|Trade names||Letairis, Volibris, Pulmonext|
|Elimination half-life||15 hours (terminal)|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||378.428 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
The peptide endothelin constricts muscles in blood vessels, increasing blood pressure. Ambrisentan, which relaxes those muscles, is an endothelin receptor antagonist, and is selective for the type A endothelin receptor (ETA). Ambrisentan significantly improved exercise capacity (6-minute walk distance) compared with placebo in two double-blind, multicenter trials (ARIES-1 and ARIES-2).
Ambrisentan was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and designated an orphan drug, for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
Recent Developments and Publications
This section needs to be updated.April 2020)(
Last Updated 9/2/2015
|8/15/2015 Reprod. Toxicol.||Endothelin receptor activation mediates strong pulmonary vasoconstriction and positive inotropic effect on the heart. These physiologic effects are vital for the development of the fetal cardiopulmonary system. As such, endothelin receptor antagonists such as Ambrisentan are teratogenic.|
|8/27/2015 NEJM||Ambrisentan when used in combination therapy with Tadalafil was found to be more efficacious in treating treatment naive patients with WHO class II or III Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension than monotherapy using either drug.|
Ambrisentan is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (WHO Group 1) in patients with WHO class II or III symptoms to improve exercise capacity and delay clinical worsening.
Endothelin receptor activation mediates strong pulmonary vasoconstriction and positive inotropic effect on the heart. These physiologic effects are vital for the development of the fetal cardiopulmonary system. In addition to this, endothelin receptors are also known to play a role in neural crest cell migration, growth, and differentiation. As such, endothelin receptor antagonists such as Ambrisentan are known to be teratogenic.
Ambrisentan has a high risk of liver damage, and of birth defects if a woman becomes pregnant while taking it. In the U.S., doctors who prescribe it, and patients who take it, must enroll in a special program, the LETAIRIS Education and Access Program (LEAP), to learn about those risks. Ambrisentan is available only through specialty pharmacies.
- "Letairis- ambrisentan tablet, film coated". DailyMed. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- "Ambrisentan Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- Vatter H, Seifert V (2006). "Ambrisentan, a non-peptide endothelin receptor antagonist". Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 24 (1): 63–76. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3466.2006.00063.x. PMID 16939634.
- Frampton JE (2011). "Ambrisentan". American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs. 11 (4): 215–26. doi:10.2165/11207340-000000000-00000. PMID 21623643.
- "Drug Approval Package: Letairis (Ambrisentan) NDA #022081". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 24 December 1999. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- "Volibris EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- "Ambrisentan Orphan Drug Designation and Approval". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- Pollack, Andrew (16 June 2007). "Gilead's Drug Is Approved to Treat a Rare Disease". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2007.
- de Raaf MA, Beekhuijzen M, Guignabert C, Vonk Noordegraaf A, Bogaard HJ (2015). "Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists in fetal development and pulmonary arterial hypertension". Reproductive Toxicology. 56: 45–51. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.06.048. PMID 26111581.
- Galiè, Nazzareno; Barberà, Joan A.; Frost, Adaani E.; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Hoeper, Marius M.; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Peacock, Andrew J.; Simonneau, Gérald; Vachiery, Jean-Luc; Grünig, Ekkehard; Oudiz, Ronald J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; White, R. James; Blair, Christiana; Gillies, Hunter; Miller, Karen L.; Harris, Julia H.N.; Langley, Jonathan; Rubin, Lewis J. (2015). "Initial Use of Ambrisentan plus Tadalafil in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension". New England Journal of Medicine. 373 (9): 834–44. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1413687. hdl:2445/97236. PMID 26308684.
- "Ambrisentan". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.