amazon website began to display warnings advising users to uninstall the software, claiming it was a security risk.[44][45]

Apple partnership[edit]

In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company, selected Apple Authorized Resellers, and vendors who meet specific criteria. As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers and vendors who purchase $2.5 million in refurbished stock from Apple every 90 days (via the Amazon Renewed program) may sell Apple products on the service.[46][47][48] The partnership has faced criticism from independent resellers, who believe that this deal has restricted their ability to sell refurbished Apple products on Amazon at a low-cost. In August 2019, The Verge reported that Amazon was being investigated by the FTC over the deal.[49]

Marketplace participant and owner[edit]

Amazon has raised concerns by being both the owner of a dominant marketplace and a retail seller in that marketplace. Amazon uses the data it gets from the entire marketplace (data not available to other retailers in the marketplace) to determine what products would be advantageous to produce in-house, at what price point.[50] The company markets products under AmazonBasics, Lark & Ro,[51] and various other private-label brands. U.S. presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren has proposed forcing Amazon to sell AmazonBasics and Whole Foods Market, where Amazon competes against other marketplace participants as a brick-and-mortar retailer.[52]

Treatment of workers[edit]

Amazon has faced various critiques over the quality of its working environments and treatment of its workforce. A group known as The FACE (Former And Current Employees) of Amazon has regularly used social media to disseminate criticism of the company and allegations regarding negative work conditions.[53][54]

Opposition to trade unions[edit]

A sticker expressing an anti-Amazon message is pictured on the back of a street sign in Seattle.

Amazon has opposed efforts by trade unions to organize in both the United States and the United Kingdom. In 2001, 850 employees in Seattle were laid off by Amazon.com after a unionization drive. The Washington Alliance of Technological Workers (WashTech) accused the company of violating union laws and claimed Amazon managers subjected them to intimidation and heavy propaganda. Amazon denied any link between the unionization effort and layoffs.[55] Also in 2001, Amazon.co.uk hired a US management consultancy organization, The Burke Group, to assist in defeating a campaign by the Graphical, Paper and Media Union (GPMU, now part of Unite the Union) to achieve recognition in the Milton Keynes distribution depot. It was alleged that the company victimized or sacked four union members during the 2001 recognition drive and held a series of captive meetings with employees.[56]

An Amazon training video that was leaked in 2018 stated "We are not anti-union, but we are not neutral either. We do not believe unions are in the best interest of our customers or shareholders or most importantly, our associates."[57] Two years later, it was found that Whole Foods was using a heat map to track which of its 510 stores had the highest levels of pro-union sentiment. Factors including racial diversity, proximity to other unions, poverty levels in the surrounding community and calls to the National Labor Relations Board were named as contributors to "unionization risk".[58] Data collected in the heat map suggest that stores with low racial and ethnic diversity, especially those located in poor communities, are more likely to unionize.

Warehouse conditions in the US[edit]

In September 2011, Allentown, Pennsylvania's Morning Call interviewed 20 past and present employees at Amazon's Breinigsville warehouse, all but one of whom criticized the company's warehouse conditions and employment practice. Specific investigatory concerns were: heat so extreme it required the regular posting of ambulances to take away workers who passed out,[59] strenuous workloads in that heat, and first-person reports of summary terminations for health conditions such as breast cancer.[60] The Morning Call also published, verbatim, Amazon.com's direct response to a query by OSHA,[61] where amazon.com detailed its response when heat conditions reach as high as 114 °F (46 °C), including water and ice treatment, electrolyte drinks, nutrition advice, and extended breaks in air-conditioned rooms.[62] Five days after the Morning Call article was published, Amazon stated that it had spent $2.4 million "urgently installing" air conditioning at four warehouses including the Breinigsville facility.[63] However, the original investigator states that when he checked back with current employees for his September 23 follow-up story, "they told him nothing had changed since his original story ran."[64]

In June 2012, Amazon began the installation of a $52 million investment in cooling its warehouses around the country, a major cost for the company equivalent to 8.2 percent of Amazon's 2011 total earnings.[65] Experts speculated Amazon made such a massive investment either to dampen negative publicity over worker conditions and/or to better protect goods in the warehouse such as food and electronics equipment.[65]

"Amazon ships a lot of electronics and food now. It's not good to have that stuff in extreme temperatures," said Sucharita Mulpuru, an analyst with Forrester Research. "I would like to think there was an element of humanity to the decision but there's nothing in Amazon's history or in Jeff Bezos' public persona that would lead me to think that was the driver of the decision. … Rarely has Amazon made any business decisions that didn't affect the bottom line."[65]

In December 2014, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled unanimously against temporary staffing workers for Amazon warehouses in Nevada who were seeking compensation for time spent waiting to go through security screening checkpoints.[66]

Warehouse conditions in the UK[edit]

Complaints about Amazon's Marston Gate UK facility date back to 2001.[67] prompting a threatened protest from Billy Bragg. These claims resurfaced in 2008 with fresh reports of "sweatshop conditions".[68][69]

A Channel 4 documentary broadcast on the 1st August 2013 employed secret cameras within Amazon UK's Rugeley warehouse documenting worker abuses, calling the working practices 'horrendous and exhausting'.[70]

In November 2016 a BBC undercover report at Amazon's delivery depot in Avonmouth found that in some instances delivery drivers had no choice but to break the speed limit and use their van as a toilet to save time. It also exposed that after deductions (such as van hire and insurance) drivers could be paid as little as £2.59 per hour, less than half the UK minimum wage.[71]

In December 2016 Willie Rennie, the Liberal Democrat leader in Scotland, said that Amazon should be ashamed of both its working conditions and pay in Dunfermline after photographs were released showing workers camped outside in the winter to save the cost of commuting.[72]

In December 2017, it was reported that Amazon drivers in the U.K. are making less than the national minimum wage because they have to pay for van hire and insurance and did not have enough time to deliver the parcels that were ordered forcing them to urinate in plastic bottles in their vans.[73]

Working conditions for delivery drivers[edit]

A September 11, 2018 article exposed poor working conditions for Amazon's delivery drivers, describing a variety of alleged abuses, including missing wages, lack of overtime pay, favoritism, intimidation, and time constraints that forced them to drive at dangerous speeds and skip meals and bathroom breaks.[74]

In June 2020, subcontracted delivery drivers based in Canada launched a class action lawsuit against Amazon Canada, claiming that $200 million in unpaid wages were owed to them because Amazon retained "effective control" over their work and should therefore legally be considered their employer.[75]

2018 Workers strike[edit]

Spanish unions have called on 1,000 Amazon workers to strike starting on July 10 and expected to last through Amazon Prime Day, with calls for the strike to be seen all across the world, and for customers to follow suit.[76] The strike based in Spain will be timed around Prime Day, with a representative of the Comisiones Obreras (CCOO) union said complaints were based on wage cuts, working conditions, and restrictions on time off.[77] However, other European countries have other raised grievances, with Poland, Germany, Italy, Spain, England, and France all being represented and shown below.[78]

  • Poland workers claim an anti-strike law has made it impossible to negotiate a better salary.
  • German workers have been fighting for over two years for a collective bargaining agreement.
  • Italian workers have highlighted claims that Amazon routinely hires contract workers who aren't required to have benefits.
  • Spanish Amazon leaders have unilaterally imposed working conditions when previous collective bargaining agreements had expired.
  • English and French Amazon leaders have imposed demanding measures on time and efficiency leading to workers expected to process 300 items per hour and pee in bottles, with penalties being given for sick days and pregnancies.

Stop BEZOS Act[edit]

On September 5, 2018, Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) and Representative Ro Khanna (D-CA-17) introduced the Stop Bad Employers by Zeroing Out Subsidies (Stop BEZOS) Act aimed at Amazon and other alleged beneficiaries of corporate welfare such as Walmart, McDonald's, and Uber.[79] This followed several media appearances in which Sanders underscored the need for legislation to ensure that Amazon workers received a living wage.[80][81] These reports cited a finding by New Food Economy that one third of fulfilment center workers in Arizona were on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).[82] Although Amazon initially released a statement which called statistics such as this "inaccurate and misleading", an October 2 announcement affirmed that its minimum wage for all employees would be raised to $15 per hour.[83]

Protest over coronavirus policies[edit]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Amazon warehouses in the United States raised their hourly wages by $2 and announced that employees testing positive would be entitled to 14 days of paid leave. After a company statement that two employees at the Staten Island warehouse had been infected, workers there claimed the actual number was 10. On March 30, 2020, between 15 and 60 people attended a walkout to demand that Amazon temporarily close the warehouse in order to disinfect it.[84] The main organizer, Chris Smalls, was subsequently fired, allegedly for violating social distancing guidelines.

Smalls countered that the incident cited, which brought him near an infected employee for 5 minutes, occurred on March 11 meaning that his 14-day quarantine would have already ended if it had been ordered at the proper time. He also stated that the purpose of his conversation was to urge his fellow employee to stay home even when the results of her test were still pending making the company's paid leave option unavailable.[85] New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio ordered an investigation and the state's Attorney General Letita James called the firing "disgraceful".[85] Representative Jerry Nadler welcomed the investigation.[57] Democratic senators from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Ohio sent a letter to Amazon expressing their concerns.[86]

According to leaked emails, Amazon executives, including Jeff Bezos, held a meeting to discuss the implications for the company's image. One email from the general counsel described Smalls as "not smart or articulate".[87]

Similar protests continued into April with one of them taking place at a Minnesota warehouse which held a strike in 2019. This led to the firing of one organizer, Bashir Mohamed, with social distancing as the nominal reason. Supporters of Mohamed countered that the guidelines were set up to be difficult to follow and applied selectively.[88] On April 10, two user interface designers, Emily Cunningham and Maren Costa, were fired after they tweeted support for striking Amazon workers and offered to match up to $500 worth of donations to them. Executives cited "violating internal policies" as justification which has been interpreted as an invocation of a non-disparagement agreement that Amazon employees sign. Cunningham and Costa argued that the firings were retaliatory and partly motivated by their criticism of Amazon with regard to climate change.[86] On April 16, they took part in a virtual meeting related to the crisis with approximately 400 colleagues and environmental activist Naomi Klein. There were reports from some Amazon workers that their calendar invitations to the event were being deleted.[89]

On May 1, the day of Amazon workers' May Day protest strike,[90] Amazon Web Services VP Tim Bray, resigned in protest of the company's treatment of workers.[91][92][93] Weeks earlier, in mid-April, Bray became troubled by Amazon's attacks on, and firing of, warehouse workers for demanding safe working conditions and voiced those concerns among upper management. Bray previously supported the Amazon Employees for Climate Justice (AECJ) workers' campaign for shareholder support of Amazon climate action; he was one of 8000+ employees to sign that petition.

Attempted suicides and hunger strikes by Amazon employees[edit]

In 2014, a former Amazon employee Kivin Varghese committed hunger strike to change Amazon unfair policies.[94]

In November 2016, Amazon employee jumped from the roof of headquarters office as a result of unfair treatment at work.[95]

Treatment of consumers[edit]

Differential pricing[edit]

In September 2000, price discrimination potentially violating the Robinson–Patman Act was found on amazon.com. Amazon offered to sell a buyer a DVD for one price, but after the buyer deleted cookies that identified him as a regular Amazon customer, he was offered the same DVD for a substantially lower price.[96] Jeff Bezos subsequently apologized for the differential pricing and vowed that Amazon "never will test prices based on customer demographics". The company said the difference was the result of a random price test and offered to refund customers who paid the higher prices.[97] Amazon had also experimented with random price tests in 2000 as customers comparing prices on a "bargain-hunter" website discovered that Amazon was randomly offering the Diamond Rio MP3 player for substantially less than its regular price.[98]

Kindle content removal[edit]

In July 2009, The New York Times reported that amazon.com deleted all customer copies of certain books published in violation of US copyright laws by MobileReference,[99] including the books Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm from users' Kindles. This action was taken with neither prior notification nor specific permission of individual users. Customers did receive a refund of the purchase price and, later, an offer of an Amazon gift certificate or a check for $30. The ebooks were initially published by MobileReference on Mobipocket for sale in Australia only—owing to those works having fallen into public domain in Australia. However, when the ebooks were automatically uploaded to Amazon by MobiPocket, the territorial restriction was not honored, and the book was allowed to be sold in territories such as the United States where the copyright term had not expired.

Author Selena Kitt fell victim to Amazon content removal in December 2010; some of her fiction had described incest. Amazon claimed "Due to a technical issue, for a short window of time three books were temporarily unavailable for re-download by customers who had previously purchased them. When this was brought to our attention, we fixed the problem..." in an attempt to defuse user complaints about the deletions.[100]

Late in 2013, online blog The Kernel released multiple articles revealing "an epidemic of filth" on Amazon and other ebook storefronts. Amazon responded by blocking books dealing with incest, bestiality, child pornography as well as topics such as virginity, monsters, and barely-legal.[101][102]

Sale of Wikipedia's material as books[edit]

The German-speaking press and blogosphere have criticized Amazon for selling tens of thousands of print on demand books which reproduced Wikipedia articles.[103][104][105][106] These books are produced by an American company named Books LLC and by three Mauritian subsidiaries of the German publisher VDM: Alphascript Publishing, Betascript Publishing and Fastbook Publishing. Amazon did not acknowledge this issue raised on blogs and some customers that have asked the company to withdraw all these titles from its catalog.[104] The collaboration between amazon.com and VDM Publishing was started in 2007.[107]

Product substitution[edit]

The British consumer organization Which? has published information about Amazon Marketplace in the UK which indicates that when small electrical products are sold on Marketplace the delivered product may not be the same as the product advertised.[108] A test purchase is described in which eleven orders were placed with different suppliers via a single listing. Only one of the suppliers delivered the actual product displayed, two others delivered different, but functionally equivalent products and eight suppliers delivered products that were quite different and not capable of safely providing the advertised function. The Which? article also describes how the customer reviews of the product are actually a mix of reviews for all of the different products delivered, with no way to identify which product comes from which supplier. This issue was raised in evidence to the UK Parliament in connection with a new Consumer Rights bill[109]

Items added onto baby registries[edit]

In 2018 it was reported that Amazon has been selling sponsored ads pretending to be items on a baby registry. The ads looked very similar to the actual items on the list.[110]

Competitive advantages[edit]

Tax avoidance in the US[edit]

Amazon has been criticized for its refusal to collect sales taxes from customers in states in which it does not have a physical presence, thus giving it a comparative advantage over brick-and-mortar retailers. Hypothetically, some such customers should pay the equivalent amount in use tax directly to their state; however, few customers do so.

The practice of not collecting sales tax on purchases due to lack of a physical presence ended in 2018. On April 17, 2018, The United States Supreme Court heard the case of South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc., and issued its decision on June 21, 2018. A five-justice majority overturned Quill Corp. v. North Dakota, ruling that the physical presence rule decided in Quill was "unsound and incorrect" in the current age of Internet services.

Tax avoidance in Japan[edit]

In July 2009, the Tokyo National Tax Agency ruled that Amazon had to pay 14 billion yen ($119 million) in back corporate taxes, despite its operations in the country being formally represented by the U.S.-based subsidiary Amazon Int'l Sales, Inc.[111] Amazon refused to acknowledge the tax debt, claiming Japan had no jurisdiction on Amazon, due to Amazon not having a physical presence or registered company in Japan.

Tax avoidance in the UK[edit]

It was reported in The Guardian, April 4, 2012, that Amazon generated more than £3.3bn of sales in the UK but paid no corporation tax at all on the profits, and that it was under investigation by the UK tax authorities.[112] Amazon's tax affairs were also being investigated in China, Germany, Poland, South Korea, France, Japan, Ireland, Singapore, Luxembourg, Italy, Spain and Portugal.[113]

In November 2012, the UK government announced plans to investigate Amazon.com, along with Starbucks and Google, for tax avoidance.[114] Sky news reported that Amazon faced a temporary backlash and boycott from the general public and other businesses in the UK as a result.[115][116] In 2014, children's book author Allan Ahlberg refused an Amazon sponsored literary award on the grounds that it was unethical since he felt that "...Amazon cheats by avoiding taxes".[117]

Effects on small businesses[edit]

Due to its size and economies of scale, Amazon is able to out price local small scale shop keepers.[118] Stacy Mitchell and Olivia Lavecchia, researchers with the Institute for local self-reliance argue that this has caused most local small scale shop keepers to close down in a number of cities and towns in the United States. Additionally, a merchant cannot have an item in the warehouse available to sell prior to Amazon if they choose to list it as well; monopolizing the product and price. Many times fraudulent charges have been made on the company banking and financial channels without approval; since Amazon prides itself on keeping all financial data permanently on file in their database. If they charge your account they will not refund the money back to the account they took it from, they will only provide an Amazon credit. Additionally, there is not any merchant customer support which at times needs to be handled in real-time.[119]

Government contracts[edit]

In 2013, Amazon secured a US$600 million contract with the CIA, which poses a potential conflict of interest involving the Bezos-owned The Washington Post and his newspaper's coverage of the CIA.[120] Kate Martin, director of the Center for National Security Studies, said, "It's a serious potential conflict of interest for a major newspaper like The Washington Post to have a contractual relationship with the government and the most secret part of the government."[121] This was later followed by a bid for a US$10 billion contract with the Department of Defense. Although critics initially considered the government's preference for Amazon to be a foregone conclusion, the contract was ultimately signed with Microsoft.[122][123]

The release of the Amazon Echo was met with concerns about Amazon releasing customer data at the behest of government authorities. According to Amazon, voice recordings of customer interactions with the assistant are stored with the possibility of being released later in the event of a warrant or subpoena.[124] A police request for such data occurred during the investigation into the November 22, 2015 death of Victor Collins in the home of James Andrew Bates in Bentonville, Arkansas.[125][126] Amazon refused to comply at first, but Bates later consented.[127][128]

While Amazon has publicly opposed secret government surveillance, as revealed by Freedom of Information Act requests it has supplied facial recognition support to law enforcement in the form of the Rekognition technology and consulting services. Initial testing included the city of Orlando, Florida, and Washington County, Oregon. Amazon offered to connect Washington County with other Amazon government customers interested in Rekognition and a body camera manufacturer. These ventures are opposed by a coalition of civil rights groups with concern that they could lead to expansion of surveillance and be prone to abuse. Specifically, it could automate the identification and tracking of anyone, particularly in the context of potential police body camera integration.[129][130][131] Due to the backlash, the city of Orlando has publicly stated it will no longer use the technology.[132]

Headquarters bidding leverage[edit]

The announcement of Amazon's plan to build a second headquarters, dubbed HQ2, was met with 238 proposals, 20 of which became finalist cities on January 18, 2018.[133] In November 2018, Amazon was criticized for narrowing this down to "the two richest cities", namely Long Island City and Arlington, Virginia which are in the New York metropolitan area and Washington metropolitan area respectively.[134] Critics, including business professor Scott Galloway, described the bidding war as "a con" and stated that it was a pretext for gaining tax breaks and insider information for the company.[135][136]

Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez opposed the $1.5 billion in tax subsidies that had been given to Amazon as part of the deal. She stated that restoring the subway system would be a better use for the money, despite rebuttals from Andrew Cuomo and others that New York would benefit economically.[137] Shortly afterward, Politico reported that 1,500 affordable homes had previously been slated for the land being occupied by Amazon's new office.[138] The request by Amazon executives for a helipad at each location proved especially controversial with multiple New York City Council members decrying the proposal as frivolous.[139]

Product availability[edit]

Animal cruelty[edit]

Amazon at one time carried two cockfighting magazines and two dog fighting videos although the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) contends that the sale of these materials is a violation of U.S. Federal law and filed a lawsuit against Amazon.[140] A campaign to boycott Amazon in August 2007 gained attention after a dog fighting case involving NFL quarterback Michael Vick.[141] In May 2008, Marburger Publishing agreed to settle with the Humane Society by requesting that Amazon stop selling their magazine, The Game Cock. The second magazine named in the lawsuit, The Feathered Warrior, remained available.[142]

Animal rights group Mercy for Animals has alleged that Amazon allows the listing of foie gras on its website, a product that has been banned in several countries followed by California, and alleged to be produced by the mistreatment of ducks. The listing promoted animal rights groups to launch a movement called "Amazon cruelty".[143][144]

Items prohibited by UK law[edit]

In December 2015 the Guardian newspaper published an exposé of sales that violated British law.[145] These included a pepper-spray gun (sold directly by amazon.co.uk), stun guns and a concealed cutting weapon (sold by Amazon Marketplace traders). All are classed as prohibited weapons in the UK. At the same time, The Guardian published a video describing some of the weapons.[146]

Antisemitic content[edit]

An article published in the Czech weekly Tyden in January 2008 called attention to shirts sold by Amazon which were emblazoned with "I Love Heinrich Himmler" and "I Love Reinhard Heydrich", professing affection for the infamous Nazi officers and war criminals. Patricia Smith, a spokeswoman for Amazon, told Tyden, "Our catalog contains millions of items. With such a large number, unexpected merchandise may get onto the Web." Smith told Tyden that Amazon does not intend to stop cooperating with Direct Collection, the producer of the T-shirts. Following pressure from the World Jewish Congress, Amazon announced that it had removed from its website the aforementioned T-shirts as well as "I love Hitler" T-shirts that they were selling for women and children. After the WJC intervention, other items such as a Hitler Youth Knife emblazoned with the Nazi slogan "Blood and Honor" were also removed from Amazon.com as well as a 1933 German SS Officer Dagger distributed by Knife-Kingdom.[147]

An October 2013 report in the British online magazine The Kernel had revealed that Amazon.com was selling books that defend Holocaust denial, and shipped them even to customers in countries where Holocaust denial is prohibited by the law.[148]

That month, the World Jewish Congress called on Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos to remove from its offer books that deny the Holocaust and promote anti-Semitism, white supremacy, racism or sexism. "No one should profit from the sale of such vile and offensive hate literature. Many Holocaust survivors are deeply offended by the fact that the world's largest online retailer is making money from selling such material," WJC Executive Vice President Robert Singer wrote in a letter to Bezos.[149][150]

On March 9, 2017, the World Jewish Congress announced Amazon's compliance with the requests it and other Jewish organizations had submitted by removing from sale the Holocaust denial works complained of in the requests. The WJC offered ongoing assistance in identifying Holocaust denial works among Amazon's offerings in the future.[151]

Pedophile guide[edit]

On November 10, 2010, a controversy arose over the sale by Amazon of an e-book by Phillip R. Greaves entitled The Pedophile's Guide to Love and Pleasure: a Child-lover's Code of Conduct.[152]

Readers threatened to boycott Amazon over its selling of the book, which was described by critics as a "pedophile guide". Amazon initially defended the sale of the book, saying that the site "believes it is censorship not to sell certain books simply because we or others believe their message is objectionable"[153] and that the site "supported the right of every individual to make their own purchasing decisions". However, the site later removed the book.[154] The San Francisco Chronicle wrote that Amazon "defended the book, then removed it, then reinstated it, and then removed it again".[153]

Christopher Finan, the president of the American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression, argued that Amazon has the right to sell the book as it is not child pornography or legally obscene since it does not have pictures. On the other hand, Enough Is Enough, a child safety organization, issued a statement saying that the book should be removed and that it "lends the impression that child abuse is normal".[155] People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, citing the removal of The Pedophile's Guide from Amazon, urged the website to also remove books on dog fighting from its catalogue.[156]

Greaves was arrested on December 20, 2010, at his Pueblo, Colorado home on a felony warrant issued by the Polk County Sheriff's Office in Lakeland, Florida. Detectives from the county's Internet Crimes Division ordered a signed hard copy version of Greaves' book and had it shipped to the agency's jurisdiction, where it violated state obscenity laws. According to Sheriff Grady Judd, upon receipt of the book, Greaves violated local laws prohibiting the distribution of "obscene material depicting minors engaged in harmful conduct", a third-degree felony.[157] Greaves pleaded no contest to the charges and was later released under probation with his previous jail time counting as time served.[158]

Counterfeit products[edit]

American copyright lobbyists have accused Amazon of facilitating the sale of unlicensed CDs and DVDs particularly in the Chinese market.[159] The Chinese government has responded by announcing plans to increase regulation of Amazon (along with Apple Inc. and Taobao.com) in relation to Internet copyright infringement issues. Amazon has already had to shut down third party distributors due to pressure from the NCAC (National Copyright Administration of China).[160]

On October 16, 2016, Apple filed a trademark infringement case against Mobile Star LLC for selling counterfeit Apple products to Amazon. In the suit, Apple provided evidence that Amazon was selling these counterfeit Apple products and advertising them as genuine. Through purchasing, Apple found that it was able to identify counterfeit products with a success rate of 90%. Amazon was sourcing and selling items without properly determining if they are genuine. Mobile Star LLC settled with Apple for an undisclosed amount on April 27, 2017.[161]

In the years since, selling of counterfeit products by Amazon has attracted widespread notice, which both purchases marked as being fulfilled by third parties and those shipped directly from Amazon warehouses being found to be counterfeit.[162][163] Counterfeit charging cables sold on Amazon as purported Apple products have been found to be a fire hazard.[164][165] Items that have been sold as counterfeits include a widespread away of products, from big ticket items, to every day items such as tweezers, gloves,[166] and umbrellas.[167] More recently, this has spread to Amazon's newer grocery services.[168]

As a result of these issues, companies such as Birkenstocks and Nike have pulled their products from the website.[163]

Removal of LGBT works[edit]

In April 2009, it was publicized that some lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, feminist, and politically liberal books were being excluded from Amazon's sales rankings.[169] Various books and media were flagged as "Adult content", including children's books, self-help books, non-fiction, and non-explicit fiction. As a result, works by established authors E. M. Forster, Gore Vidal, Jeanette Winterson and D. H. Lawrence were unranked.[170] The change first received publicity on the blog of author Mark R. Probst, who reproduced an e-mail from Amazon describing a policy of de-ranking "adult" material.[169][170] However, Amazon later said that there was no policy of de-ranking lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender material and blamed the change first on a "glitch"[171] and then on "an embarrassing and ham-fisted cataloging error" that had affected 57,310 books[172] (a hacker also claimed to have been the cause of said metadata loss[173]).

Partnerships and associations[edit]

Hikvision[edit]

Amazon has worked with the Chinese technology company Hikvision.[174] According to The Nation, "The United States has considered sanctioning against Hikvision, which has provided thousands of cameras that monitor mosques, schools, and concentration camps in Xinjiang."[174]

Palantir hosting[edit]

Amazon provides cloud web hosting services via Amazon Web Services (AWS) to Palantir.[175] Palantir is a well known data analysis company that has developed software used to gather data on undocumented immigrants. The software is hosted on Amazon's AWS cloud.[176]

In June 2018, Amazon employees signed a letter demanding Amazon to drop Palantir, a data collection company, as an AWS customer. According to Forbes, Palantir "has come under scrutiny because its software has been used by ICE agents to identify and start deportation proceedings against undocumented migrants."[175][176]

On July 7, 2019, local Jewish leaders connected with the organization Jews for Racial and Economic Justice, along with Make the Road New York led a protest of more than 1,000 Jews and others in response to Amazon's financial ties to Palantir, and its $150 million in contracts the U.S. Immigration Customs Enforcement Agency (ICE). The direct action shut down Amazon's midtown Manhattan location of Amazon Books. The protest was held on the Jewish day of mourning and fasting, Tisha B'Av, which commemorates the destruction of the ancient temples in Jerusalem.[177][178]

Influence over local news[edit]

In late May of 2020, ahead of its May 27 shareholder's meeting, at least eleven local news stations aired identically worded segments which commented positively on Amazon's response to the coronavirus pandemic.[179] Zach Rael, an anchor for the Oklahoma City station KOCO-TV, posted that Amazon had tried to send him the same prepared package.[180] Senator and Amazon critic Bernie Sanders condemned the coverage and called it propaganda.[181] The majority of the video provided was narrated by Amazon's public relations manager Todd Walker.[182] Of the eleven identified channels, WTVG in Toledo, Ohio was the only one that attributed the statements to him.[183]

Other legal action[edit]

Trademark issues[edit]

Amazon Bookstore[edit]

In 1999, the Amazon Bookstore Cooperative of Minneapolis, Minnesota sued amazon.com for trademark infringement. The cooperative had been using the name "Amazon" since 1970, but reached an out-of-court agreement to share the name with the on-line retailer.[184]

Lush soap[edit]

In 2014, UK courts declared that Amazon had infringed the trademark of Lush soap. The soap manufacturer, Lush, had previously made its products unavailable on Amazon. Despite this, Amazon advertised alternative products via Google searches for Lush soap.[185]

Alleged libel[edit]

In September 2009, it emerged that Amazon was selling MP3 music downloads falsely suggesting a well-known Premier League football manager was a child sex offender. Despite a campaign urging the retailer to withdraw the item, they refused to do so, citing freedom of speech.[186] The company eventually decided to withdraw the item from their UK website when legal action was threatened.[187] However, they continued to sell the item on their American, German and French websites.

Alleged release of personal details[edit]

In October 2011, actress Junie Hoang filed Hoang v. Amazon.com, a $1 million lawsuit against Amazon in the Western District Court of Washington, for allegedly revealing her age on the Internet Movie Database, which Amazon owns, by using personal details from her credit card. The lawsuit, which alleges fraud, breach of contract and violation of her private life and consumer rights, states that after joining IMDBPro in 2008 to increase her chance of getting roles, the actress claims that her legal date of birth had been added to her public profile, revealing that she is older than she looks, causing her to suffer a substantial decrease in acting work and earnings. The actress also stated that the site refused her request to remove the information in question.[188] All claims against Amazon, and most claims against IMDB, were dismissed by Judge Marsha J. Pechman; the jury found for IMDb on the sole remaining claim. As of February 2015, the case against IMDb remains under appeal.[189][190]

Amazon reviews[edit]

As the customer review process has become more integral to Amazon.com marketing, reviews have been[191] increasingly challenged for accuracy and ethics. In 2004, The New York Times[192] reported that a glitch in the Amazon Canada website revealed that a number of book reviews had been written by authors of their own books or of competing books. In response, Amazon changed its policy of allowing anonymous reviews to one that gave an online credential marker to those reviewers registered with Amazon, though it still allowed them to remain anonymous through the use of pen names. By 2010, a Social Shopping Study by retailing consultant Power Reviews[193] reported that Amazon was the largest single source of Internet consumer reviews. In that year, a number of cases emerged that were related to the reliability of Amazon reviews. In April, the British historian Orlando Figes was found to have posted negative reviews of other author's books.[194] In June, a Cincinnati news blog uncovered a group of 75 Amazon book reviews that had been written and posted by a public relations company on behalf of its clients.[195] A study at Cornell University in that year[196] asserted that 85% of Amazon's high-status consumer reviewers "had received free products from publishers, agents, authors and manufacturers." By June 2011, Amazon itself had moved into the publishing business and begun to solicit positive reviews from established authors in exchange for increased promotion of their own books and upcoming projects.[197]

Amazon.com's customer reviews are monitored for indecency but do permit negative comments. Robert Spector, author of the book amazon.com, describes how "when publishers and authors asked Bezos why amazon.com would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that amazon.com was 'taking a different approach...we want to make every book available – the good, the bad, and the ugly...to let truth loose'" (Spector 132). Allegations have been made that Amazon has selectively deleted negative reviews of Scientology-related items despite compliance with comments guidelines.[198][199]

In November 2012, it was reported that Amazon.co.uk deleted "a wave of reviews by authors of their fellow writers' books in what is believed to be a response to [a] 'sock puppet' scandal."[200]

Following listing for sale of Untouchable: The Strange Life and Tragic Death of Michael Jackson, a disparaging biography of Michael Jackson by Randall Sullivan, his fans, organized via social media as "Michael Jackson's Rapid Response Team to Media Attacks", bombarded Amazon with negative reviews and negative ratings of positive reviews.[201]

In 2017, Amazon removed an inordinate number of 1-star reviews from the listing of former Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's book, What Happened.[202]

WikiLeaks hosting[edit]

On December 1, 2010, Amazon stopped hosting the website associated with the whistle-blowing organization WikiLeaks. Amazon did not initially comment on whether it forced the site to leave.[203] The New York Times reported: "Senator Joseph I. Lieberman, an independent of Connecticut, said Amazon had stopped hosting the WikiLeaks site on Wednesday after being contacted by the staff of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee".[204]

In a later press release issued by Amazon.com, they denied that they had terminated Wikileaks.org because of either "a government inquiry" or "massive DDOS attacks". They claimed that it was because of "a violation of [Amazon's] terms of service" because Wikileaks.org was "securing and storing large quantities of data that isn't rightfully theirs, and publishing this data without ensuring it won't injure others."[205]

According to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, this demonstrated that Amazon (a US based company) was in a jurisdiction that "suffered a free speech deficit".[206]

Amazon's action led to a public letter from Daniel Ellsberg, famous for leaking the Pentagon Papers during the Vietnam war. Ellsberg stated that he was "disgusted by Amazon's cowardice and servility", likening it to "China's control of information and deterrence of whistle-blowing", and he called for a "broad" and "immediate" boycott of Amazon.[207]

Environmental impact[edit]

In September 2019, employees at their Seattle headquarters, organized under the name Amazon Employees for Climate Justice, walked out in protest over Amazon's climate policy. Specifically, they demanded that Amazon reach zero emissions by 2030, cut ties to oil and gas companies, and to stop funding lobbyist groups accused of spreading climate denialism.[208][209][210]

References[edit]

  1. ^ US patent 5960411, Hartman; Peri (Seattle, Washington), Jeffrey P. Bezos (Seattle, Washington), Kaphan; Shel (Seattle, Washington), Joel Spiegel (Seattle, Washington), "Method and system for placing a purchase order via a communications network", issued 1997-09-12 
  2. ^ "Richard Stallman – Boycott Amazon!". Linux Today. December 22, 1999. Retrieved September 22, 2006.
  3. ^ From the Free Software Foundation site: amazon philosophy.
  4. ^ Linux Journal Archived June 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Talking Patents
  5. ^ "Chairman of Amazon Urges Reduction of Patent Terms". The New York Times. March 11, 2000. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  6. ^ "10,000 signatures". Oreilly.com. February 28, 2000. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  7. ^ "An Open Letter to Jeff Bezos". Oreilly.com. February 28, 2000. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  8. ^ US patent 6525747, Bezos; Jeffrey P., "Method and system for conducting a discussion relating to an item", issued 1999-08-02 
  9. ^ "Kiwi actor v Amazon.com". smh.com.au. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  10. ^ "CANADA: Amazon Gets Approval For Local Facility". camcity.com. April 13, 2010. Archived from the original on May 18, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
  11. ^ "Amazon.ca debuts in Canada". CTV.ca. June 25, 2002. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved December 19, 2006.
  12. ^ "Book Biz Takes on Amazon.ca". Wired. August 8, 2002. Archived from the original on November 9, 2006. Retrieved December 19, 2006.
  13. ^ "Gowlings IP Report Online: Canadian Booksellers Association Abandons Amazon.ca Case". Gowlings. September 24, 2004. Retrieved December 19, 2006.
  14. ^ "India Threatens Amazon Over Flag Doormat". CNNMoney (London). January 11, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  15. ^ "Sushma Swaraj threatens visa embargo for Amazon officials after learning about products disrespecting Indian flag". Times of India. January 11, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  16. ^ "India threatens to blacklist Amazon officials for selling doormats showing its flag". The Washington Post. January 11, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  17. ^ Kopun, Francine (January 11, 2017). "Amazon to pay $1M penalty over pricing practices in Canada". Toronto Star. Toronto. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  18. ^ Reuters (January 11, 2017). "Amazon fined $1.1 million by Canada's competition watchdog". Global News. Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc. Retrieved January 12, 2017. Amazon officials were not immediately available for comment.
  19. ^ "amazon.com Telling POD Publishers – Let BookSurge Print Your Books, or Else..." Writers Weekly. Archived from the original on March 31, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  20. ^ "Amazon threat on Direct Selling". Publishing News. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
  21. ^ Alberge, Dalya (April 5, 2008). "Amazon furious after publishers undercut its book prices online". The Times. London. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
  22. ^ "Agents pick sides on Hachette v Amazon". The Bookseller. Archived from the original on June 14, 2008. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  23. ^ "Publisher's Lunch". Archived from the original on July 16, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  24. ^ "OFT 'minded to close' Amazon probe after company drops price parity policy in the EU". out-law.com. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  25. ^ Stone, Brad (January 29, 2010). "New York Times, Jan. 29, 2010". Bits.blogs.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on August 29, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  26. ^ "Amazon, Jan. 31, 2010". Amazon.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  27. ^ a b Dennis Johnson (July 9, 2014). "Did Judge Denise Cote accidentally screw Amazon?". Melville House Books. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  28. ^ David Streitfeld (July 8, 2014). "Amazon Angles to Attract Hachette's Authors to Its Side". New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  29. ^ David Streitfeld (October 12, 2014). "Amazon and Its Missing Books".
  30. ^ "Amazon takes on Disney in DVD pricing fight". August 11, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2017 – via LA Times.
  31. ^ "Amazon to Stop Selling Apple TV and Chromecast". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  32. ^ "Amazon to Ban Sale of Apple, Google Video-Streaming Devices". Bloomberg News. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  33. ^ "Amazon Is Banning Apple TV and Chromecast. And That's Gross". Wired. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  34. ^ "Amazon Video for Apple TV will reportedly be announced next month". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  35. ^ "Amazon Prime Video comes to Apple TV, finally". The Verge. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  36. ^ "Google is pulling YouTube off the Fire TV and Echo Show as feud with Amazon grows". The Verge. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  37. ^ "Google pulls YouTube off the Amazon Echo Show". The Verge. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  38. ^ "New teardown brings more smoke to reports of a touchscreen Google Home". Ars Technica. Retrieved October 23, 2017.
  39. ^ Perez, Sarah. "Google is pulling YouTube from Echo Show and Fire TV, as feud with Amazon continues". TechCrunch. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  40. ^ Porter, Jon (December 13, 2018). "Google's Chromecast returns to Amazon, but it still lacks Prime Video". The Verge. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  41. ^ "Amazon will soon stop selling all Nest products". The Verge. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  42. ^ Welch, Chris (April 18, 2019). "YouTube is finally coming back to Amazon's Fire TV devices". The Verge. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  43. ^ Spangler, Todd (July 9, 2019). "YouTube Is Back on Amazon Fire TV, Prime Video Finally Comes to Chromecast". Variety. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  44. ^ "Experts question Amazon's warning about Honey, PayPal's e-commerce shopping tool". Fortune. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  45. ^ Lee, Dami (January 9, 2020). "Amazon suspiciously says browser extension Honey is a security risk, now that PayPal owns it". The Verge. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  46. ^ Statt, Nick (May 21, 2019). "How Apple's deal with Amazon screwed over small recycling businesses". The Verge. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  47. ^ "Amazon strikes deal with Apple to sell new iPhones and iPads". The Verge. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  48. ^ "Apple pumps up its Amazon listings with iPhones, iPads and more". CNET. November 10, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  49. ^ Statt, Nick (August 2, 2019). "The FTC is looking into the Amazon and Apple deal that crushed small resellers". The Verge. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  50. ^ Amazon Could Have a Very Real Antitrust Problem
  51. ^ Amazon Is Quietly Building Its Own Private Label Empire
  52. ^ Elizabeth Warren Proposes Breaking Up Tech Giants Like Amazon and Facebook
  53. ^ McCracken, Harry (April 12, 2019). "Meet Peccy, the bizarre, beloved mascot you didn't know Amazon had". Fast Company. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  54. ^ Chen, Walter (August 26, 2016). "How Not To Create A Toxic Culture, Courtesy Of Ex-Amazon Employees". Inc.com. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  55. ^ "Short shrift for unions in Amazon's silicon jungle – Independent, The (London) – Find Articles at BNET.com". April 10, 2008. Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  56. ^ Jon Henley and Ed Pilkington (February 26, 2008). "Divide and rule". Guardian. London. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  57. ^ a b Claburn, Thomas (April 2, 2020). "Amazon says it fired a guy for breaking pandemic rules. Same guy who organized a staff protest over a lack of coronavirus protection". The Register. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
  58. ^ Peterson, Hayley (April 20, 2020). "Amazon-owned Whole Foods is quietly tracking its employees with a heat map tool that ranks which stores are most at risk of unionizing". Business Insider. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  59. ^ Soper, Spencer (September 18, 2011). "Inside Amazon's Warehouse". The Morning Call.
  60. ^ Soper, Spencer (September 18, 2011). "Inside Amazon's warehouse". The Morning Call. Allentown, Pennsylvania. Retrieved November 10, 2011.
  61. ^ http://www.mcall.com/news/local/mc-amazon-document-3,0,3783986.htmlpage
  62. ^ Soper, Spencer. "Amazon.com Memo To OSHA". Verbatim Memo from Amazon. McCall's The Morning Call. Archived from the original on October 24, 2011. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
  63. ^ "Amazon.com spends $2.4M on A/C at sweltering warehouses". Puget Sound Business Journal. September 23, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  64. ^ Lindsay Beyerstein. "Spencer Soper Wins Sidney Award for Exposing Brutal Conditions at Amazon.com Warehouse". bigthink.com.
  65. ^ a b c Spencer Soper (June 3, 2012). "Amazon workers cool after company took heat for hot warehouse". The Morning Call. Retrieved June 4, 2012.
  66. ^ Taylor, Kembra Sexton (December 14, 2014). "U.S. Supreme Court Decision in Amazon Worker Security Screening Case is Clear Victory for Employers". The National Law Review. McBrayer, McGinnis, Leslie & Kirkland, PLLC. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  67. ^ Maguire, Kevin (April 14, 2001). "UK workforce attacks Amazon" – via www.theguardian.com.
  68. ^ Musil, Steven (December 15, 2008). "Amazon U.K. accused of sweatshop conditions". CNET. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  69. ^ Taylor, Kembra Sexton (December 16, 2014). "U.S. Supreme Court Decision in Amazon Worker Security Screening Case is Clear Victory for Employers". The National Law Review. McBrayer, McGinnis, Leslie & Kirkland, PLLC. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  70. ^ Anger at Amazon working conditions – Channel 4 News. Channel4.com (2013-08-01). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  71. ^ "Amazon drivers 'work illegal hours'". November 11, 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  72. ^ Hilary Osborne (December 12, 2016). "Amazon accused of 'intolerable conditions' at Scottish warehouse". Guardian newspapers. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  73. ^ Joe Roberts (December 11, 2017). "Amazon drivers 'forced to urinate in bottles to keep on top of deliveries'". Metro UK. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  74. ^ Peterson, Hayley (September 11, 2018). "Missing wages, grueling shifts, and bottles of urine: The disturbing accounts of Amazon delivery drivers may reveal the true human cost of 'free' shipping". www.businessinsider.com.
  75. ^ Mojtehedzadeh, Sara (June 26, 2020). "Amazon delivery drivers in Canada launch $200 million class action claiming unpaid wages". Toronto Star. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  76. ^ "Amazon Prime Day hit by huge strike". The Independent. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  77. ^ "Amazon strike: workers ask public to boycott Prime Day". iNews. July 11, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  78. ^ "European Amazon Workers Strike and Urge Prime Day Boycott—Will the US Follow Suit?". Observer. July 10, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  79. ^ Gibson, Kate (September 5, 2018). "Bernie Sanders targets Amazon, Walmart with 100% tax". CBS. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  80. ^ Wohlfeil, Samantha (September 6, 2018). "Workers describe pressures at Amazon warehouses as Bernie Sanders gears up to make the corporation pay". Inlander. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  81. ^ Matsakis, Louise (September 6, 2018). "The truth about Amazon, food stamps and tax breaks". Wired. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  82. ^ Robertson, Adi (September 5, 2018). "Bernie Sanders introduces "Stop BEZOS" bill to tax Amazon for underpaying workers". The Verge. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  83. ^ Porter, Jon (October 2, 2018). "Amazon raises minimum wage to $15 for all 350,000 US workers following criticism". The Verge. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  84. ^ Evelyn, Kenya (March 31, 2020). "Amazon fires New York worker who led strike over coronavirus concerns". The Guardian. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
  85. ^ a b Slyukh, Alina (March 31, 2020). "New York Mayor, Attorney General seek investigations over fired Amazon worker". NPR. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
  86. ^ a b Greene, Jay (April 14, 2020). "Amazon fires two tech workers who criticized the company's warehouse workplace conditions". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
  87. ^ Lee, Timothy (April 3, 2020). "Leaked Amazon memo: Walkout leader "not smart or articulate"". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
  88. ^ O'Donovan, Caroline (April 12, 2020). "Amazon fired and employee involved in workplace organizing in Minnesota". Buzzfeed. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
  89. ^ Klovig Skelton, Sebastian (April 17, 2020). "Amazon deletes employees' calendar invites to Covid-19 event". Computer Weekly. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  90. ^ Heater, Brian (May 4, 2020). "AWS engineer Tim Bray resigns from Amazon following worker firings". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  91. ^ Tung, Liam (May 4, 2020). "Top AWS engineer Tim Bray quits $1m-plus job over Amazon firing employees". ZDNet. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  92. ^ Wood, Charlie. "Longtime Amazon VP Tim Bray just quit in dismay, calling the company 'chickens---' for firing workers who criticized it". Business Insider. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  93. ^ Billings, Kevin (May 4, 2020). "Former Amazon Executive And Engineer Blasts Company For 'Whistleblower' Firings". International Business Times. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  94. ^ Bakare, Lanre; Laughland, Oliver (November 22, 2014). "Former Amazon employee set for hunger strike at Seattle headquarters". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  95. ^ Musumeci, Natalie (November 29, 2016). "Amazon employee jumps off company building after ranting email to staff". New York Post. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  96. ^ Anita Ramasastry FindLaw columnist Special to CNN.com (June 24, 2005). "CNN: Web sites change prices based on customers' habits". Edition.cnn.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  97. ^ "Bezos calls Amazon experiment 'a mistake'". Bizjournals.com. September 28, 2000. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  98. ^ Wolverton, Troy. "MP3 player "sale" exposes Amazon's flexible prices". News.cnet.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  99. ^ Stone, Brad (July 18, 2009). "Amazon Erases Orwell Books From Kindle". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 10, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2010.
  100. ^ Amazon's latest Kindle deletion: erotic, incest-themed fiction, Jacqui Cheng, Ars Technica, December 15, 2010
  101. ^ Throwing the Baby Out With The Bathwater: Censorship in Self Publishing is On the Rise, Dalia Daudelin, October 16, 2013
  102. ^ Self-published erotica writers strike back, Hector Tobar, LA Times, October 17, 2013
  103. ^ Thiel, Thomas (September 27, 2010). "Wikipedia und Amazon: Der Marketplace soll es richten". Faz.net (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
  104. ^ a b "amazon.com erlaubt Verkauf von freien Wikipedia Artikeln". Preisgenau.de IT-News für Verbraucher (in German). April 6, 2010. Archived from the original on May 19, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2010. This webpage refers to: Haines, Eric (March 30, 2010). "Best Book Title Ever, Period". Realtimerendering.com. Archived from the original on May 19, 2010. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
  105. ^ Rückert, Hermann (September 20, 2010). "Copy and Paste als Geschäftsmodell: Amazon bietet die Plattform für tausende absurde Buchtitel" [Copy and paste as business model: Amazon offers its platform to thousands of absurd book titles]. Telepolis knews (in German). Hannover: Heise online. Archived from the original on December 7, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
  106. ^ "Wikipedia-Bücher: Geschäft mit freien Inhalten – Verschiedene Anbieter versuchen, mit Benutzer-generierten Inhalten von Wikipedia auf Amazon das große Geld zu machen". tt.com (in German). Innsbruck: Tiroler Tageszeitung. September 21, 2010. Archived from the original on December 14, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
  107. ^ "VDM Verlag erweitert sein Angebot kostenloser Buchveröffentlichungen mit ISBN" (in German). Germany: Offenes-Presseportal.de. June 8, 2007. Archived from the original on February 27, 2010. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
  108. ^ "Ever been sent dodgy electricals by an online shop?". August 15, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
  109. ^ David Peacock (March 5, 2014). "There is a need to increase consumer protection regarding dangerous electrical accessories". Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  110. ^ Amazon sold sponsored product slots in baby registries Quartz, 2018
  111. ^ "Japan orders Amazon.com arm to pay back taxes". MarketWatch. July 5, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  112. ^ Ian Griffiths (April 4, 2012). "Amazon: £7bn sales, no UK corporation tax". The Guardian. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
  113. ^ Hickman, Martin (April 5, 2012). "Amazon investigated by UK authorities over tax avoidance". The Independent. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  114. ^ "Starbucks, Google and Amazon grilled over tax avoidance". BBC. BBC.com. November 12, 2012.
  115. ^ "Corporation Tax Transparency Call From KPMG". Sky News. Sky.com. November 30, 2012.
  116. ^ "How to shop and ensure your cash isn't going to a tax haven". Guardian. December 7, 2012.
  117. ^ Zeljka Marosevic (July 11, 2014). "Beloved children's author Allan Ahlberg rejects Amazon-sponsored award". Melville House Publishing. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  118. ^ Mitchell, Stacy. "The big box swindle". strongtowns.org/. Strong towns journal. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  119. ^ Mitchell, Stacy; Lavecchia, Olivia (November 29, 2016). Report: How Amazon's Tightening Grip on the Economy Is Stifling Competition, Eroding Jobs, and Threatening Communities. Institute for local self reliance.
  120. ^ "The CIA, Amazon, Bezos and the Washington Post : An Exchange with Executive Editor Martin Baron". The Huffington Post. January 8, 2014.
  121. ^ Streitfeld, David; Haughney, Christine (August 18, 2013). "Expecting the Unexpected From Jeff Bezos". The New York Times.
  122. ^ Jeong, May (August 13, 2018). ""Everybody immediately knew that it was for Amazon": Has Bezos become more powerful in DC than Trump?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  123. ^ "Microsoft wins Pentagon's $10bn cloud computing contract". The Guardian. October 26, 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  124. ^ "Amazon Now An Open Book On Search Warrants And Subpoenas".
  125. ^ Elizabeth Weise (December 27, 2016). "Alexa: Who dunnit?". USA Today. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  126. ^ Anita Balakrishnan (December 27, 2016). "Police said to probe Amazon Echo in relation to murder case". Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  127. ^ McLaughlin, Elliot (April 26, 2017). "Suspect OKs Amazon to hand over Echo recordings in murder case". CNN. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  128. ^ Heater, Brian (March 7, 2017). "After pushing back, Amazon hands over Echo data in Arkansas murder case". TechCrunch. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  129. ^ "Amazon is selling facial recognition to law enforcement — for a fistful of dollars". May 22, 2018.
  130. ^ "Yes, Amazon is tracking people". Washington Examiner. May 31, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  131. ^ "Amazon Teams Up With Government to Deploy Dangerous New Facial Recognition Technology". American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  132. ^ "Orlando Stops Using Amazon's Face-Scanning Tech Amid Spying Concerns". June 26, 2018.
  133. ^ Wingfield, Nick (January 18, 2018). "Amazon Chooses 20 Finalists for Second Headquarters". The New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  134. ^ Nolan, Hamilton (November 13, 2018). "How to Stop the Amazon Extortion From Happening Again". Splinter. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  135. ^ Johnson, Eric (November 9, 2018). "Amazon's HQ2 was a con, not a contest". Recode. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  136. ^ Dayen, David (November 9, 2018). "The HQ2 scam: How Amazon used a bidding war to scrape cities' data". In These Times. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  137. ^ DePhillis, Lydia (November 13, 2018). "Amazon HQ2: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez pushes back New York location". CNN. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  138. ^ "Amazon deal will disrupt plans for affordable housing on Long Island City sites". Politico.
  139. ^ Green, Dennis (December 12, 2018). "Amazon HQ2 helipad demand slammed by New York City Council". Business Insider. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  140. ^ "The HSUS v. amazon.com, Inc., et al. (Animal fighting materials) | The Humane Society of the United States". Hsus.org. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  141. ^ "Humane Society has its sights on amazon.com". The New York Times. August 27, 2007. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
  142. ^ "Alleged Cockfight Mag To Stay Off Amazon". CBS News. Associated Press. May 21, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  143. ^ "Amazon Urged To Ban Foie Gras: Animal-Rights Group Calls Retailer A Lame Duck Over Controversial Food". June 12, 2013.
  144. ^ "Video: Shocking Animal Cruelty Exposed at Amazon Foie Gras Supplier".
  145. ^ "Banned and dangerous weapons found for sale on Amazon.co.uk". Retrieved December 16, 2015.
  146. ^ "Amazon's cache of guns and weapons". Retrieved December 16, 2015.
  147. ^ "Christians, Jews rally for Israel" (pdf). Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  148. ^ "New Amazon shame: Holocaust denial – The Kernel, 13 October 2013". Kernelmag.com. October 14, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  149. ^ "World Jewish Congress urges Amazon boss to remove from its website Holocaust denying books". European Jewish Press. October 18, 2013. Archived from the original on November 18, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  150. ^ "Amazon's Holocaust Shame". The Algemeiner. November 11, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  151. ^ Thursday, 9 March 2017 (March 4, 2017). "WJC Welcomes Amazon Move to Remove Holocaust Denial Books Offers Assistance in Identifying Further Material". worldjewishcongress.org. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
  152. ^ Dana Wollman (November 10, 2010). "Amazon sells book offering advice to pedophiles". Associated Press.
  153. ^ a b Saint, Nick (November 11, 2010). "Amazon Caves: Pedophile Guide Pulled From The Kindle Store (AMZN)". San Francisco Gate. Archived from the original on November 13, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
  154. ^ Beaumont, Claudine (November 11, 2010). "Amazon removes 'paedophile guide' from Kindle store". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
  155. ^ "Amazon no longer selling guide for pedophiles". Associated Press. November 11, 2010. Archived from the original on November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
  156. ^ "PETA wants animal-fighting books removed". United Press International. November 13, 2010. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
  157. ^ "Polk Sheriff: Pedophilia book author arrested". Bay News 9. December 20, 2010. Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved December 20, 2010.
  158. ^ "Phillip Greaves gets probation for 'paedophile guide'". BBC Online. April 6, 2011. Archived from the original on April 7, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
  159. ^ Sanchez, Daniel (October 31, 2016). "An RIAA study shows that Amazon is guilty of selling counterfeit CDs". Digital Music News. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  160. ^ Hsu, Alex (July 1, 2013). "Chinese Government Planning to Tighten Intellectual Property Regulation of Apple, Amazon, and Taobao". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014.
  161. ^ "Apple Sues Mobile Star for Selling Counterfeit Power Adapters and Charging Cables through Amazon". Patently Apple.
  162. ^ Greene, Jay (November 14, 2019). "How Amazon's quest for more, cheaper products has resulted n a flea market of fakes". Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  163. ^ a b Shepard, Wade. "Fuse Chicken Vs. Amazon Is The David Vs. Goliath Lawsuit To Watch In 2018". Forbes. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  164. ^ Messer, Sarah (February 11, 2020). "'GMA' Investigates: Inexpensive lightning cables that could harm your phone". Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  165. ^ "What to Do If You Think Your Amazon Purchase Is a Fake". Wirecutter: Reviews for the Real World. February 11, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  166. ^ "Welcome to the Era of Fake Products". Wirecutter: Reviews for the Real World. February 11, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  167. ^ "Bogus Umbrellas, Towels, and Luggage Zippers: New This Week". Wirecutter: Reviews for the Real World. May 25, 2018. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  168. ^ Palmer, Annie (October 20, 2019). "Amazon is shipping expired food, from baby formula to old beef jerky, scaring consumers and putting big brands at risk". CNBC. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  169. ^ a b James, Andrea (April 13, 2009). "Amazon under fire for perceived anti-gay policy". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
  170. ^ a b Bobby Johnson and Helen Pidd "'Gay writing' falls foul of Amazon sales ranking system", The Guardian, April 13, 2009
  171. ^ Musil, Steven (April 13, 2009). "Amazon criticized for de-ranking 'adult' books". CNET News. Archived from the original on April 14, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
  172. ^ Martinez, Amy (April 13, 2009). "amazon.com says it has fixed error that removed gay, lesbian sales rankings". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on April 15, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
  173. ^ "Hacker: I Was Behind Amazon Gay Book Delisting". Fox News. April 14, 2009.
  174. ^ a b "How the Left Should Respond to Ethnic Cleansing in China". The Nation. January 15, 2019.
  175. ^ a b Sandler, Rachel. "Internal Email: Amazon Faces Pressure From More Than 500 Employees To Cut Ties With Palantir For Working With ICE". Forbes. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
  176. ^ a b Chan, Rosalie. "Read the internal letter sent by a group of Amazon employees asking the company to take a stand against ICE". Business Insider. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  177. ^ "Tisha B'Av #CloseTheCamps NYC Amazon action: a protest in pictures · Jewschool". Jewschool. August 13, 2019. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  178. ^ "Hundreds protest at Amazon store in Manhattan against company's ICE involvement". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  179. ^ Paul, Kari (May 26, 2020). "US local news stations air segments on Amazon penned by company's PR team". Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  180. ^ McCarter, Reid (May 27, 2020). "Oh cool, Amazon is dictating the local news now". AV Club. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  181. ^ Reimann, Nicholas (May 26, 2020). "Amazon sent out a scripted news segment, and 11 stations aired it". Forbes. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  182. ^ Gurley, Lauren (May 27, 2020). "Local news stations run propaganda segment scripted and produced by Amazon". Vice. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  183. ^ Statt, Nick (May 26, 2020). "Amazon gave TV stations coronavirus propaganda, and some aired it". The Verge. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  184. ^ "Bookstore Settle Suit". InternetNews. November 4, 1999. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
  185. ^ Bergin, Tom (March 7, 2014). "UK court ruling may prompt more scrutiny of Amazon tax plans". Reuters. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  186. ^ "Arsenal fans call for Amazon boycott over sale of disgusting Wenger chant".
  187. ^ "Amazon Climbdown Over Obscene Wenger CD". Retrieved December 28, 2009.
  188. ^ "Actress sues Amazon for revealing age on film database". Yahoo! News. October 17, 2011 Archived October 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  189. ^ "Calendar for Seattle, Washington". United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
  190. ^ Gardner, Eriq (February 6, 2015). "Appeals Court Hears the Scary Things That Can Happen to Actors Who Lie to IMDb". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  191. ^ "At the Point of Sale". Thebigriverreview.com. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  192. ^ Harmon, Amy (February 14, 2004). "Amazon Glitch Unmasks War Of Reviewers". The New York Times.
  193. ^ Business Wire (May 3, 2010). "2010 Social Shopping Study Reveals Changes in Consumers' Online Shopping Habits and Usage of Customer Reviews". Business Wire. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  194. ^ Lea, Richard; Taylor, Matthew (April 23, 2010). "Historian Orlando Figes admits posting Amazon reviews that trashed rivals". The Guardian. London.
  195. ^ "BEACON SPOTLIGHT: Amazon.com rave book reviews – too good to be true? - Cincinnati blog, Cincinnati news, Cincinnati politics". The Cincinnati Beacon. May 25, 2010. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012.
  196. ^ "Cornell Chronicle: Study hones in on Amazon reviewers". June 22, 2011. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011.
  197. ^ Witt, Emily (June 28, 2011). "Amazon Publishing to Authors: 'Review' Our Books and We Will Promote You". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on June 20, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  198. ^ "Is Amazon.com Censoring Negative Reviews Of Scientology Books? Sure Looks Like It – Technorati Glosslip". Technorati. April 10, 2008. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  199. ^ "Amazon Caught Deleting Negative EA DRM-Related Reviews... Again". Techdirt. October 23, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  200. ^ Alison Flood (November 5, 2012). "Amazon removes book reviews by fellow authors". The Guardian. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  201. ^ David Streitfeld (January 20, 2013). "Swarming a Book Online". The New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  202. ^ Flood, Alison (September 14, 2017). "Amazon redacts one-star reviews of Hillary Clinton's What Happened". Retrieved September 23, 2017 – via www.theguardian.com.
  203. ^ "Wikileaks leaves Amazon host servers". Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  204. ^ Burns, John F.; Cowell, Alan (December 2, 2010). "Swedish Court Confirms Arrest Warrant for WikiLeaks Founder". The New York Times.
  205. ^ "WikiLeaks". Amazon Web Services, Inc. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  206. ^ "Julian Assange answers your questions". The Guardian. London. December 3, 2010.
  207. ^ Ellsberg, Daniel (December 2, 2010). "Open Letter to Amazon.com Customer Service". Antiwar.com. Archived from the original on December 12, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  208. ^ MacLellan, Lila. "Even Jeff Bezos can't afford to ignore his employees' climate-change demands". Quartz at Work.
  209. ^ "Amazon Employees Will Walk Out Over Climate Change Inaction". Wired.
  210. ^ Ghaffary, Shirin (September 9, 2019). "Hundreds of Amazon employees plan to walk out of work in protest of Amazon's environmental policies". Vox.

External links[edit]