Ambulacraria

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Ambulacrarians
Temporal range: Early Cambrian - Recent
Nerr0878.jpg
Various sea stars and sea urchins among mussel shells in the rocky intertidal zone of Kachemak Bay.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
(unranked): Bilateria
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
(unranked): Ambulacraria
Phyla

Ambulacraria or Coelomopora is a clade of invertebrate phyla which includes echinoderms and hemichordates;[1] a member of this group is called an ambulacrarian. Phylogenetic analysis suggest the echinoderms and hemichordates separated around 533 million years ago.[2] The Ambulacraria are part of the deuterostomes, a larger clade that also includes the Chordata, Vetulicolia and Saccorhytus.

The two living clades with representative organisms are:

The group Xenoturbellida (two species of worm-like animals) has previously been considered to be in this clade, but is now considered to be placed more basally among Metazoans.[3]

Fossil taxa that may lie on the stem lineage:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli; Smith, Julian; Ronquist, Fredrik; Jondelius, Ulf; Hejnol, Andreas. "Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa". Nature. 530 (7588): 89–93. doi:10.1038/nature16520. 
  2. ^ Sea Cucumber Genome Imparts Insight on Genes Linked to Organ Regeneration
  3. ^ Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Giribet, Gonzalo; Dunn, Casey W.; Hejnol, Andreas; Kristensen, Reinhardt M.; Neves, Ricardo C.; Rouse, Greg W.; Worsaae, Katrine; Sørensen, Martin V. (June 2011). "Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions". Organisms, Diversity & Evolution. 11 (2): 151–172. doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4. 
  4. ^ a b c Caron, J.; Conway Morris, S.; Shu, D. (2010). "Tentaculate fossils from the Cambrian of Canada (British Columbia) and China (Yunnan) interpreted as primitive deuterostomes". PLoS ONE. 5 (3): e9586. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009586. PMC 2833208Freely accessible. PMID 20221405. 
  5. ^ Murray, J.; MacGabhann, B. A. (2010). "Non-mineralised discoidal fossils from the Ordovician Bardahessiagh Formation, Co. Tyrone, Ireland". Irish Journal of Earth Sciences. 28: 1–12. doi:10.3318/IJES.2010.28.1.