American-Soviet Peace Walks
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During the 20th century a number of peace walks were organized involving the citizens of the United States and the USSR. These peace walks, or peace marches, represented citizen diplomacy initiatives promoting peace and Nuclear disarmament through direct person-to-person interaction among the citizens of the two Cold War opponent states.
1960–1961 San Francisco to Moscow Walk
A peace walk from San Francisco, USA to Moscow, USSR took place from December 1960 to October 1961. The walk was organized by Committee for Nonviolent Action and promoted nonviolence and unilateral nuclear disarmament.
Books and Book Chapters
Lyttle, B. (1966). You come with naked hands: The story of the San Francisco to Moscow march for peace. Raymond, N.H: Greenleaf Books.
Lehmann, J. (1966). We walked to Moscow. Raymond, N.H: Greenleaf Books.
Deming, Barabara. The long walk for peace: new mission to Moscow. In Christman, H. M. (1964). Peace and arms. New York: Sheed and Ward.
Wernicke, Gunter and Wittner, Lawrence S.(1999) Lifting the Iron Curtain: The Peace March to Moscow of 1960–1961. The International History Review, 21: 4, 900–917.
United Press International. (1961, October 4). Peace Marchers Reach Red Square but Soviet Prohibits Speeches. New York Times, pp. 1–2.
Associated Press. (1961, October 4). Banners Urge Disarmament. New York Times, p. 2.
Syracuse Peace Council (October 16, 1961). San Francisco to Moscow. Peace News Letter, Syracuse, NY: New York State Peace Council.
David N. Rich - San Francisco to Moscow - Walk for Peace 1960 - 1961. David N. Rich's website
1987 Leningrad to Moscow Walk
A 450-mile peace walk from Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) to Moscow in the USSR took place from June 15 to July 8, 1987. The walk, intended to promote peace and help end the nuclear arms race, was organized by the International Peace Walk, Inc. About 230 American and 200 Soviet citizens took part in the walk. To mark the conclusion of the walk, the first rock concert featuring American and Soviet performers took place at the Ismailovo Stadium in Moscow on the 4th of July, symbolically coinciding with the Independence Day holiday in the U.S.
Segal, F., & Basten, F. E. (1988). The American Soviet walk: Taking steps to end the nuclear arms race. Santa Monica, CA: United World of the Universe Foundation.
Graham, B., & Greenfield, R. (2004). Chapter Twenty-One: Rocking Behind the Curtain, In Bill Graham presents: My life inside rock and out (pp. 491–505). New York, N.Y: Da Capo Press.
Brigham, S. (October 1, 2010). The American-Soviet Walks: Large-Scale Citizen Diplomacy at Glasnost's Outset. Peace & Change, 35: 4, pp. 594–625.
DARREN ALLEN, Staff Writer (1987-05-04). "PAIR JOINS PEACE TREK IN USSR AMERICANS, SOVIETS TO WALK 450 MILES". Sun Sentinel. pp. 5.B.
The Washington Post
Minneapolis Star and Tribune
San Francisco Chronicle
Leah Garchik (1987-05-08). "PERSONALS". San Francisco Chronicle. p. 10.
MAITLAND ZANE (1987-06-02). "Hiking a Long Soviet Road for Peace". San Francisco Chronicle. p. 37.
Kathleen Hendrix, Los Angeles Times (1987-06-25). "Soviet City Welcomes Peace Marchers". San Francisco Chronicle. p. 16.
"EAST BAY / Lafayette Report On Peace Walk". San Francisco Chronicle. 1987-07-13. p. 21.
"A walk for peace Series: MARCH TO MOSCOW / A PHOTO DIARY". Chicago Sun-Times. 1987-06-14. p. 20.
"American visitors, Soviet hosts go a great distance to become closer". Chicago Sun-Times. 1987-07-05. p. 6.
"March ends peacefully". Chicago Sun-Times. 1987-07-05. p. 24.
"A walk for peace Series: MARCH TO MOSCOW / A PHOTO DIARY – Chicago Sun-Times". Retrieved 2011-03-22.
The Vancouver Sun
Los Angeles Times
DOUG BROWN (1988-03-14). "Peace Marcher Is Hoping to Persuade the World to Follow in Her Steps". Los Angeles Times. p. 3. ISSN 0458-3035.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, April 7). U.S.-Soviet Anti-Arms March to Moscow Planned. Los Angeles Times, p. 4.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, June 12). Mission to Moscow: Joint Venture for Peace American Contingent in Virginia Trains for Start of Walk Next week at Leningrad. Los Angeles Times, p. 1.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, June 15). Americans Embark on Person-to-Person Soviet Peace Walk. Los Angeles Times, p. 1.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, June 18). Peace Walkers Fit Fun, Friendships Into Tight Schedule. Los Angeles Times, p. 1.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, June 24). Peace Marchers Capture Soviets' Attention: Thousands Greet Walkers With Curiosity and Emotional Displays. Los Angeles Times, p. 1.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, June 26). Rain Fails to Dampen Peace March Spirit. Los Angeles Times,p. 1.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, July 1). Americans Encounter the Soviet Curious. Los Angeles Times, p. 1.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, July 3). The Peace Marchers Arrive in Moscow: Muted Welcome Suggests Parade Played Better in the Provinces. Los Angeles Times, p. 1.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, July 5). Laid-Back Listeners at Moscow Fete 1st American-Soviet Rock Concert Held. Los Angeles Times, p. 5.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1987, July 9). Dramatic Encounter Caps U.S.-Soviet Peace March. Los Angeles Times, p. 1.
Hilburn, Robert. (1987, July 8). City Of Hope Honoree Graham Hopeful About More Rock With Soviets…BUT. Los Angeles Times, p. 1.
Simons, Jamie and Lapidese, Jon. (1987, July 5). Reebok Diplomacy: Allan Affeldt of Newport Beach, the Activist Behind the Peace March on Moscow. Los Angeles Times, p. 16.
Simons, Jamie and Lapidese, Jon. (1987, July 5). Rock in a Hard Place. Los Angeles Times, p. 20.
Willman, Chris. (1987, October 24). Television Reviews: Rock on Cable. Los Angeles Times, p. 11.
The New York Times
Taubman, Philip. (1987, July 5). At Soviet Rock Concert, the Beat of Security. The New York Times.
1988 From Washington D.C. to Santa Monica and to the final events in SAN FRANCISCO CA USA Walk
In June–July 1988, The American Soviet Peace Walk (ASPW) sponsored by the International Peace Walk, Inc. (IPW), organized and sponsored 230 Soviets citizens and 200 Americans from all walks of life. They started their travels from Washington, D.C. went on to Santa Monica, CA and continued on to San Francisco, to experience the America way of life. On July 16, 1988, the final concert was organized and produced by Summer of Love Productions Producers, Ron Frazier and Bill McCarthy, who had hosted the previous June concert event for the marchers in Los Angeles. On July 16, 1988 the American Soviet Peace Walk concert finale event happened at the Band Shell in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park with an estimated public attendance of 25,000 plus. The Producers give many thanks to all participants, the volunteers, and performing friends of the Summer of Love 20th Anniversary 1987 series that benefited the San Francisco Food Bank and ran through to the Concert of July 16, 1988. Congratulations are given to both the American and Soviet Performing Artists of the “American Soviet Peace Walk Concert”. Participants and performances achieved the results as Change Makers that has advanced the cause for Peace and People-to-People Awareness. Artists’ performances in concerts that achieve Global attention are needed as an ongoing effort to sustain awareness of and for Peace. Special Thanks go to; Susan Ramser, Producers Assistant who hosted the Soviet Artists on their arrival to San Francisco with the help of a Cadillac mini-fleet, Arthur Meyer, Artistic Director, and to Pete Sears of the original Jefferson Starship who assisted in the musical coordination and inviting cause-aware musician friends to participate. He organized the final musical portion of the show, as well as playing piano with each act. The Crowd was pleased by Mr. Jerry Garcia helped to promote the event, Pete Sears was responsible for Jerry’s appearance. The Recreation and Parks Department prohibited advertising because they were concerned about fans camping and overcrowding, and so the concert happened without mainstream advertisement. But with the assisted word of mouth promotion, and one free newspaper paragraph event notice and the 1988 finale Poster presented 3 days out, all led to the success of the event. Guest Artists Performers: ALEXANDER GRADSKY, TIME MACHINE, COLLECTIVE VISION, THE TELEPHONE TRUST, YKRANIAN WOMEN’S CHOUS, THE SOVIET YOUTH PERFORMERS…Friends of Summer of Love and special invites; BABA OLATUNJI, JERRY GARCIA. MICKEY HART, GRACE SLICK, MERL SAUNDERS, MIMI FARINA, JOHN CIPPOLINA, PETE SEARS, ZERO, NORTON BUFFALO, MARK BENNO, EMMIT POWELL & THE GOSPELL ELITES, OGIE YOCHA, and surprise guest PAUL KANTNER. The American Soviet Peace Walk 1988 Poster & Beyond Web-Wall: http://www.summeroflove.tv/
News Advisory. (1988, June 17). 220 Soviets arrive in Washington, ready to start cross-country trek. PR Newswire.
Rubin, Trudy. (1988, June 29). Soviet Press: The 'Warriors Of Perestroika'. Philadelphia Inquirer.
Westside Digest. (1988, June 30). Santa Monica: Cross-Country March Honored. Los Angeles Times.
Ziaya, Christine. (1988, July 8). Peace Walkers Reach High Note in Trek: Soviets, Americans Due at Concert. Los Angeles Times.
Hendrix, Kathleen. (1988, July 15). The Great American Glasnost Tour: In a Peace Walk Across the U.S., Soviets Explore the Basics: Bikers, Barbecues and the Beach. Los Angeles Times.
1988 Odessa to Kiev Walk
About 460 American and Soviet citizens walked for peace from Odessa to Kiev in the Ukraine, USSR over five weeks in late summer of 1988.
Americans Gather To Plan 'Peace Walk' In Soviet Union, Associated Press, August 15, 1988.
Martin, James. Soviet-American Peace Walk 1988. exKZ.org. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
1990 Peace Walk in the Russian North
About 50 Americans and 100 Soviets calling themselves “Russian North,” participated in an international peace walk, passing through cities like Archangelsk and Severodvinsk. The march promoted nonviolence and a ban on nuclear testing.
Materials Referencing Multiple Walks
This section includes materials that contain references to more than one peace walk, such as reviews of events which span longer time periods and historical trends.
Sherbakova, V. A. (2009) The Marches of High Hopes. Peace and Conciliation, Journal of the International Federation for Peace and Conciliation of the Russian Federation, 2: 39, 37–45. (text is in Russian language)
– American-Soviet "Peace March" June 16 – July 19, 1988.
– The 20 Year Anniversary of the Soviet-American Peace Walk: Odessa-Kiev.
– Address to all governments and peoples.
– Soviet-American Meeting for Peace, October 12–18, 1990.
- "Papers of the European Organiser of the American-European Peace March from San Francisco to Moscow". The Archives Hub. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Committee for Non-Violent Action". dKosopedia. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- "Committee for Nonviolent Action Records, 1958–1968 (DG 017)". Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Swarthmore College. Archived from the original on 14 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- Segal, Fred; Basten, Fred E. (1988). The American Soviet walk : taking steps to end the nuclear arms race. Santa Monica, CA: United World of the Universe Foundation. ISBN 0-9621677-0-3.
- "International Peace Walk Records (DG 150)". Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Tri-College Consortium. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Willman, Chris (October 24, 1987). "Television Reviews : ROCK ON CABLE". Los Angeles Times.
- Swarthmore College Peace Collection
- Our Move Information and resources on Peace Walks and the American Soviet citizen diplomacy movement against the nuclear arms race.
- International Peace Walk A collection of Los Angeles Times articles about the 1987 and 1988 Walks.
- "If I Were Gorbachev" Reflections on the 1987 and 1988 Walks published in Mandel, W. M. (1999). Ch. 26 in Saying no to power: Autobiography of a 20th-century activist and thinker. Berkeley, Calif: Creative Arts Book Co.