American Heart Association
|Founded||February 26, 1924 (96 years ago)|
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a nonprofit organization in the United States that funds cardiovascular medical research, educates consumers on healthy living and fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke. Originally formed in New York City in 1924 as the Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease, it is currently headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The American Heart Association is a national voluntary health agency.
They are known for publishing guidelines on cardiovascular disease and prevention, standards on basic life support, advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), and pediatric advanced life support (PALS), and in 2014 issued its first guidelines for preventing strokes in women. They are known also for operating a number of highly visible public service campaigns starting in the 1970s, and also operate a number of fundraising events. In 1994, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry publication, released a study that showed the American Heart Association was ranked as the 5th "most popular charity/non-profit in America." The association was listed as the 22nd largest charity by Forbes in 2018.
The mission of the organization, updated in 2018, is "To be a relentless force for a world of longer, healthier lives."
1915–1980s: Founding and early years
The American Heart Association grew out of a set of smaller precursor groups. The primary precursor was the Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease, formed in New York City in 1915, to study whether patients with heart disease could safely return to work. Several similar organizations formed or evolved in Boston, Philadelphia, and Chicago in the 1920s. Recognizing the need for a national organization to share research and promote findings, the American Heart Association was formed in 1924 by six cardiologists representing several of these precursor groups.
The AHA remained small until the 1940s when it was selected for support by Procter & Gamble, via their PR firm, from a list of applicant charities. Procter & Gamble gave $1.5 million from its radio show, Truth or Consequences, allowing the organization to go national. Procter & Gamble turned cottonseeds from a waste product of cotton production into something that could be sold as a supposedly "heart-healthy" alternative to its competition - animal fats, which were mostly saturated. Procter & Gamble were the inventors of the artificial trans-fat margarine called Crisco (Crystallized Cottonseed Oil), which was touted by the AHA as healthier than butter. We now know that the artificial trans-fat from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are detrimental to human health. However, the natural trans fat, CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid), from grass-fed cows is considered healthy and is even widely sold as a supplement.
Recommendations regarding limiting saturated fats and cholesterol emerged from a series of epidemiological studies in the 1950s, and related American Heart Association dietary guidelines emerged between 1957 and 1961. The 1957 AHA report included: (1) Diet may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, (2) The fat content and total calories in the diet are probably important factors, (3) The ratio between saturated and unsaturated fat may be the basic determinant, and (4) A wide variety of other factors besides fat, both dietary and non-dietary, may be important. By 1961, these finding had been strengthened, leading to the new 1961 AHA recommendations: (1) Maintain a correct body weight, (2) Engage in moderate exercise, e.g., walking to aid in weight reduction, (3) Reduce intake of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Increase intake of polyunsaturated fat, (4) Men with a strong family history of atherosclerosis should pay particular attention to diet modification, and (5) Dietary changes should be carried out under medical supervision. These recommendations continued to become more precise from 1957 to 1980, but maintained "a general coherence among them".
1990s–2000s: Awareness campaigns
In 1994, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry publication, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility. The study showed that the American Heart Association was ranked as the fifth "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 95 percent of Americans over the age of 12 choosing Love and Like A lot description category.
On October 28, 2009, The American Heart Association and the Ad Council launched a hands-only CPR public service announcement and website. On November 30, 2009, The American Heart Association announced a new cardiac arrest awareness campaign called Be the Beat. The campaign's aim is to teach 12- to 15-year-olds fun ways to learn the basics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and how to use an automated external defibrillator.
In 2004 the AHA launched the "Go Red for Women" campaign specifically targeting women, with information about risks and action they can take to protect their health. All revenues from the local and national campaigns go to support awareness, research, education and community programs to benefit women.
2012 – present: Recent events and activities
It also carried out a campaign in 2012 to educate more people on how to carry out hands-only CPR. The 2012 campaign, which began in New York City, had Jennifer Coolidge as the spokesperson.
In 2013, the American Heart Association issued a joint guideline recognizing obesity as a disease and recommending its treatment by weight loss.
In 2014, the American Heart Association issued its first guidelines for preventing strokes in women.
In 2018, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology issued new guidelines for clinicians on the management of cholesterol as a way to reduce risk for heart attack and stroke. Newly included in the guidelines is a recommendation to use coronary artery calcium score if healthcare providers are having difficulty deciding if a patient could benefit from statin medications or should focus solely on lifestyle modifications. The cholesterol guidelines were last updated in 2013.
Nancy Brown has been the Chief Executive Officer since 2009.
Ivor Benjamin, M.D., is the volunteer president of the American Heart Association for its 2018–19 fiscal year. James Postl serves as the volunteer chairperson of the board with his two-year term ending on June 30, 2019.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)
The association was criticized for its recommendations of low-fat diets and its "Heart Check Program", which approved unhealthy foods such as processed cereals high in sugar in exchange of a payment. They have misinformed the public on the nature of sodium. Sodium does not affect blood pressure as they state on their website. In excess amounts, sodium is excreted from the body. Sodium intake is often correlated with poor diet and as a result becomes a confounding variable.  The association explained that its recommendations continually evolve according to the latest high quality evidence, and all incomes is versed to scientific research.
The AHA was also criticized in late 2013 regarding their promotion of statins, since the organization receives a lot of funding from pharmaceutical companies in whose interest it is to exaggerate the benefits and minimize the side effects to increase sales, and some research that the organization released regarding statins was conducted in part by scientists with close ties to the industry.
The following journals are published by the American Heart Association:
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- Circulation Research
- Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
- Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease
- Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine
- Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging
- Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions
- Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
- Circulation: Heart Failure
- Circulation Research
- Basic life support
- Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS)
- Pediatric advanced life support (PALS), co-branded with the American Academy of Pediatrics
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- Kritchevsky, David (9 April 1997). History of Recommendations to the Public about Dietary Fat. Experimental Biology 97, Evolution of Ideas about the Nutritional Value of Dietary Fat. New Orleans, LA: American Society for Nutritional Science.
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- "States Should Heed Strong Support for Raising Tobacco Age of Sale, Says American Heart Association | American Heart Association". newsroom.heart.org.
- "2018 Cholesterol Guidelines for Heart Health Announced". Johns Hopkins Medicine Newsroom. 10 November 2018.
- "Growing up in Guyana, his parents encouraged him to dream big. Now he's the AHA president". www.heart.org. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
- "Ivor J. Benjamin, M.D., FAHA". www.heart.org. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
- "James J. Postl". www.heart.org. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
- "Kroger Chairman and CEO Rodney McMullen Appointed to American Heart Association CEO Roundtable". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2020-02-25.
- Roberts, Dr Barbara H. (22 May 2014). "The Heart Association's Junk Science Diet".
- "Meat is not actually bad for you: Yet another piece of bad nutritional science debunked". Washington Examiner. 3 October 2019.
- "Chief Science Officer 'sets record straight' about diet, science, AHA". www.heart.org. 23 May 2014.
- "The American Heart Association -- Protecting Industry Not Patients". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
- "AHA/ASA Journal Submission Sites". AHA/ASA Journals. American Heart Association. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
- "Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology | AHA/ASA Journals". www.ahajournals.org. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
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A detailed history is available on the American Heart Association website.