American Humane Association
|Founder||John Shortall, James Brown|
|Focus||Animal welfare, animal rights, child welfare|
|Method||training, disaster response,|
|Mission||Ensure the welfare, wellness and well-being of children and animals|
|Website||American Humane Association|
The American Humane Association (AHA) is an organization founded in 1877, dedicated to the welfare of animals and children. It was previously called the International Humane Association, before changing its name in 1878. In 1940, it became the sole monitoring body for the humane treatment of animals on the sets of Hollywood films and other broadcast productions. AHA is best known for its trademarked certification "No Animals Were Harmed", which appears at the end of film or television credits. It has also run the Red Star Animal Emergency Services since 1916. In 2000, AHA formed the Farm Animal Services program, an animal welfare label system for food products. The Association is currently headquartered in Washington D.C. It is a section 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.
- 1 Early history
- 2 Charity evaluations
- 3 Red Star Animal Emergency Services
- 4 Publications
- 5 Work in the film industry
- 6 Recent programs
- 7 Child welfare services
- 8 Governance and finances
- 9 Employees
- 10 People
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Sources
- 14 External links
The American Humane Association began on October 9, 1877, as "The International Humane Association," with the amalgamation of 27 organizations from across the US after a meeting at the Kennard House in Cleveland, Ohio. The invitation to the other groups came from the Illinois Humane Society, sent on September 15, 1877, to discuss the specific problem of farm animal maltreatment during their transport between the eastern and western US. Groups attending the meeting included associations from the State of New York, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Maryland, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. A group from Minnesota also pledge its support to the forthcoming results of the conference, though they could not attend, and a group from the Province of Quebec in Canada requested the proceedings be sent to them following the proceedings.
The International Humane Association changed its name to the "American Humane Association" in November 1878. New member organizations were in attendance for their second annual general meeting, held in Baltimore, Maryland, also came from California, Massachusetts, Maine, Delaware, and the District of Columbia. Canadian regions were also included in the Association.
In 1954, tensions within the ranks of American Humane Association members came to a head at the organization's annual meeting, as a member-nominated slate of board candidates stood for office in opposition to a board-nominated slate. The majority of those assembled at the Atlanta, Georgia convention elected the three candidates on the member-nominated slate, J. Perry, Raymond Naramore, and Roland Smith. In the meeting's aftermath, there were firings and resignations on the part of staff members, including Larry Andrews, Marcia Glaser, Helen Jones, and Fred Myers. This core group went on to found a new organization, the National Humane Society,later known as The Humane Society of the United States, as an alternative to AHA.
The American Humane Association's first "No Animals Were Harmed" end credit was issued at the end of the movie The Doberman Gang in 1972.
In 1997, The American Humane Association launched The Front Porch Project in order to prevent child abuse and neglect.
Red Star Animal Emergency Services
According to the The Gettysburg Times, the "American Humane Association began offering animal relief in August, 1916, by accepting an invitation of the War Department to help animals used by the U.S. Army during WWI. The invitation resulted in the development of the American Red Star Animal Relief Program known today as Red Star Rescue Relief. Since its inception, the American Humane Association’s Red Star Animal Emergency Services has responded to national and international disasters, rescuing thousands of animals." Disasters where the group has rescued animals include the 2011 Joplin tornado, Hurricane Katrina, the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Hurricane Sandy, the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, and the September 11 attacks.
Today, Red Star Rescue Relief includes a fleet of emergency response vehicles customized to help animals in disasters, as well as specialized rescue equipment designed specifically for animal search and rescue.
Recently, Red Star Rescue Relief saved hundreds of shelter animals following a F-5 tornado in Oklahoma. In addition to natural disasters, Red Star Rescue Relief also recovers animals from dog-fighting rings, man-made disasters, and hazardous animal shelters.
The American Humane Association has released several books and publications including:
- Animal Stars: Behind the Scenes with Your Favorite Animal Actors (2014) chronicles the animals and trainers in popular movies and TV shows.
- Pet Meets Baby (2011) which provides tips to animal owners on how to prepare for a baby.
- Protecting Children, a quarterly journal focused on child welfare.
Work in the film industry
Film and television unit
The American Humane Association began its work in film in 1939, after an incident that occurred on the set of the film Jesse James. The group began protesting the public release of the film, because of a scene where a horse was forced to run off the edge of a cliff. The horse fell over 70 feet to the ground below and broke its spine, having to be put down afterwards. In 1966 the AHA’s access to some sets was diminished for 14 years following the dismantling of the Hays Office, during which time their jurisdiction was lessened.
By contract with the Screen Actors Guild, AHA monitors animal use on film sets. However, the Screen Actors Guild has no jurisdiction concerning foreign and non-union productions.
In 1980, following the release of Heaven's Gate, the opening of which was met with a national picketing and protest effort after complaints about how the filming of the movie had involved the inhumane treatment of animals – including the deaths of five horses – the Screen Actors Guild negotiated for the universal presence of AHA on the set as part of its union deal, forcing moviemakers to contact AHA in advance of any animal being present on set.
Today the American Humane Association Film and Television Unit specifically oversees animals used during media productions, and it is sanctioned by the Screen Actors Guild to oversee a production's humane care of animals. It is the only organization with jurisdiction to do so within the United States. Because of this, the AHA may choose to issue the end credit disclaimer "No Animals Were Harmed", with a piece of a filmstrip that depicts a dog, a horse and an elephant. The AHA also reports on animal safety during filming if public concerns arise or if animal accidents happen on the set. The American Humane Association protects the animals on the set as well as the cast/crew members who interact with the animals. According to the AHA, they ensure that budgets and time constraints do not compromise the safety or care of the animals.
The AHA's standard of animal care is outlined in the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Animals in Filmed Media, which were established in 1988. It covers large animals, as well as fish, insects, birds, reptiles, and any other living creature. On the set, AHA's Certified Animal Safety Representatives attempt to ensure the Guidelines are upheld. AHA's oversight includes film, television, commercials, music videos, and Internet productions.
In the late 1980s, the Association was accused by Bob Barker and the United Activists for Animal Rights of condoning animal cruelty on the set of Project X and in several other media projects. The basis of the accusation allowing a cattle prod and a gun on set, and rumored beating of the chimpanzee on set. The Association responded by launching a $10 million suit for libel, slander and invasion of privacy against Mr. Barker. The American Humane Association claimed that there had been a two-year "vendetta" against them behind the accusations. In a series of public ads along with the $10 million libel suit, the Association stated that the allegations were made based on insufficient and misleading information. The suit was eventually settled by Barker's insurance company, that paid AHA $300,000.
The Los Angeles Times also reported in 2001, that the AHA Film Unit "has been slow to criticize cases of animal mistreatment, yet quick to defend the big-budget studios it is supposed to police," and that an examination of the Association "also raises questions about the association's effectiveness." The article cites numerous cases of animals injured during filming which the AHA may have overlooked.
In late 2013, the Hollywood Reporter ran a story which implicated the AHA in turning a blind eye to and under reporting incidents of animal abuse on television and movie sets. For example, during the filming of The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, almost 30 animals died. Nevertheless, the movie received a "no animals were harmed" disclaimer. During the filming of the movie Life of Pi, the tiger "King" nearly drowned in a pool, yet this incident was not reported outside of the AHA organization.
In 2000, the American Humane Association's Farm Animals Services program created the first farm animal welfare label to be overseen by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The program began as "Free Farmed" under Adele Douglass, who left AHA in 2003, to found Humane Farm Animal Care. AHA's program is now called "Humane Heartland."
The American Humane Association certifies farms after evaluating them on a five point criteria. The criteria demands that the animals are free from hunger, discomfort, pain, and fear, and that the animals are able to express normal behaviors. Farms that meet this criteria receive an American Humane Certified label.
In the past four years, the number of American Humane Certified animals has jumped more than 1,000%. Over 1 billion animals are now American Humane Certified. As of July 2012, it claimed to include 100 major producers, representing approximately 500 farms, and more than 135 million animals. The auditing is done by the AHA, with the USDA also auditing the certifications to ensure compliance. The label informs purchasers that the AHA has found that the animals were not subjected to unnecessary pain, distress, or fear while being raised. Part of what the program demands is the implementation of minimum space requirements per animal on a farm or in farming facilities. The American Humane Association currently certifies approximately 90 percent of cage-free eggs sold in the U.S.
The American Humane Association Hero Dog Awards
Each year a series of dogs are awarded the Hero Dog Awards, given to dogs that have contributed substantially to human society. There are several categories in which dogs can be nominated, including the Military Dog category. The grand prize for the American Hero Dog was $10,000, which is given to a charity that reflects the contributions of the animal. In 2011 and 2012 the awards were broadcast on the Hallmark Channel. The first winner of the national award was a dog named Roselle, who led his blind owner down from the 78th floor of the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks. There were more than 400,000 votes cast in the online poll that determined the winner. Unfortunately Roselle died several months before the winner was announced. The award was given on November 11, 2011.
Child welfare services
The American Humane Association has several initiatives to improve child welfare services.
Front Porch Project
The American Humane Association launched the Front Porch Project in 1997 in order to prevent child abuse and neglect. The American Humane Association works through 'sustainer' organizations in local communities in order to intervene on behalf of at-risk and abused children.
In addition to building a network of community trainers, the Front Porch Project also invests in evaluating the performance of their initiatives in each of the communities they operate in.
The Fatherhood Initiative
The American Humane Association launched the Fatherhood Initiative in order to develop better methods of engaging non-resident fathers with children who are in the welfare system. The project researches the impact of non-resident fathers on their children, and examines how to foster or improve their relationship.
The Fatherhood Initiative also provides information to caseworkers on techniques to identify and locate non-resident fathers.
Governance and finances
AHA's budget for 2013 was just over $13 million. Their total revenue was $13.4 million.
The organization closed its Denver, Colorado office in 2011 and moved its operations to Washington, D.C.
Eric Bruner, the board chair of the organization, resigned in January 2013 amidst revelations that AHA paid $233,863 to his business partner, Gregory Dew, for unspecified consulting services. Dew was the highest paid AHA "independent contractor" in the fiscal year that ended June 30, 2011, according to filings the charity submitted to the IRS
In 2004, Marie Belew Wheatley became executive director of the AHA. She left to become the executive director of the Colorado Ballet, in 2010, and left the Colorado Ballet in 2013. Current AHA president Robin Ganzert received $284,912 in compensation for 2013.
- James Brown.
- John G. Shortall (1837-1908), president (1884-1885, 1892-1898).
- John L. Shortall.
- Elbridge T. Gerry, III president (1888).
- Albert Leffingwell, M.D., president (1904).
- William Olin Stillman, president (1904-1924).
- Frank L. Baldwin, vice president (1923).
- Robin Ganzert, president and CEO (2010–present).
- "Compassion Brochure" (PDF). American Humane. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Form 990" (PDF). American Humane Association. 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2014.</
- "American Humane Association moving HQ from Colorado to D.C.". Denver Business Journal. February 14, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "American Humane Association: Tax Status". Better Business Bureau. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Claire M. Renzetti and Jeffrey L. Edleson (2008). Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Volume 1. SAGE Publications. ISBN 9781412918008. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Doings of the Annual Meeting, Volumes 1. American Humane Association. 1877. pp. 5–7. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Doings of the Annual Meeting, Volumes 1, p. 19
- Doings of the Annual Meeting, Volumes 2. American Humane Association. 1878. pp. 8–9. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "Colorado Floods: American Humane Association’s Red Star™ rescue team mobilizes to help animal victims". Mars.com. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- P. Parkes and J. Sichel, The Humane Society of the United States 1954-1979: Twenty Five Years of Growth and Achievement, Washington, 1979, 3
- "History and Milestones". American Humane Association. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Charity Review". http://www.give.org/. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "CharityWatch REPORT". CharityWatch. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Rig headed to area to mark SPCA event". The Gettysburg Times. June 16, 2007. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "American Humane Association to help animal victims of Joplin disaster". State Journal-Register. May 25, 2011.
- Steve Dale (January 27, 2011). "Robin Ganzert Steers American Humane Association from a Celebrated Past Into A Promising Future". ChicagoNow. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Laura T. Coffey (October 30, 2012). "Rush is on to rescue animals stranded in Sandy's wake". Today. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Erin Thompson (July 9, 2007). "Animal rescue group shows off big rig". The Evening Sun. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- "Charity's special 'Gratitude' event honors South Florida's premiere humanitarian". BrownFlynn. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Animal Stars: Behind the Scenes With Your Favorite Animal Actors". Look to the Stars. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "San Francisco Book Review". Animal Stars: Behind The Scenes With your Favorite Animal Actors. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- "Helpful Information". Accvet. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Renzetti, Claire (2008). Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence, Volume 1. Sage Publications. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Johnna Rizzo (February 24, 2013). "Dorothy Lamour never got nominated for an Oscar, while a chimp never could". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Associated Press (March 15, 2006). "Groups targeting Humane Association over treatment of apes in movies". USA Today. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "HOLLYWOOD UNDER FIRE IN DEATH OF 2ND HORSE". Daily News of Los Angeles. April 28, 2005. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Animal People, 2013 Animal People Watchdog Report, 5, http://www.animalpeoplenews.org/watchdog_report.html
- The Fifth Estate. "PROFILE: American Humane". CBC News. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Lisa Wolfson (August 1, 1987). "The Humane Society keeps film set abuse down". Deseret News. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Eve Light Honthaner (2013). The Complete Film Production Handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 9781136053054. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Empire Magazine (2012). Empire Movie Miscellany: Instant Film Buff Status Guaranteed. Random House. p. 160. ISBN 9781448132911.
- "American Humane Investigates Horse Injury on Set of Russell Crowe's '3:10 To Yuma'". Star Pulse. October 26, 2006. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- American Human Association. "Protecting Your Ass* From Harm" (PDF). American Human Film & Television Units. p. 4. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Steven Pinker (2011). The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined. Penguin Books. ISBN 9781101544648. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Thomas Lennonand Robert B Garant (2011). Writing Movies for Fun and Profit: How We Made a Billion Dollars at the Box Office and You Can, Too!. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 1439186774. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Elayne Boosler (March 27, 2012). "Yes, Animals Were Harmed in the Making of This Motion Picture". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Lucinda Smith, Leah Feldon, and Eleanor Hoover (September 18, 1989). "Speaking Up for 'Abused' Animals, Bob Barker Is Hit with a Lawsuit". People Magazine. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Associated Press (August 31, 1989). "Game Show Host Sued For Libel". The Spokesman-Review. p. A7. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "ANIMAL BOARD OFFICIAL SEEKS CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST PROBE". Daily News of Los Angeles. March 30, 1994. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Ralph Frammolino and James Bates (February 9, 2001). "Questions Raised About Group That Watches Out for Animals in Movies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "Animals Were Harmed: Hollywood's Nightmare of Death, Injury, and Secrecy Exposed | Hollywood Reporter Exclusive". Hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- "American Humane Association Certifies the Welfare of Nearly One Billion Farm Animals". Growing Georgia. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "American Humane's CEO Predicts Continued Intensive Animal Agriculture, But With Significant Humane Improvements". Fox 19. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Is Talk Cheap in Farm Animal Welfare?". Cause Matters Corp. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Melinda Fulmer (September 20, 2000). "New Food Label to Certify Humane Treatment of Animals". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "Standards and Guidelines". USDA. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "LABEL INDICATES HUMANE TREATMENT, 'FREE FARMED' FOODS MEAN PRODUCERS ARE KIND TO ANIMALS". San Jose Mercury News. September 20, 2000. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Catherine Price (September 16, 2008). "Sorting Through the Claims of the Boastful Egg". New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- "The Happy Egg Co Receives AHA Certification". Grocery Headquarters. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "American Humane® Certified FAQ". Foster Farms. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Christina Ng (September 19, 2012). "Military Heroes and Their Hero Dogs". ABC World News. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- "Kristin Chenoweth to host 'Hero Dog Awards' show". Tulsa World. September 26, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Linda Wilson Fuoco (October 29, 2011). "Pet Tales -- Heroes in the spotlight: Guide dog honored for leading her human to safety on 9/11". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- "Children". American Humane. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Fatherhood Initiative". American Humane Association. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Children". American Humane Association. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Social Worker Training Curriculum: Engaging the Non-Resident Father" (PDF). Berkeley.edu. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "American Humane Association moving HQ from Colorado to D.C.". Denver Business Journal.
- January 09, 2013 (2013-01-09). "American Humane Assn. board Chairman Eric Bruner resigns - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- Kyle MacMillan. "With new director, ballet seeks financial stability". The Denver Post. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- "Form 990" (PDF). American Humane. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "William Olin Stillman Papers: Manuscripts and Special Collections: New York State Library". Nysl.nysed.gov. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- "Denounce Wearing Of Bird Feathers". New York Times. October 23, 1923. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
Dr. Frank L. Baldwin, Vice President of American Humane Society [sic], under the auspices of Which the conference was called, characterized New York as 'the mecca of humane workers and the birthplace of the humanitarian movement.'
- "American Humane Association, Aetna Foundation, Dave Thomas Foundation, and more". Philanthropy Journal. September 1, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
Coleman, Sydney. Humane Society Leaders in America (Albany: American Humane Association, 1924).