Ameenah Gurib

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The Honourable
Ameenah Gurib-Fakim
GCSK
President of Mauritius.png
6th President of Mauritius
In office
5 June 2015 – 23 March 2018
Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth
Pravind Jugnauth
Vice President Monique Ohsan Bellepeau
Barlen Vyapoory
Preceded by Monique Ohsan Bellepeau (Acting)
Succeeded by Barlen Vyapoory (Acting)
Personal details
Born (1959-10-17) 17 October 1959 (age 58)
Surinam, British Mauritius
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Anwar Fakim (1988–present)
Children 2
Residence State House
Alma mater University of Surrey
University of Exeter

Bibi Ameenah Firdaus Gurib-Fakim GCSK[1][2] (born 17 October 1959)[3] is a Mauritian biodiversity scientist who served as the 6th President of Mauritius from 2015 to 2018. In December 2014, she was selected to be the presidential candidate of the Alliance Lepep. After Kailash Purryag resigned on 29 May 2015, both Prime Minister Sir Anerood Jugnauth and Leader of the Opposition Paul Berenger positively welcomed her nomination, which was unanimously approved in a vote in the National Assembly.

Gurib-Fakim is the first woman elected as president of the country and is the third woman to have served as Head of State following Elizabeth II and Monique Ohsan Bellepeau, who acted as President in 2012 following the resignation of President Anerood Jugnauth, and again in 2015 following the resignation of President Kailash Purryag. She is the only president who violated the constitution by not following Section 64 which required the advice of the cabinet before the institution of a commission of inquiry. She is also the only president who faced being impeached by both government and opposition in parliament.

Gurib-Fakim has also been the recipient of various international awards including the L'Oréal-UNESCO Award for Women in Science (2007), Laureate for the National Economic and Social Council (2007), the CTA / NEPAD / AGRA / RUFORUM for ‘African Women in Science’ and the African Union Award for Women in Science.[4] She was also made Commander of the Order of the Star and Key of the Indian Ocean (CSK) by President Anerood Jugnauth in 2008 for her contribution in the education and the scientific sector. She was awarded the Order of the ‘Chevalier de l’Ordre des Palmes Academiques’ by the Government of France in 2009.[5] Upon becoming President, she was automatically elevated to the highest civilian award of Grand Commander of the Star and Key of the Indian Ocean (GSCK).

Since 2017, Gurib-Fakim was subjected to criticism due to her closeness with Álvaro Sobrinho, a controversial Angolan businessman. The scandal reached in peak in the first week of March 2018 whereby the government and the Presidency were not in talking terms. After negotiations, the Prime Minister announced her resignation on 9 March 2018, to be effective as of 15 March.[6] However, she refused to resign afterwards. This caused a constitutional crisis at the highest level of the state. On 16 March 2018, she instituted a commission of inquiry concerning the entire scandale. However, she did not obtain the advice of the cabinet as required by section 64 of the constitution.[7] She therefore submitted her resignation on the next day with effective as from 23 March 2018 at noon.

Early life and education[edit]

Ameenah Gurib was born in the village of Surinam on 17 October 1959, to parents Hassenjee Gurib and Firdaus Durgauhee. She grew up in Plaine Magnien and completed her studies at the primary school in Saint-Patrice. She then moved to Mahébourg Loreto Convent, finishing her Higher School Certificate at Loreto convent Quatre Bornes before flying to England for her undergraduate degree in chemistry. She graduated from the University of Surrey in 1983 with a BSc degree in chemistry. After obtaining her PhD degree in organic chemistry at Exeter University, she returned home in 1987 to take employment at the University of Mauritius.[8]

Career[edit]

She worked as Managing Director of CIDP Research & Innovation (formerly Cephyr, Centre for Phytotherapy Research), where she devoted her time to researching the medical and nutritive implications of indigenous plants of Mauritius.[9] Previously, she was a Professor with a personal chair in Organic Chemistry at the University of Mauritius (2001) and where she served successively as Dean of the Faculty of Science and Pro–Vice Chancellor (2004–2010). She also worked at the Mauritius Research Council as Manager for Research (1995–1997).[4] She served as the Chairperson the International Council for Scientific Union – Regional Office for Africa (2011–2014).[10]

Presidency and Subsequent Resignation[edit]

From 2015, her approval rates were extremely favorable. However, as from 2016, Gurib was subjected to controversies due to her relationship with Álvaro Sobrinho, a highly controversial Angolan businessman. She was listed as a director on the board of the Planet Earth Institute (PEI), the foundation of Álvaro Sobrinho.[11] She furthermore sent emails to the Financial Services Commission to request that a banking license be provided by the latter to Sobrino.[12] She had various missions which was paid by the PEI. All this was viewed as extremely embarrassing as a sitting President was using money from a private foundation to operate. In March 2018, Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, was alleged to have spent several hundred thousand rupees for personal purchases, among others, on a Platinum credit card offered by the Planet Earth Institute (PEI).[13] In view of section 30 of the Mauritian Constitution, a sitting president is not allowed to obtain any benefits, emoluments, income apart from the salary and allowed paid to him/her by the state. The government led by Pravind Jugnauth demanded that she resigns immediately as she would embarrass the government and the activities planned in respect of the 50th anniversary of the independence of Mauritius. Jugnauth requested an audience from the President and later confirmed that they are in total disagreement.[14] This led to a constitutional crisis while the masses demanded her resignation. On 9 March 2018, the Prime Minister announced that the President had agreed to submit her resignation, effective 12 March 2018, after the 50th anniversary of independence celebrations.[15]

Nevertheless, Gurib-Fakim later refused to resign claiming her innocence and insinuating that she was dragged into the matter by other people involved. Various political sources presumed that there were 3 members of the government involved. While the government was finding constitutional ways to make her leave the Presidency, she maintained her position. On 16th March 2018, she appointed a commission of inquiry to make public the entire sobrino scandal and to show her innocence. Many constitutional experts confirmed that the appointment of such a commission violated section 64 of the Constitution. It was concluded that she violated the constitution. The next day, she drafted her resignation letter and submitted it in the hands of the Speaker of the National Assembly Maya Hanoomanjee to be delivered to the Assembly members. After the resignation which took effect on 23 March 2018 at noon, Barlen Vyapoory, the actual Vice-President became Acting President.

Vice-chancellor appointment[edit]

In December 2013 Dr. Gurib-Fakim made a complaint to the Mauritian Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) alleging religious discrimination in the consideration of her application for Vice Chancellor of the University of Mauritius (UoM). The EOC investigation found that this was not the case, but noted shortcomings in the selection process. The report cited the lack of clear criteria and mark sheets for evaluating candidates. Similarly, the last word went to Professor Jugessur, then president of the Council of the UoM if tiebreak.[16]

Gurib-Fakim eventually left her position as Professor at the University to open her own science center known as CIDP Research & Innovation where she is the Managing Director.[citation needed]

Personal life[edit]

In 1988, she married Dr. Anwar Fakim who is a surgeon. She has two children; a son and a daughter. She is currently resident of the town of Quatre-Bornes, Mauritius. She lives with her husband, children and her elderly parents.[citation needed]

Honours and awards[edit]

Honours[edit]

National honours[edit]

Foreign honours[edit]

Awards[edit]

National awards[edit]

  •  Mauritius: Laureate for the National Economic and Social Council[17]

Foreign and international awards[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Academic works[edit]

  • Aumeeruddy-Elalfi, Z.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Mahomoodally, F. "Antimicrobial, antibiotic potentiating activity and phytochemical profile of essential oils from exotic and endemic medicinal plants of Mauritius". Industrial Crops and Products. 71: 197–204. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.03.058. 
  • Seebaluck, R.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Mahomoodally, F. "Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)–A review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 159: 137–157. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2014.10.040. PMID 25446604. 
  • Rangasamy, O.; Mahomoodally, F. M.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Quetin-Leclercq, J. "Two anti-staphylococcal triterpenoid acids isolated from Psiloxylon mauritianum (Bouton ex Hook.f.) Baillon, an endemic traditional medicinal plant of Mauritius". South African Journal of Botany. 93: 198–203. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2014.03.017. 
  • ElSawy, N. A.; Hadda, T. B.; Bakr, E. H.; Header, E.A.M.; Fakim, A. G.; Mabkhot, Y. N.; Aljofan, M. "Effects of Crude Aqueous Extract of Origanum vulgaris in Developing Ovary of Rabbits Following in Utero, Adolescent and Postpubertal Exposure". Vedic Research International Phytomedicine. 2: 73. doi:10.14259/pm.v2i3.142. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Mahomoodally, M. F. "African Flora as Potential Sources of Medicinal Plants : Towards the Chemotherapy of Major Parasitic and Other Infectious Diseases : A Review". Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. 6: 77–84. doi:10.12816/0000263. 
  • Mahomoodally, F. M.; Subratty, A. H.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Choudhary, M. I. "Antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxicity evaluation of selected medicinal plants of the Mascarene Islands". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 12. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-165. 
  • Mahomoodally, F.; Mesaik, A.; Choudhary, M. I.; Subratty, A. H.; Gurib-Fakim, A. "In vitro modulation of oxidative burst via release of reactive oxygen species from immune cells by extracts of selected tropical medicinal herbs and food plants". Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 5: 440–447. doi:10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60075-3. 
  • Mahomoodally, M. F.; Subratty, A. H.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Choudhary, M. I.; Khan, S. N. "Traditional Medicinal Herbs and Food Plants Have the Potential to Inhibit Key Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes In Vitro and Reduce Postprandial Blood Glucose Peaks In Vivo". The Scientific World Journal. 2012: 1–9. doi:10.1100/2012/285284. 
  • MAHOMOODALLY, M.; GURIB FAKIM, A.; SUBRATTY, A. H. "INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF A TRADITIONAL ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL FRUIT EXTRACT ON THE TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE AND D‐GLUCOSE ACROSS RAT EVERTED INTESTINAL SACS‐ POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIP WITH A "CRABTREE EFFECT"". Journal of Food Biochemistry. 36: 107–115. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00504.x. 
  • Leyssen, P.; Litaudon, M.; Guillemot, J.; Rasoanaivo, P.; Smadja, J.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Canard, B.; Guéritte, F. "PHYTOCHIK: Biodiversity As A Source of Selective Inhibitors of CHIKV Replication". Antiviral Research. 90: A36–A37. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.03.048. 
  • Mahomoodally, M. F.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, A. H. "Screening for Alternative Antibiotics: An Investigation into the Antimicrobial Activities of Medicinal Food Plants of Mauritius". Journal of Food Science. 75: M173–M177. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01555.x. 
  • Mahomoodally, M. F.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, A. H. "Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Endemic Medicinal Plants of Mauritius". 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Gueho, J.; Sewraj-Bissoondoyal, M. "The Medicinal Plants of Mauritius – Part 1". Pharmaceutical Biology. 35: 237–254. doi:10.1076/phbi.35.4.237.13313. 
  • Jelager, L.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Adsersen, A. "Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants of Mauritius". Pharmaceutical Biology. 36: 153–161. doi:10.1076/phbi.36.3.153.6345. 
  • Dutta, A.; Sarkar, D.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Mandal, C.; Chatterjee, M. "In vitro and in vivo activity of Aloe vera leaf exudate in experimental visceral leishmaniasis". Parasitology Research. 102: 1235–1242. doi:10.1007/s00436-008-0899-2. 
  • Mahomoodally, M. F.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, A. H. "Effect of exogenous ATP on Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) induced inhibition of D-glucose, L-tyrosine and fluid transport across rat everted intestinal sacs in vitro". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 110: 257–263. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.020. PMID 17092672. 
  • Rangasamy, O.; Raoelison, G.; Rakotoniriana, F. E.; Cheuk, K.; Urverg-Ratsimamanga, S.; Quetin-Leclercq, J.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, A. H. "Screening for anti-infective properties of several medicinal plants of the Mauritians flora". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 109: 331–337. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.08.002. PMID 17011733. 
  • Marie, D.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Gray, A.; Waterman, P. "Constituents of Psiadia terebinthina AJ Scott, an endemic Asteraceae from Mauritius". Natural Product Research. 20: 1169–1175. doi:10.1080/14786410600898847. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A. "Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow". Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 27: 1–93. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2005.07.008. 
  • Kotowaroo, M. I.; Mahomoodally, M. F.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, A. H. "Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible alpha-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro". Phytotherapy Research. 20: 228–231. doi:10.1002/ptr.1839. 
  • Mahomoodally, M. F; Gurib Fakim, A.; Subratty, A. H. "Stimulatory effects of Antidesma madagascariense on D-glucose, L-tyrosine, fluid and electrolyte transport across rat everted intestine, comparable to insulin action in vitro". British journal of biomedical science. 
  • Subratty, A. H.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Mahomoodally, F. "Bitter melon: an exotic vegetable with medicinal values". Nutrition & Food Science. 35: 143–147. doi:10.1108/00346650510594886. 
  • Mahomoodally, M. F.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty., A. H. "Experimental evidence for in vitro fluid transport in the presence of a traditional medicinal fruit extract across rat everted intestinal sacs". Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology. 19: 87–92. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2004.00311.x. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, H.; Narod, F.; Govinden-Soulange, J.; Mahomoodally, F. "Biological activity from indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 77. doi:10.1351/pac200577010041. 
  • Govinden-Soulange, J.; Magan, N.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Gauvin, A.; Smadja, J.; Kodja, H. "Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from endemic Psiadia species growing in Mauritius". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 27: 1814–1818. doi:10.1248/bpb.27.1814. 
  • Mahomoodally, M. F.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, A. H. "Momordica charantia extracts inhibit uptake of monosaccharide and amino acid across rat everted gut sacs in-vitro". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 27: 216–218. doi:10.1248/bpb.27.216. 
  • Besse, P.; DaSilva, D.; Humeau, L.; Govinden-Soulange, J.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Kodja, H. "A genetic diversity study of endangered Psiadia species endemic from Mauritius Island using PCR markers". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 31: 1427–1445. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(03)00131-5. 
  • Pedersen, O.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; H., Subratty; Adsersen, A.; Figier, J. "Pharmacological Properties of Seven Medicinal Plants of the Rubiaceae from Mauritius". Pharmaceutical Biology. 37: 202–207. doi:10.1076/phbi.37.3.202.6300. 
  • Kodja, H.; Robene-Soustrade, I.; L., Humeau; Dulloo, E.; Figier, J.; Govinden-Soulange, J.; Gurib-Fakim, A. "Micropropagation of Psiadia arguta through cotyledonary axillary bud culture". Plant Growth Regulation. 25: 75–80. doi:10.1023/A:1005913116300. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A. "Volatile Constituents of the Leaf Oil of Artemisia verlotiorum Lamotte and Ambrosia tenuifolia Sprengel (Syn.: Artemisia psilostachya auct. non L.)". Journal of Essential Oil Research. 8: 559–561. doi:10.1080/10412905.1996.9700689. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Sewraj, M.; J., Gueho; Dulloo, E. "Medicinal Plants of Rodrigues". Pharmaceutical Biology. 34: 2–14. doi:10.1076/phbi.34.1.2.13177. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Bourrel, C.; H., Kodja; Govinden, J. "Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Psiadia lithospermifolia (Lam.) Cordem. and P. viscosa (Lam.) A. J. Scott of the Asteraceae Family". Journal of Essential Oil Research. 7: 533–535. doi:10.1080/10412905.1995.9698579. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Sewraj, M.; F., Narod; Menut, C. "Aromatic Plants of Mauritius: Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oils of Coleus aromaticus Benth., Triphasia trifolia (Burm.f.) and Eucalyptus kirtoniana F. Muell". Journal of Essential Oil Research. 7: 215–218. doi:10.1080/10412905.1995.9698504. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Demarne, F. "Constituents of the Essential Oil of the Leaves of Pittosporum balfourii Growing in Rodrigues". Planta Medica. 60: 584–585. doi:10.1055/s-2006-959581. PMID 17236088. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Demarne, F. "Aromatic Plants of Mauritius: Volatile Constituents of the Leaf Oils of Citrus aurantium L., Citrus paradisi Macfad and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck". Journal of Essential Oil Research. 7: 105–109. doi:10.1080/10412905.1995.9698477. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Demarne, F. "Volatile Constituents of Dracaena reflexa Lam. var. angustifolia Baker". Planta Medica. 6: 651–652. doi:10.1080/10412905.1994.9699363. 
  • Gurib-Fakim. "Constituents of the Essential Oils from Piper sylvestre Growing in Mauritius" (PDF). Planta Medica. 60: 376–377. doi:10.1055/s-2006-959506. PMID 17236059. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Demarne, F. "Essential Oil of Terminalia bentzoë (L.) L. f. subsp. rodriguesensis Wickens". Journal of Essential Oil Research. 6: 533–534. doi:10.1080/10412905.1994.9698443. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Sewraj, M.; Gueho, J.; Dulloo, E. "Studies on the Antisickling Properties of Extracts of Sideroxylon puberulum, Faujasiopsis flexuosa, Cardiospermum halicacabum , and Pelargonium graveolens". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 39: 175–185. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(93)90034-3. 
  • Gurib-Fakim, A.; Sewraj, M. "Studies on the Antisickling Properties of Extracts of Sideroxylon puberulum, Faujasiopsis flexuosa, Cardiospermum halicacabum , and Pelargonium graveolens". Planta Medica. 58: 648–649. doi:10.1055/s-2006-961657. 

Popular publications[edit]

  • Plantes médicinales de l'Ile Rodrigues (1994)
  • Plantes médicinales de Maurice (1995)
  • Natural toxins and poisonous plants of Mauritius (1999)
  • Maurice par des plantes médicinales (2002)
  • Mauritius through its medicinal plants (2002)
  • Molecular and therapeutic aspects of redox biochemistry (2004)
  • An illustrated guide to the flora of Mauritius and the Indian Ocean Islands (2003)
  • Medicinal Plants of the Indian Ocean Islands (2004)
  • Guide illustré de la Flore de Maurice et des îles de l'Océan Indien (2004)
  • Biodiversity towards drugs development (2005)
  • Booklet on 'Medicinal Plants at the state House, Le Réduit' (2005)
  • Lesser-known and under-utilised plant resources (2005)
  • Ressources végétales méconnues et sous-utilisées (2005)
  • Guide illustré de la Flore de Maurice et des îles de l’Océan Indien (2006)
  • Medicinal Plants of Mauritius and of the World (2007, 2011)
  • Plantes Médicinales de Maurice et d’ailleurs (2007, 2011)
  • Plantes d’hier et médicaments d’aujourd’hui (2008)
  • Mieux connaitre les Arbres et Arbrisseaux de Maurice et des Iles de l'Ocean Indien(2008)
  • Towards a better understanding of Trees and Shrubs of Mauritius and the Indian Ocean Islands (2009)
  • African Herbal Pharmacopoeia (2010)
  • Guide des Plantes Tropicales de l'Ile Maurice et de La Réunion (2011)
  • Trees of the World (2013)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Prime Minister's Office - National Day Honours 2008". Republic of Mauritius. 
  2. ^ a b "Her Excellency Dr. (Mrs) Bibi Ameenah Firdaus Gurib-Fakim, G.C.S.K., C.S.K President of the Republic of Mauritius". The President of the Republic. Retrieved 2015-06-05. 
  3. ^ "Ameenah Gurib-Fakim : " Je suis une emmerdeuse, c'est ça ? "". Retrieved 2015-05-31. 
  4. ^ a b http://www.icsu.org/icsu-africa/about-icsu-roa/about-us/files/ShortBiographyProfFakim.pdf
  5. ^ "Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah". 
  6. ^ "[VIDEO] Départ de la présidente après les célébrations du 12 Mars 2018". Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation. 2018-03-09. Retrieved 2018-03-09. 
  7. ^ "Crise au sommet de l'État : Ameenah Gurib-Fakim nomme une commission d'enquête sur sa conduite, Sobrinho et les cartes de crédit". Defimedia (in French). 2018-03-16. Retrieved 2018-06-11. 
  8. ^ "AMEENAH GURIB-FAKIM: "Cette nomination a déjà fait sauter quelques verrous"". lemauricien.com. 
  9. ^ Ameenah Gurib-Fakim. "Ameenah Gurib-Fakim: Humble plants that hide surprising secrets - TED Talk - TED.com". ted.com. 
  10. ^ "Prof. Ameenah Gurib-Fakim Joins SAA - Spa & Wellness Association of Africa". Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  11. ^ Mestry, Anne-Lise (2017-03-20). "Directrice de Planet Earth Institute: Ameenah Gurib-Fakim «n'était pas rémunérée»". lexpress.mu (in French). Retrieved 2018-06-11. 
  12. ^ "Affaire Sobrinho : Ameenah Gurib-Fakim au centre des emails échangés". Defimedia (in French). 2017-04-08. Retrieved 2018-06-11. 
  13. ^ Rédaction, La (2018-02-28). "Affaire Sobrinho: les folles dépenses de Madame la présidente". lexpress.mu (in French). Retrieved 2018-06-11. 
  14. ^ "[Vidéo] Pravind Jugnauth : «Nous ne sommes pas sur la même longueur d'onde avec Ameenah Gurib-Fakim»". Defimedia (in French). 2018-03-06. Retrieved 2018-06-11. 
  15. ^ "[VIDEO] Départ de la présidente après les célébrations du 12 Mars 2018". Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation. 2018-03-09. Retrieved 2018-03-09. 
  16. ^ "EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES COMMISSION—AFFAIRE GURIB-FAKIM: Troublantes révélations sur les promotions à l'UoM". lemauricien.com. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i "ICSU-ROA Committee Member- Biography for ICSU Website" (PDF). International Council for Science. Retrieved 2 June 2015. 
  18. ^ http://president.govmu.org/English/The-President/Pages/Profile.aspx
  19. ^ "HONOUR BESTOWED UPON HER EXCELLENCY THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF MAURITIUS, AMEENAH GURIB-FAKIM". Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies. 8 January 2016. 
  20. ^ "Ameenah Gurib-Fakim". Sorbonne Universities. 12 December 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Monique Ohsan Bellepeau
Acting
President of Mauritius
2015–2018
Succeeded by
Barlen Vyapoory
Acting