This article possibly contains original research. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Initial release||November 6, 2014|
|Operating system||Fire OS 5.0 or later, iOS 11.0 or later|
Android 4.4 or later
|Type||Intelligent personal assistant, cloud-based voice service|
Amazon Alexa, also known simply as Alexa, is a virtual assistant AI technology developed by Amazon, first used in the Amazon Echo smart speakers developed by Amazon Lab126. It is capable of voice interaction, music playback, making to-do lists, setting alarms, streaming podcasts, playing audiobooks, and providing weather, traffic, sports, and other real-time information, such as news. Alexa can also control several smart devices using itself as a home automation system. Users are able to extend the Alexa capabilities by installing "skills" (additional functionality developed by third-party vendors, in other settings more commonly called apps such as weather programs and audio features).
Most devices with Alexa allow users to activate the device using a wake-word (such as Alexa or Amazon); other devices (such as the Amazon mobile app on iOS or Android and Amazon Dash Wand) require the user to push a button to activate Alexa's listening mode, although, some phones also allow a user to say a command, such as "Alexa" or "Alexa wake". Currently, interaction and communication with Alexa are available only in English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, and Hindi. In Canada, Alexa is available in English and French (with the Quebec accent).
As of November 2018[update], Amazon had more than 10,000 employees working on Alexa and related products. In January 2019, Amazon's devices team announced that they had sold over 100 million Alexa-enabled devices.
In September 2019, Amazon launched many new devices achieving many records while competing with the world's smart home industry. The new Echo Studio became the first smart speaker with 360 sound and Dolby sound. Other new devices included an Echo dot with a clock behind the fabric, a new third-generation Amazon Echo, Echo Show 8, a plug-in Echo device, Echo Flex, Alexa built-in wireless earphones, Echo buds, Alexa built-in spectacles, Echo frames, an Alexa built-in Ring, and Echo Loop.
In November 2014, Amazon announced Alexa alongside the Echo. Alexa was inspired by the computer voice and conversational system on board the Starship Enterprise in science fiction TV series and movies, beginning with Star Trek: The Original Series and Star Trek: The Next Generation.
Amazon developers chose the name Alexa because it has a hard consonant with the X, which helps it be recognized with higher precision. They have said the name is reminiscent of the Library of Alexandria, which is also used by Amazon Alexa Internet for the same reason. In June 2015, Amazon announced the Alexa Fund, a program that would invest in companies making voice control skills and technologies. The US$200 million fund has invested in companies including Jargon, Ecobee, Orange Chef, Scout Alarm, Garageio, Toymail, MARA, and Mojio. In 2016, the Alexa Prize was announced to further advance the technology.
In January 2017, the first Alexa Conference took place in Nashville, Tennessee, an independent gathering of the worldwide community of Alexa developers and enthusiasts. The follow-up has been announced with a new name, Project Voice, and will be keynoted on the first day with Amazon's Head of Education for Alexa, Paul Cutsinger.
At the Amazon Web Services Re: Invent conference in Las Vegas, Amazon announced Alexa for Business and the ability for app developers to have paid add-ons to their skills.
In November 2018, Amazon opened its first Alexa-themed pop-up shop inside of Toronto's Eaton Centre, showcasing the use of home automation products with Amazon's smart speakers. Amazon also sells Alexa devices at Amazon Books and Whole Foods Market locations, in addition to mall-based pop-ups throughout the United States.
A companion app is available from the Apple Appstore, Google Play, and Amazon Appstore. The app can be used by owners of Alexa-enabled devices to install skills, control music, manage alarms, and view shopping lists. It also allows users to review the recognized text on the app screen and to send feedback to Amazon concerning whether the recognition was good or bad. A web interface is also available to set up compatible devices (e.g., Amazon Echo, Amazon Dot, Amazon Echo Show).
Alexa can perform a number of preset functions out-of-the-box such as set timers, share the current weather, create lists, access Wikipedia articles, and many more things. Users say a designated "wake word" (the default is simply "Alexa") to alert an Alexa-enabled device of an ensuing function command. Alexa listens for the command and performs the appropriate function, or skill, to answer a question or command. Alexa's question answering ability is partly powered by the Wolfram Language. When questions are asked, Alexa converts sound waves into text which allows it to gather information from various sources. Behind the scenes, the data gathered is then parsed by Wolfram's technology to generate suitable and accurate answers. Alexa-supported devices can stream music from the owner's Amazon Music accounts and have built-in support for Pandora and Spotify accounts. Alexa can play music from streaming services such as Apple Music and Google Play Music from a phone or tablet.
In addition to performing pre-set functions, Alexa can also perform additional functions through third-party skills that users can enable. Some of the most popular Alexa skills in 2018 included "Question of the Day" and "National Geographic Geo Quiz" for trivia; "TuneIn Live" to listen to live sporting events and news stations; "Big Sky" for hyper local weather updates; "Sleep and Relaxation Sounds" for listening to calming sounds; "Sesame Street" for children's entertainment; and "Fitbit" for Fitbit users who want to check in on their health stats. In 2019, Apple, Google, Amazon, and Zigbee Alliance announced a partnership to make smart home products work together.
As of April 2019[update], Amazon had over 90,000 functions ("skills") available for users to download on their Alexa-enabled devices, a massive increase from only 1,000 functions in June 2016. Microsoft's AI Cortana became available to use on Alexa enabled devices as of August 2018[update]. In 2018, Amazon rolled out a new "Brief Mode," wherein Alexa would begin responding with a beep sound rather than saying, "Okay," to confirm receipt of a command. On December 20, 2018, Amazon announced a new integration with the Wolfram Alpha answer engine, which provides enhanced accuracy for users asking questions of Alexa related to math, science, astronomy, engineering, geography, history, and more.
In the home automation space, Alexa can interact with devices from several manufacturers including SNAS, Fibaro, Belkin, ecobee, Geeni, IFTTT, Insteon, LIFX, LightwaveRF, Nest, Philips Hue, SmartThings, Wink, and Yonomi. The Home Automation feature was launched on April 8, 2015. Developers are able to create their own smart home skills using the Alexa Skills Kit.
Take-out food can be ordered using Alexa; as of May 2017[update] food ordering using Alexa is supported by Domino's Pizza, Grubhub, Pizza Hut, Seamless, and Wingstop. Also, users of Alexa in the UK can order meals via Just Eat. In early 2017, Starbucks announced a private beta for placing pick-up orders using Alexa. In addition, users can order meals using Amazon Prime Now via Alexa in 20 major US cities. With the introduction of Amazon Key in November 2017, Alexa also works together with the smart lock and the Alexa Cloud Cam included in the service to allow Amazon couriers to unlock customers' front doors and deliver packages inside.
According to an August 2018 article by The Information, only 2 percent of Alexa owners have used the device to make a purchase during the first seven months of 2018 and of those who made an initial purchase, 90 percent did not make a second purchase.
Alexa supports a multitude of subscription-based and free streaming services on Amazon devices. These streaming services include: Prime Music, Amazon Music, Amazon Music Unlimited, Apple Music, TuneIn, iHeartRadio, Audible, Pandora, and Spotify Premium. However, some of these music services are not available on other Alexa-enabled products that are manufactured by companies external of its services. This unavailability also includes Amazon's own Fire TV devices or tablets.
Alexa is able to stream media and music directly. To do this, Alexa's device should be linked to the Amazon account, which enables access to one's Amazon Music library, in addition to any audiobooks available in one's Audible library. Amazon Prime members have an additional ability to access stations, playlists, and over two million songs free of charge. Amazon Music Unlimited subscribers also have access to a list of millions of songs.
Amazon Music for PC allows one to play personal music from Google Play, iTunes, and others on an Alexa device. This can be done by uploading one's collection to My Music on Amazon from a computer. Up to 250 songs can be uploaded free of charge. Once this is done, Alexa can play this music and control playback through voice command options.
Amazon Alexa allows the user to hear updates on supported sports teams. A way to do this is by adding the sports team to the list created under Alexa's Sports Update app section. 
The user is able to hear updates on up to 15 supported teams:
- MLS - Major League Soccer
- EPL/BPL - English Premier League/Barclays Premier League
- NBA - National Basketball Association
- NCAA men's basketball - National Collegiate Athletic Association
- UEFA Champions League - Union of European Football Association
- FA Cup - Football Association Challenge Cup
- MLB - Major League Baseball
- NHL - National Hockey League
- NCAA FBS football - National Collegiate Athletic Association: Football Bowl Subdivision
- NFL - National Football League
- German Bundesliga 2nd Division
- WNBA - Women's National Basketball Association
- German Bundesliga 1st Division
- WWE - World Wresling Entertainment
Messaging and calls
There are a number of ways messages can be sent from Alexa's application. Alexa can deliver messages to a recipient's Alexa application, as well as to all supported Echo devices associated with their Amazon account. Alexa can send typed messages only from Alexa's app. If one sends a message from an associated Echo device, it transmits as a voice message. Alexa cannot send attachments such as videos and photos.
For households with more than one member, one's Alexa contacts are pooled across all of the devices that are registered to its associated account. However, within Alexa's app one is only able to start conversations with its Alexa contacts. When accessed and supported by an Alexa app or Echo device, Alexa messaging is available to anyone in one's household. These messages can be heard by anyone with access to the household. This messaging feature does not yet contain a password protection or associated PIN. Anyone who has access to one's cell phone number is able to use this feature to contact them through their supported Alexa app or Echo device. The feature to block alerts for messages and calls is available temporarily by utilizing the Do Not Disturb feature.
Alexa for Business is a paid subscription service allowing companies to use Alexa to join conference calls, schedule meeting rooms, and custom skills designed by 3rd-party vendors. At launch, notable skills are available from SAP, Microsoft, and Salesforce.
Severe Weather Alerts
This new voice control skill was included in February 2020, through which Alexa can update the users about their commute, traffic conditions or directions. It can also send the information to the user's phone.
Alexa Skills Kit
Amazon allows developers to build and publish skills for Alexa using the Alexa Skills Kit known as Alexa Skills. These third-party-developed skills, once published, are available across Alexa-enabled devices. Users can enable these skills using the Alexa app.
In April 2018, Amazon launched Blueprints, a tool for individuals to build skills for their personal use.
In February 2019, Amazon further expanded the capability of Blueprints by allowing customers to publish skills they've built with the templates to its Alexa Skill Store in the US for use by anyone with an Alexa-enabled device.
Alexa Voice Service
Amazon allows device manufacturers to integrate Alexa voice capabilities into their own connected products by using the Alexa Voice Service (AVS), a cloud-based service that provides APIs to interface with Alexa. Products built using AVS have access to Alexa's growing list of capabilities including all of the Alexa Skills. AVS provides cloud-based automatic speech recognition (ASR) and natural language understanding (NLU). There are no fees for companies looking to integrate Alexa into their products by using AVS.
On September 25, 2019 Alexa and Google Assistant can help their users apply to jobs at McDonald's using voice recognition services. It is the world's first employment service using voice command service. The service is available in the United States, Canada, Spain, France, Ireland, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.
Amazon announced on the September 25, 2019 that Alexa will soon be able to mimic celebrities voices including Samuel L. Jackson, costing $0.99 for each voice. In 2019, Alexa started replying to Spanish voice commands in Español.
Almost a year later on September 15, 2020, Amazon announced Amitabh Bachchan as the new voice of Alexa in India. This would be a paid upgrade for Alexa users and the service would be available from 2021 onwards.
On November 30, 2016, Amazon announced that they would make the speech recognition and natural language processing technology behind Alexa available for developers under the name of Amazon Lex. This new service would allow developers to create their own chatbots that can interact in a conversational manner, similar to Alexa. Along with the connection to various Amazon services, the initial version will provide connectivity to Facebook Messenger, with Slack and Twilio integration to follow.
Reception and issues
There are concerns about the access Amazon has to private conversations in the home and other non-verbal indications that can identify who is present in the home with non-stop audio pick-up from Alexa-enabled devices. Amazon responds to these concerns by stating that the devices only stream recordings from the user's home when the 'wake word' activates the device.
Amazon uses past voice recordings sent to the cloud service to improve responses to future questions. Users can delete voice recordings that are associated with their account.
Alexa uses an address stored in the companion app when it needs a location. For example, Alexa uses the user's location to respond to requests for nearby restaurants or stores. Similarly, Alexa uses the user's location for mapping-related requests.
Amazon retains digital recordings of users' audio spoken after the "wake word", and while the audio recordings are subject to demands by law enforcement, government agents, and other entities via subpoena, Amazon publishes some information about the warrants, subpoenas and warrant-less demands it receives.
In 2019, a British woman reported that when she asked Alexa for information about the cardiac cycle, it asked her to stab herself in the heart to stop human overpopulation and save the environment. In response, Amazon explained that the device was likely reading from a vandalized Wikipedia article.
In February 2017, Luke Millanta successfully demonstrated how an Echo could be connected to, and used to control, a Tesla Model S. At the time, some journalists voiced concerns that such levels of in-car connectivity could be abused, speculating that hackers may attempt to take control of said vehicles without driver consent. Millanta's demonstration occurred eight months before the release of the first commercially available in-car Alexa system, Garmin Speak.
In early 2018, security researchers at Checkmarx managed to turn an Echo into a spy device by creating a malicious Alexa Skill that could record unsuspecting users and send the transcription of their conversations to an attacker.
In November 2018, Amazon sent 1700 recordings of an American couple to an unrelated European man. The incident proves that Alexa records people without their knowledge. Although the man who received the recordings reported the anomaly to Amazon, the company did not notify the victim until German magazine c't also contacted them and published a story about the incident. The recipient of the recordings contacted the publication after weeks went by following his report with no response from Amazon (although the company did delete the recordings from its server). When Amazon did finally contact the man whose recordings had been sent to a stranger, they claimed to have discovered the error themselves and offered him a free Prime membership and new Alexa devices by way of apology.
Amazon blamed the incident on "human error" and called it an "isolated single case." However, in May 2018 an Alexa device in Portland, Oregon, recorded a family's conversation and sent it to one of their contacts without their knowledge. The company dismissed the incident as an "extremely rare occurrence" and claimed the device "interpreted background conversation" as a sequence of commands to turn on, record, send the recording, and select a specific recipient.
Alexa has been known to listen in on private conversations and store personal information which was hacked and sent to the hacker. Although Amazon has announced that this was a rare occurrence, Alexa shows the dangers of using technology and sharing private information with robotics.
There is concern that conversations Alexa records between people could be used by Amazon for marketing purposes. Privacy experts have expressed real concern about how marketing is getting involved in every stage of people's lives without users noticing. This has necessitated the creation of regulations that can protect users' private information from technology companies.
A New Hampshire judge ruled in November 2018 that authorities could examine recordings from an Amazon Echo device recovered from the home of murder victim Christine Sullivan for use as evidence against defendant Timothy Verrill. Investigators believe that the device, which belonged to the victim's boyfriend, could have captured audio of the murder and its aftermath.
During the Chris Watts interrogation/interview video at timestamp 16:15:15, Watts was told by the interrogator, "We know that there's an Alexa in your house, and you know those are trained to record distress," indicating Alexa may send recordings to Amazon if certain frequencies and decibels (that can only be heard during intense arguments or screams) are detected.
Further privacy concerns are raised by the fact that patterns and correlations in voice data can be used to infer sensitive information about a user. Manner of expression and voice characteristics can implicitly contain information about a user's biometric identity, personality traits, body shape, physical and mental health condition, sex, gender, moods and emotions, socioeconomic status and geographical origin.
|November 6, 2014 (limited)
June 28, 2015 (full)
|September 28, 2016||United Kingdom|
|October 26, 2016||Germany|
|October 4, 2017||India|
|November 15, 2017||Japan|
|December 5, 2017||Canada|
|December 8, 2017||Belgium|
|January 25, 2018||Ireland|
|February 1, 2018||Australia|
|February 6, 2018||France|
|October 30, 2018||Italy|
|November 12, 2018||Mexico|
|October 3, 2019||Brazil|
- Amazon Echo
- Amazon Echo Plus
- Amazon Echo Dot
- Amazon Echo Look
- Amazon Echo Show
- Amazon Echo Spot
- Amazon Tap
- Sonos One smart speaker
- Lenovo Smart Assistant
- Harman Kardon Allure smart speaker
- Harman Kardon Astra smart speaker
- Kitsound Voice One smart speaker
- Eufy Genie (by Anker)
- Invoxia Triby
- LG SmartThinQ Hub
- Onkyo VC-FLX1 smart speaker
- Spark by Clazio touchscreen smart speaker
- Fabriq smart speaker
- Fabriq Chorus smart speaker
- Jam Voice portable speaker
- Vobot clock
- Yeelight Voice Assistant (outside China)
- Polk Audio Command Bar soundbar
- Brilliant Control touchscreen home hub
- Bose Home Speaker 500 (coming in October 2018)
- Bose Soundbar 500 (coming in October 2018)
- Bose Soundbar 700 (coming in October 2018)
- Marshall Stanmore II Voice smart speaker (coming in October 2018)
- Marshall Acton II smart speaker (coming in November 2018)
- Huawei AI Cube smart speaker (coming December 2018)
- Riva Concert (coming soon)
- Riva Stadium (coming soon)
- Libratone Zip 2 (coming soon)
- Libratone Zip 2 Mini (coming soon)
- Soundcore (by Anker) Flare S+ (coming soon)
- Klipsch smart soundbars (released in 2019)
- Energy Sistem Smart Speaker 3 Talk (released in 2018)
- Energy Sistem Smart Speaker 5 Home (released in 2018)
- Energy Sistem Smart Speaker 7 Tower (released in 2018)
TVs and media boxes
- Amazon Fire TV (2nd generation, limited features)
- Amazon Fire TV Stick
- Amazon Fire TV Cube
- Element 43-Inch 4K Ultra HD Smart LED TV
- Sony Smart TVs
- Samsung Smart TVs (2019)
Phones and tablets
- Amazon Fire and Fire HD tablets - 4th, 5th, or 6th generation devices (limited features)
- Fire 7, HD 8 & 10 - 7th generation
- Huawei Mate 9
- HTC U11
- TCL Xess tablet
- Moto X4
- Moto Smart Speaker
- Essential Phone (halo grey color only)
Laptops and desktops
- Asus ZenBook and VivoBook laptops (2018)
- HP Pavilion Wave desktop
- Lenovo ThinkPad X1 laptops (2018)
- Acer Aspire, Spin, Switch and Swift notebooks
- Acer Aspire all-in-one desktops
- ASUS Lyra Voice Tri-Band Mesh Wi-Fi Router (Alexa Built-in + Bluetooth Speaker + Spotify Connect)
- Amazon Dash Wand (2017 version)
- GE Sol LED Lamp
- LG InstaView smart refrigerator
- Nucleus Anywhere Intercom
- Omate Yumi Robot
- ecobee4 smart thermostat
- ecobee Switch+ light switch
- iDevices Instinct light switch
- First Alert Onelink Safe & Sound smoke alarm and carbon monoxide detector (2018 version)
- Kohler Co. Verdera Voice Lighted Mirror
- Netgear Orbi Voice Wi-Fi router
Wearables and earphones
- OV by ONvocal headphones
- Lynx robot
- Pebble Core (cancelled due to Fitbit acquisition, product did not reach retail)
- Orion Labs Onyx smart walkie-talkie
- iMCO CoWatch
- Martian mVoice Smartwatches
- Omate Rise Smartwatch
- Bragi Dash and Dash Pro earbuds
- Ford vehicles (select models)
- BMW vehicles (all 2018 models)
- Mini vehicles (all 2018 models)
- Toyota vehicles (select 2018 models)
- Lexus vehicles (select 2018 models)
- Volkswagen vehicles (2018 models)
- Garmin Speak
- Muse by Speak Music
- Roav Viva by Anker
- Roger (app)
- Voice in a Can app for Apple Watch
- EchoSim (website)
- Amazon iOS and Android shopping apps (only for purchasing products from Amazon.com)
- Amazon Music iOS and Android apps (only for music playback)
- Amazon Alexa mobile app
- Anki Vector robot
- Xbox One
In September 2016, a university student competition called the Alexa Prize was announced for November of that year. The prize is equipped with a total of $2.5 million and teams and their universities can win cash and research grants. The process started with team selection in 2016. The 2017 inaugural competition focuses on the challenge of building a socialbot. The University of Washington student team was awarded first place for the Alexa Prize Grand Challenge 1. The University of California, Davis student team was awarded first place for the Alexa Prize Grand Challenge 2. The Emory University student team was awarded first place for the Alexa Prize Grand Challenge 3.
Given Amazon's strong belief in voice technologies, Amazon announced a US$100 million venture capital fund on June 25, 2015. By specifically targeting developers, device-makers and innovative companies of all sizes, Amazon aims at making digital voice assistants more powerful for its users. Eligible projects for financial funding base on either creating new Alexa capabilities by using the Alexa Skills Kit (ASK) or Alexa Voice Service (AVS).
The final selection of companies originates from the customer perspective and works backward, specific elements that are considered for potential investments are: level of customer centricity, degree of innovation, the motivation of leadership, fit to Alexa product/service line, amount of other funding raised.
Besides financial support, Amazon provides business and technology expertise, help for bringing products to the market, aid for hard- and software development as well as enhanced marketing support on proprietary Amazon platforms.
The list of funded business includes (in alphabetical order): DefinedCrows, Dragon Innovation, ecobee, Embodied Inc., Garageio, Invoxia, kitt.ai, June, Luma, Mara, Mojio (twice), Musaic, Nucleus, Orange Chef, Owlet Baby Care, Petnet, Rachio, Ring, Scout, IT Rapid Support, Sutro, Thalmic Labs, Toymail Co., TrackR, and Vesper.
- "Amazon Alexa for iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad on the iTunes App Store". Itunes.apple.com. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Growing up with Alexa". CNN.
- "Alexa Voice Service Overview (v20160207) | Alexa Voice Service". developer.amazon.com.
- Turcan, Marie. "Test d'Amazon Echo : que vaut l'enceinte connectée d'Amazon en version française ?" (in French).
- "Angrez turns Desi: Amazon expands Alexa voice service to include Hindi". Business Insider.
- Sawers, Paul (November 15, 2017). "Amazon brings Echo, Alexa, and Prime Music to Canada". VentureBeat. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
- Charron, François. "L'assistant vocal Alexa d'Amazon enfin disponible en québécois" (in French).
- Kinsella, Bret (November 15, 2019). "Amazon Alexa Headcount Surpasses 10,000 Employees – Here is the Growth Rate". Voicebot.ai.
- Al-Heeti, Abrar (January 4, 2019). "Amazon has sold more than 100 million Alexa devices". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- Etherington, Darrell (November 6, 2014). "Amazon Echo Is A $199 Connected Speaker Packing An Always-On Siri-Style Assistant". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- Green, Penelope (July 11, 2017). "Alexa, Where Have You Been All My Life?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
When Toni Reid and her colleagues at Amazon set out to build the device that is now known as Alexa, they were inspired by the computer that drove the Enterprise on Star Trek (voiced by Majel Barrett Roddenberry, who played Nurse Chapel on the series and was married to the show's creator). Focusing on cadence and an accent that would suggest 'smart, humble, helpful,' the team tested voices that a diverse population would respond to. 'Our goal was to have Alexa be humanlike,' Ms. Reid said, but why end there?
- "A "Gift of the Web" for the Library of Congress". October 19, 1998. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- Limp, Dave. "The Exec Behind Amazon's Alexa". Fortune. Time Inc. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- "Amazon engineers had one good reason and one geeky reason for choosing the name Alexa". Business Insider. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- "$200 million in investment to fuel voice technology innovation". The Alexa Fund.
- "Summary and Highlights: The First-Ever Alexa Conference". linkedin.com.
- "Bradley Metrock and the Alexa Conference: Alexa As a Game Changer for Search and Publishing". February 2, 2017.
- "Something fishy at the Alexa conference".
- "Project Voice, as a conference, is uniquely organized to juxtapose the major ecosystems (Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, Samsung Bixby, and Microsoft Cortana), with The Voice World Fair running across the entire essential week". Project Voice.
- Donnelly, Grace (May 9, 2018). "Amazon Alexa Will Come Built-In to All New Homes From Lennar". Fortune. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- Lui, Christopher (November 20, 2018). "Amazon Opens First-Ever Alexa Smart Home Retail Space in Canada". Retail-Insider. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
- "Amazon launches Alexa in Brazil later this year". PPC. April 10, 2019. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
- "Amazon Alexa". play.google.com.
- Martin, Taylor; Priest, David (September 10, 2017). "The complete list of Alexa commands so far". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
- Somers, James (April 5, 2018). "The Scientific Paper is Obsolete: Here's what's next". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
- Erickson, Simon; Fool, Moltey (September 22, 2018). ""Alexa, Make Me Money": Conversational AI Prepares for the Enterprise". Nasdaq. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
- Kendrick, James (January 31, 2015). "Amazon Echo update adds Pandora, iTunes, and Spotify voice control". ZDNet. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- "Alexa Skills". Retrieved August 30, 2019.
- Webb, Kevin (December 30, 2018). "These were the 25 most popular Alexa skills of 2018, according to Amazon". Retrieved August 30, 2019.
- Haselton, Todd (December 18, 2019). "Apple, Google and Amazon are cooperating to make your home gadgets talk to each other". CNBC. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- "Amazon.com Announces First Quarter Sales up 17% to $59.7 Billion". April 25, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
- Perez, Sarah (June 3, 2016). "Amazon Alexa now has over 1,000 Functions, up from 135 in January". TechCrunch. Retrieved August 5, 2016.
- "Microsoft, Amazon release preview of Alexa and Cortana collaboration - The AI Blog". The AI Blog. August 15, 2018. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
- "Alexa Replaces Some Spoken Responses With Beeps". PCMAG. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- "Alexa gets access to Wolfram Alpha's knowledge engine". Tech Crunch. December 20, 2018. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
- Tofel, Kevin (May 2, 2015). "Amazon Echo just became much more useful with IFTTT support". ZDNet.
- "Amazon Echo controls Belkin WeMo and Philips Hue with your voice". Engadget. April 8, 2015.
- Tofel, Kevin (July 9, 2015). "Amazon Echo can now control Wink smart home products". ZDNet.
- "Hey Alexa, Meet Yonomi". Yonomi. March 22, 2016.
- Callaham, John (April 8, 2013). "Amazon Echo owners can now control WeMo and Philips Hue devices with their voice". Connectedly. Mobile Nations.
- Lauren Goode; Michael Calore. "Is There an Echo in Here? All the Hardware Amazon Announced". WIRED. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
- Wong, Raymond (February 7, 2017). "How to order a pizza with Amazon Alexa or Google Home". Mashable. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Heathman, Amelia (September 14, 2016). "The 10 best launch partners for Amazon Echo's Alexa". Wired UK. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- Kell, John (January 30, 2017). "Starbucks adds voice ordering on iPhone, Amazon's Alexa". Fortune. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Filloon, Whitney (January 5, 2017). "Amazon's Alexa Will Order Restaurant Delivery On Command". Eater. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- "Amazon launches smart lock and security cam system to take in-home deliveries for Prime members, with iPhone app alerts". 9to5Mac. October 25, 2017. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
- Anand, Priya (August 6, 2018). "The Reality Behind Voice Shopping Hype". The Information. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "Amazon.com Help: Ways to Listen to Music & Media on Alexa". amazon.com.
- "Amazon.com Help: Listen to Your Sports Update". amazon.com.
- "Amazon.com Help: About Alexa Messaging". amazon.com.
- "Amazon.com Help: Add and Edit Your Contacts to the Alexa App". amazon.com.
- "Amazon.com Help: Availability of Alexa-to-Alexa Calling and Messaging". amazon.com.
- Novet, Jordan (November 30, 2017). "Amazon officially unveils Alexa for Business". CNBC. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- McLean, Asha (November 30, 2017). "Alexa for Business: 10 key takeaways". ZDNet. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- Ricker, Thomas (March 5, 2020). "Alexa adds severe weather alerts and new features for commuters". The Verge. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Alexa can now provide traffic updates and severe weather alerts". Engadget. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Alexa Skills Kit - Build for Voice with Amazon". developer.amazon.com. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "Understanding the Updated Smart Home Skill API (Preview)". Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- "Create a Smart Home with Amazon Alexa". Amazon Developer.
- "Host a Custom Skill as an AWS Lambda Function | Custom Skills". developer.amazon.com. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Gagliordi, Natalie (April 19, 2018). "Amazon intros Blueprints, code free templates to create Alexa skills". ZDNet. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Romano, Benjamin (February 19, 2019). "Amazon lets amateurs publish custom Alexa apps to reach broad audiences". The Star Online.
- "Alexa Voice Service". developer.amazon.com. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Sepp Hochreiter; Jürgen Schmidhuber (1997). "Long short-term memory". Neural Computation. 9 (8): 1735–1780. doi:10.1162/neco.19188.8.131.525. PMID 9377276. S2CID 1915014.
- Felix A. Gers; Jürgen Schmidhuber; Fred Cummins (2000). "Learning to Forget: Continual Prediction with LSTM". Neural Computation. 12 (23): 2451–2471. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.55.5709. doi:10.1162/089976600300015015. PMID 11032042. S2CID 11598600.
- Vogels, Werner (November 30, 2016). "Bringing the Magic of Amazon AI and Alexa to Apps on AWS". All Things Distributed.
- Baig, Edward C. "Want to work at McDonald's? Ask Alexa or the Google Assistant for help". USA TODAY. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
- Kelion, Leo (September 25, 2019). "Amazon Alexa gets Samuel L Jackson's voice". Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- "Alexa Can Now Speak Spanish in the US". MakeUseOf. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
- Arora, Akhil (September 14, 2020). "Amitabh Bachchan to Be Alexa's First Indian Celebrity Voice". Retrieved September 14, 2020.
- "AWS Announces Three New Amazon AI Services". businesswire.com. Business Wire. November 30, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- Barr, Jeff (November 30, 2016). "Amazon Lex – Build Conversational Voice & Text Interfaces". aws.amazon.com. Amazon. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- "Amazon announces Echo, a $199 voice-driven home assistant". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
- "How private is Amazon Echo?". Slashgear.com. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
- "Amazon Alexa". Alexa.amazon.com. Retrieved August 2, 2016.
- "Amazon Now An Open Book On Search Warrants And Subpoenas".
- "Watch Alexa rap with Too Many T's in this interactive music video – TechCrunch". techcrunch.com.
- "Woman Shocked When Alexa Tells Her To Kill Herself | 92.5 WESC | Charlie Munson". 92.5 WESC. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- Mike, Bantick (February 17, 2017). "Control your car from the lounge". Motoring. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017.
- Edwards 2017-10-18T06:56:10.290Z, Luke. "Garmin Speak puts Alexa in your car for super smart voice controls". T3. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
- "Turning an Amazon Echo Into a Spy Device Only Took Some Clever Coding". wired.com. Wired. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
- NG, Alfred. "Amazon's Alexa had a flaw that let eavesdroppers listen in". cnet.com. cnet. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
- McCarthy, Kieren (December 20, 2018). "2018 ain't done yet... Amazon sent Alexa recordings of man and girlfriend to stranger". The Register. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
- "Alexa, what's my neighbor doing? 'Human error' allows user to eavesdrop on stranger's life". RT International. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Chokshi, Niraj (May 25, 2018). "Is Alexa Listening? Amazon Echo Sent Out Recording of Couple's Conversation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Cuthbertson, Anthony (April 2019). "Secretion of sulfuric acid in Cassidaria echinophora Lamarck (Mollusca: Mesogastropoda, marine carnivorous snail)". Independent. 53 (1): 101–3. doi:10.1016/s0300-9629(76)80019-9. PMID 173.
- Adam, Adam (2018). Amazon Echo Dot 2018: Does Alexa Spy On You? A Guide With All The Answers About Your Amazon Echo Dot (3rd Generation, Amazon Echo, Dot, Echo Dot, Amazon Echo User Manual, Echo Dot Ebook, Amazon Dot). Independently published. ISBN 9781731182425.
- Leavitt, Sara (2019). ""Hey Alexa - Mind your Own Business":The Consumer Perception of Personalized Advertisements" (PDF). Endicott College.
- "Amazon Echo Recordings Could Contain Evidence For NH Double-Murder Trial". November 9, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Thrivin' for the Truth, BREAKING! Chris Watts CONFESSION Interview, retrieved December 30, 2018
- Kröger, Jacob Leon; Lutz, Otto Hans-Martin; Raschke, Philip (2020). "Privacy Implications of Voice and Speech Analysis – Information Disclosure by Inference". 576: 242–258. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-42504-3_16. ISSN 1868-4238. Cite journal requires
- "Amazon.com brings Alexa to Brazil, kicks off pre-orders for devices". Reuters. October 3, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
- Kharpal, Arjun (September 14, 2016). "Amazon launches its AI-powered speaker Echo in Europe". CNBC. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Russell, Jon. "Amazon launches its Echo devices and Alexa in Japan". TechCrunch. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Lewis, Michael (December 5, 2017). "Amazon's Alexa going live in Canada". The Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "Amazon Echo expands to 28 more countries". The Verge. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "Amazon Echo and Alexa launch in Ireland". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. January 25, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- "Amazon Echo devices are headed to Australia and New Zealand in February". The Verge. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "Alexa echo france price date specs". The Verge.
- Liao, Shannon (October 24, 2018). "Amazon's Echo and Alexa devices come to Spain and Italy". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- Holt, Kris (June 19, 2018). "Alexa and Echo will arrive in Italy and Spain later this year". Engadget. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Wiggers, Kyle (November 7, 2018). "Amazon launches Alexa, Echo devices, and Amazon Music in Mexico". VentureBeat. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Mari, Angelica (March 19, 2019). "Amazon kicks off Alexa trial in Brazil". ZDNet. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- "Amazon lança Alexa e dispositivos Echo no Brasil". G1.
- Heater, Brian (September 1, 2018). "Alexa is now available on 20,000 devices". TechCrunch. Oath Inc. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- Biggs, John (October 4, 2017). "Sonos announces Alexa-controlled wireless speakers". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- "Alexa on Sonos | Sonos". Sonos. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Barrett, Brian (January 3, 2017). "Lenovo's Smart Speaker Marries Up Alexa Smarts and Harman Kardon Sounds". Wired. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
- Singleton, Micah (August 31, 2017). "Harman's Alexa speaker is 100x uglier than its Cortana speaker". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- "HARMAN Adds Harman Kardon Astra with Amazon Alexa to Lineup of Voice Controlled Speakers". American City Business Journals. February 27, 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Langridge, Max (August 2, 2017). "KitSound Voice One gives Alexa the audio oomph she needs". Pocket-lint.
- Daugherty, Trevor (August 9, 2017). "Anker's new Alexa-powered Eufy Genie undercuts Echo Dot on price". 9to5Toys. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
- Bohn, Dieter (April 28, 2016). "This adorable Bluetooth speaker puts Alexa on your fridge". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- Torres, Timothy (September 3, 2016). "Eyes On: LG's SmartThinQ Hub With Alexa". PC Magazine. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Nicolakis, Theo (January 6, 2017). "Onkyo's VC-FLX1 smart speaker combines Alexa, sensors, and a webcam".
- "Fabriq's smart speaker packs Alexa into a brand new package". CNET. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Brown, Michael (November 13, 2017). "Fabriq Chorus review: This Alexa-powered smart speaker is an excellent value". TechHive. International Data Group. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Pullen, John Patrick (December 15, 2016). "6 Can't-Miss Gadgets Powered By Amazon's Alexa Assistant". TIME.com. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Lulu, Chang (January 3, 2017). "Talk back to your alarm clock with the Alexa-enabled Vobot Clock". Digital Trends. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- Patel, Idrees (December 29, 2017). "Xiaomi's Yeelight Speaker Uses Alexa and Looks Like an Amazon Echo Dot". XDA Developers. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- Soper, Taylor (January 9, 2018). "Polk Audio debuts first voice-controlled sound bar with Amazon Alexa". GeekWire. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Goldman, Joshua (September 6, 2018). "Brilliant Control touchscreen home hub with Alexa now available". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
- Potuck, Michael (August 28, 2018). "Bose unveils new smart speaker and soundbars with Alexa voice control, AirPlay 2 and Google Assistant coming soon". 9to5Toys. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
- Dent, Steve (August 30, 2018). "Marshall taps Alexa for its first smart speakers". Engadget. Oath Inc. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
- Colline, Katie (August 31, 2018). "Huawei joins the Alexa-powered smart speaker club with the AI Cube". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
- St Leger, Henry (August 29, 2018). "RIVA Voice Series goes all-out on Alexa in new speaker range". Techradar.
- Lee, Dami (August 29, 2018). "Libratone's cute Zipp 2 and Zipp Mini 2 speakers come with Alexa". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- Dipane, Jared (August 30, 2018). "Soundcore by Anker announces the Flare S+, its first Bluetooth speaker with Alexa built-in". Android Central. Mobile Nations. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- Deahl, Dani (January 3, 2018). "Klipsch brings Google Assistant and Alexa support to its smart sound bars". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
- Rothman, Wilson (September 17, 2015). "Amazon Fire TV Gets 4K Video and the Alexa Virtual Assistant". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Fowler, Geoffrey A. (June 21, 2018). "Amazon's Fire TV Cube wants to replace your remote, but Alexa gets a little tongue-tied". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- "Element Integrates Amazon Fire TV Into New Sets". Daily Herald. May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Kerr, Dara; Fox Rubin, Ben (September 20, 2018). "Alexa is coming to Sony smart TVs". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
- "Supported Alexa Features". Amazon. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- "Amazon's new Fire HD 8 is its first tablet with Alexa". Engadget. September 8, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- Fingas, Jon (September 19, 2017). "Amazon's $150 Fire tablet summons Alexa hands-free". Engadget. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- "Huawei's Mate 9 Becomes the First Alexa Phone". PC Magazine. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- "HTC U11 hands-on—A squeezable, all-glass device with dual hotword support". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Phelan, David. "HTC U11 Smartphone Innovates Like Crazy: Squeeze It, Talk To Alexa And More". Forbes. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Diaconescu, Adrian (November 4, 2016). "TCL Xess 17.3-inch 'smart home hub' lands on Amazon". Pocketnow. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- Wang, Jules (October 31, 2017). "Dual cameras, water resistance, Alexa, moderate price tag for Moto X4". PocketNow. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- Fingas, Jon (October 21, 2017). "Motorola's newest mod puts an Alexa speaker on your phone". Engadget. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- Gartenberg, Chaim (February 16, 2018). "Essential made an Amazon-exclusive version of its phone with Alexa preinstalled". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- Devine, Richard (January 8, 2018). "Amazon Alexa coming to Windows 10 PCs from ASUS, HP and more". Windows Central. Mobile Nations. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Goldman, Joshua (January 8, 2018). "Lenovo's new ThinkPad X1 laptops join HDR and Alexa chorus". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Forrest, Conner (January 8, 2018). "HP, ASUS, Acer bringing Amazon Alexa integration to laptops and desktops". TechRepublic. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Paul Lee, Paul Lee (April 17, 2019). "All-In-One Smart Voice Router – AC2200 Tri-Band Mesh WiFi Router and Bluetooth speaker with AiMesh support and Amazon Alexa Built-in, AiProtection Pro network security powered by Trend Micro, Two 8W Stereo Speakers". ASUS. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- Krishna, Swapna (June 15, 2017). "Amazon's Dash Wand lets you order groceries with your voice". Engadget. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- Heater, Brian. "GE puts Amazon Alexa inside a funky table lamp". TechCrunch. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
- Wong, Raymond (January 4, 2017). "LG's fancy smart fridge has Alexa and Amazon Fresh built right in". Mashable. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Strange, Adario (August 4, 2016). "Nucleus debuts first Alexa-enabled touchscreen video device". Mashable. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Carman, Ashley (November 2, 2016). "Omate's Yumi robot is an Alexa-enabled tablet with wheels". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
- Chang, Lulu (November 4, 2016). "Omate introduces Yumi, the new face of Alexa". Digital Trends. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
- O'Rourke, Patrick (May 3, 2017). "Ecobee4 smart thermostat with built-in Alexa revealed, but it isn't launching in Canada". MobileSyrup. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Hall, Zac (November 21, 2017). "ecobee launches pilot program for its Alexa-enabled Switch+ light switch ahead of release". 9to5Mac. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
- Lavars, Nick (January 7, 2018). "Alexa-enabled smoke detector doubles as a voice assistant from above". New Atlas. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
- Koetsier, John (March 7, 2018). "This $999 Bathroom Mirror Is Alexa-Powered So You Can Shop While You ..." Forbes. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Clark Estes, Adam (August 30, 2018). "Netgear Stuffed Alexa and a Harman Kardon Speaker Into a Wifi Router For Some Reason". Gizmodo. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
- Etherington, Darrell. "These new headphones let you talk to Amazon's Alexa anywhere you go". TechCrunch. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Lagace, Marc (January 6, 2017). "Meet Lynx, the walking, talking home robot powered by Amazon Alexa". Android Central. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- Karcz, Anthony (June 3, 2016). "Pebble Core Becomes First 3G Ultraportable With Amazon Alexa". Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- Chokkattu, Julian (September 13, 2016). "Onyx communicator lets you talk to people around the globe with a push of a button". Digital Trends. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Goldman, Joshua (April 16, 2016). "CoWatch keeps Amazon Alexa Voice Service at arm's length". CNET. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Graziano, Dan (December 6, 2016). "You can now get Alexa on your wrist, thanks to Martian". CNET. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- "Omate Rise 3G smartwatch slaps Amazon Alexa on your wrist". Engadget. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Langley, Hugh (October 27, 2017). "The Bragi Dash and Dash Pro will now put Alexa right in your ear". Wareable. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- Snider, Mike (January 5, 2017). "Ford plans to take Amazon's Alexa for a ride". USA Today. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Muoio, Danielle (September 27, 2017). "Amazon is adding Alexa to BMW cars in 2018". Business Insider. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Normile, Brian (October 2, 2017). "BMW, Mini Assimilate Full Amazon Alexa Skill Set". Cars.com. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Vanian, Johnathan (January 9, 2018). "Amazon's Alexa Is Coming to Some Toyota and Lexus Cars". Fortune. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Ferris, Robert (January 9, 2018). "Toyota will add Amazon Alexa to select cars in 2018". CNBC. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Beckwith, Jimi (September 28, 2017). "Volkswagen to get Amazon Alexa voice control in connectivity push". Autocar. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- "Garmin Speak". Uncrate. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- Etherington, Darrell (November 14, 2017). "Muse is a simple dedicated Amazon Alexa add-on for the car". TechCrunch. Oath Inc. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Estrada, Zac (January 8, 2018). "Anker steps up its car game with the Alexa-enabled Roav Viva". The Verge. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
- Attkisson, Anna (May 12, 2016). "Alexa Works on Your Phone Now, Too". Tom's Guide. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Warren, Tom (June 7, 2018). "Alexa now runs on the Apple Watch, thanks to Voice in a Can app". The Verge. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Mandaro, Laura (May 28, 2016). "Amazon lets you access Alexa on the web via Echosim.io". USA Today. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Perez, Sarah (March 16, 2017). "Amazon adds Alexa to its main shopping app". TechCrunch. Oath Inc. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Moon, Mariella (September 26, 2017). "Amazon finally adds Alexa support to its Music app". Engadget. Oath Inc. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Wiggers, Kyle (November 16, 2018). "Anki's Vector gets new animations and features ahead of Alexa integration". VentureBeat. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Ashwin Ram (September 29, 2016). "Are you up to the Challenge? Announcing the Alexa Prize: $2.5 Million to Advance Conversational Artificial Intelligence". Amazon developer community posting. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- "Alexa Prize FAQ". developer.amazon.com. Amazon. Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- Blume, Michael. "UW student team wins first place in Amazon Alexa competition". Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Hakkani-Tur, Dilek. "Announcing the 2018 Alexa Prize Winner: University of California, Davis". Retrieved November 27, 2018.
- Zorio, Stephen. "Emory University team wins Alexa Prize Grand Challenge 3". Retrieved August 4, 2020.
- "Build New Voice Experiences with Help from the Alexa Fund". Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "The Alexa Fund". developer.amazon.com. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- "Amazon Alexa Fund crunchbase". crunchbase.com. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- Amazon Alexa Web Portal
- Alexa Skills Store on Amazon.com
- Alexa Compatible Devices on Amazon.com
- Alexa Supported Languages on Amazon.com
- Amazon Alexa for Developers on Amazon.com
- "A Murder Case Tests Alexa's Devotion to Your Privacy". WIRED. February 28, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Amazon Alexa on the App Store
- Amazon Alexa on Google Play
- Alexa Conference