American Petroleum Institute

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American Petroleum Institute
American Petroleum Institute logo.jpg
American Petroleum Institute logo
Headquarters Washington, DC
Membership
400 companies in petroleum industry
President
Jack Gerard[1]
Website api.org

The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest U.S trade association for the oil and natural gas industry. It claims to represent about 400 corporations involved in production, refinement, distribution, and many other aspects of the petroleum industry.

The association’s chief functions on behalf of the industry include advocacy, negotiation and lobbying with governmental, legal, and regulatory agencies; research into economic, toxicological, and environmental effects; establishment and certification of industry standards; and education outreach.[2][third-party source needed] API both funds and conducts research related to many aspects of the petroleum industry.[2][third-party source needed] The current CEO is Jack Gerard.

It has many front groups, including the NH Energy Forum that in August 2011 hosted a New Hampshire event for Republican presidential candidate Rick Perry[3][4]

Standards and certification[edit]

API distributes more than 200,000 copies of its publications each year. The publications, technical standards, and electronic and online products are designed, according to API itself, to help users improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of their operations, comply with legislative and regulatory requirements, and safeguard health, ensure safety, and protect the environment. Each publication is overseen by a committee of industry professionals, mostly member company engineers.

API Standards Committees are made up of subcommittees and task groups that works and maintain these standards. the list of Committee and Subcommittee is:[5]

  • Committee on Standardization of Oilfield Equipment & Materials (CSOEM)
    • SC2- Subcommittee on Offshore Structures
    • SC5- Subcommittee on Tubular Goods
    • SC6- Subcommittee on Valves & Wellhead Equipment
    • SC8- Subcommittee on Drilling Structures & Equipment
    • SC10- Subcommittee on Well Cements
    • SC11- Subcommittee on Field Operating Equipment
    • SC13- Subcommittee on Drill Completion & Fracturing Fluids
    • SC15- Subcommittee on Fiberglass & Plastic Tubulars
    • SC16- Subcommittee on Drilling Well Control Equipment
    • SC17- Subcommittee on Subsea Production Equipment
    • SC18- Subcommittee on Quality
    • SC19- Subcommittee on Completion Equipment
    • SC20- Subcommittee on Supply Chain Management[6]
  • Committee on Refinery Equipment (CRE)
    • Subcommittee on Corrosion & Materials
    • Subcommittee on Electrical Equipment
    • Subcommittee on Heat Transfer Equipment
    • Subcommittee on Inspection
    • Subcommittee on Instruments & Control Systems
    • Subcommittee on Mechanical Equipment
    • Subcommittee on Piping & Valves
    • Subcommittee on Pressure-Relieving Systems
    • Subcommittee on Aboveground Storage Tanks[7]
  • Pipeline Standards Committees
  • Safety and Fire Protection Committee (SFPS)
  • API Committee on Petroleum Measurement (COPM)
    • Committee on Evaporation Loss Estimation
    • Committee on Gas Fluids Measurement
    • Committee on Liquid Measurement
    • Committee on Measurement Accountability
    • Committee on Measurement Quality
    • Committee on Production Measurement & Allocation
    • Committee on Measurement Education & Training[8]

These technical standards tend to be uncontroversial. For example, API 610 is the specification for centrifugal pumps, API 675 is the specification for controlled volume positive displacement pumps, both packed-plunger and diaphragm types are included. Diaphragm pumps that use direct mechanical actuation are excluded. API 677 is the standard for gear units and API 682 governs mechanical seals.[citation needed]

API also defines the industry standard for the energy conservation of motor oil. API SN is the latest specification to which motor oils intended for spark-ignited engines should adhere since 2010. It supersedes API SM.[9] Different specifications exist for compression-ignited engines.[citation needed]

API provides vessel codes and standards for the design and fabrication of pressure vessels that help safeguard the lives of people and environments all over the world.[citation needed]

API also defines and drafts standards for measurement for manufactured products such as:

  • Precision thread gauges
  • Plain plug and ring gauges
  • Thread measuring systems
  • Metrology and industrial supplies
  • Measuring instruments
  • Custom gauges
  • Precision machining and grinding
  • ISO 17025 registered calibration

API RP 500 and RP 505 classify the locations for electrical equipment in hazardous areas. [10] [11]

API has entered petroleum industry nomenclature in a number of areas:

  • API gravity, a measure of the density of petroleum.
  • API number, a unique identifier applied to each petroleum exploration or production well drilled in the United States.
  • API unit, a standard measure of natural gamma radiation measured in a borehole.[12]

Educator intervention[edit]

In addition to training industry workers and conducting seminars, workshops, and conferences on public policy, API develops and distributes materials and curricula for schoolchildren and educators. The association also maintains a website, Classroom Energy.

Public advocacy[edit]

In the second half of 2008, as the US presidential election neared, API began airing a series of television ads where spokeswoman Brooke Alexander encourages people to visit their new website, EnergyTomorrow.org

In January 2012, the American Petroleum Institute launched the voter education campaign - Vote 4 Energy. The campaign says that increased domestic energy production can create jobs, increase government revenue, and provide U.S. energy security. The Vote 4 Energy campaign does not promote any specific candidate or party, but rather provides voters with energy information to equip them to evaluate candidates on the federal and local levels and make decisions in favor of domestic energy on Election Day. The main components of the Vote 4 Energy campaign include the website - Vote4Energy.org - and social media communities, along with a series of advertisements and events around the country. The vote 4 energy campaign was criticized for presenting misleading arguments about the relationship between oil production and jobs whilst ignoring the potentially catastrophic consequences of increased fossil fuel consumption on the Earth's climate.[13]

The API successfully pushed for an end to a ban on American oil exports on the grounds that the ban increased demand for Russian and Iranian oil, thereby benefiting the unfriendly regimes in these countries. Critics noted that many of its member companies continued to maintain ongoing business in these countries whilst the lobbying campaign was in progress, leading to accusations of hypocrisy.[14] Furthermore, the API's campaigns have been criticized for advocating policies that are likely to exacerbate global warming and its associated problems.[15] The API has repeatedly funded conservative groups that deny the reality of anthropogenic global warming[16] in spite of the overwhelming scientific consensus that it presents a serious problem for the planet.[17]

Lobbying[edit]

API spent more than $3 million annually during the period 2005 to 2009 on lobbying; $3.6 million in 2009.[18] As of 2009, according to API’s quarterly “Lobbying Report” submitted to the US Senate, the organization had 16 lobbyists lobbying Congress.[19]

API lobbies and organizes its member employees' attendance at public events to communicate the industry's position on issues. A leaked summer 2009 memo from API President Jack Gerard asked its member companies to urge their employees to participate in planned protests (designed to appear independently organized) against the cap-and-trade legislation the House passed that same summer. "The objective of these rallies is to put a human face on the impacts of unsound energy policy and to aim a loud message at [20 different] states," including Florida, Georgia, and Pennsylvania. Gerard went on to assure recipients of the memo that API will cover all organizational costs and handling of logistics. In response to the memo, an API spokesman told media that participants will be there (at protests) because of their own concerns, and that API is just helping them assemble.[20]

To help fight climate control legislation that has been approved by the US House, API supports the Energy Citizens group, which is holding public events.[21][22] API encouraged energy company employees to attend one of its first Energy Citizen events held in Houston in August 2009, but turned away Texas residents who were not employed by the energy industry. Fast Company reported that some attendees had no idea of the purpose of the event.[23][24] In December 2009, Mother Jones magazine said API and Energy Citizens were promulgating climate disinformation.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jack N. Gerard - President and Chief Executive Officer, American Petroleum Institute - Biography". Congressional Coalition on Adoption Institute. Retrieved January 20, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "About API". American Petroleum Institute. Retrieved March 29, 2012. 
  3. ^ Johnson, Brad (August 15, 2011). "Rick Perry's First Stop In New Hampshire Is Funded By Big Oil". ThinkProgress. Retrieved March 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Rick Perry stumps Manchester - next stop Iowa", New Hampshire Public Radio, 14 August 2011.
  5. ^ "Committee Information". www.api.org. Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  6. ^ "Committee on Standardization of Oilfield Equipment and Materials (CSOEM)". www.api.org. Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  7. ^ "API Committee on Refinery Equipment (CRE)". www.api.org. Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  8. ^ "API Committee on Petroleum Measurement (COPM)". www.api.org. Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  9. ^ "Engine Oil Guide" (PDF). American Petroleum Institute. March 2010. 
  10. ^ API RP 505 Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installation at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1 and Zone 2 (2002).
  11. ^ API RP 500 Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for electrical Installation at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Division 1 and Division 2.
  12. ^ API Unit, Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary, accessed 11 Nov. 2015.
  13. ^ DaMelle, Brendan. "API’s New ‘Vote 4 Energy’ Ad Campaign Is Thinly Veiled Election Year Bullying". desmogblog.com. DeSmog Blog. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  14. ^ Horn, Steve. "Big Oil Argued for U.S. Crude Exports to Fend Off Iran, But First Exporter Vitol Group Also Exported Iran's Oil". DeSmog Blog. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  15. ^ Readfearn, Graham. "What happened to the lobbyists who tried to reshape the US view of climate change?". theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  16. ^ Dunlap, Riley; Jacques, Peter (2013). "Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks: Exploring the Connection" (PDF). American Behavioral Scientist 20 (10): 1–33. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  17. ^ Cook, John (2014). "Reply to ‘Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature: A re-analysis’.". Energy Policy 73: 706–708. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  18. ^ "Lobbying: American Petroleum Institute". Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved March 29, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Second Quarter Lobbying Form, 2009, Secretary of the Senate". Retrieved March 29, 2012. 
  20. ^ Stone, Daniel (August 20, 2009). "The Browning of Grassroots". Newsweek. Retrieved March 29, 2012. 
  21. ^ New York Times, "Oil industry backs protests of emissions bill," August 19, 2009
  22. ^ McNulty, Sheila (August 20, 2009). "The big oil backlash?". Financial Times. Retrieved March 29, 2012. 
  23. ^ Schwartz, Ariel (August 21, 2009). "American Petroleum Institute Demonstrates How to Screw Up a Grassroots Event". Fast Company. Retrieved March 29, 2012. 
  24. ^ Talley, Ian (August 11, 2009). "Lobby Groups to Use Town Hall Tactics to Oppose Climate Bill". The Wall Street Journal. 
  25. ^ Harkinson, Josh (December 4, 2009). "The Dirty Dozen of Climate Change Denial". Mother Jones. Retrieved August 17, 2015. Here's a guide to the dozen loudest components of the climate disinformation machine...Meet the 12 loudest members of the chorus claiming that global warming is a joke and that CO2 emissions are actually good for you. 

External links[edit]