American Red Cross National Headquarters
American National Red Cross
Exterior photograph of the American Red Cross Headquarters, a large, white, columned structure with red crosses on the portico peak and above the main door.
|Location||17th and D Sts., NW, Washington, D.C.|
|Built||1915 to 1917|
|Architect||Trowbridge & Livingston|
|Architectural style||Classical Revival|
|NRHP reference #||66000853|
|Added to NRHP||October 15, 1966|
|Designated NHL||June 23, 1965|
The American Red Cross National Headquarters is a located at 430 17th Street NW in Washington, D.C. Built between 1915 and 1917, it serves both as a memorial to women who served in the American Civil War and as the headquarters building for the American Red Cross. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965.
The national headquarters of the American Red Cross is located in central Washington, on the east side of a city block bounded by 17th, 18th, D, and E Streets NW. This block, on the west side of The Ellipse south of the White House, is entirely devoted to Red Cross facilities. The main headquarters building is a large stone structure, faced in white Vermont marble. It is three stories in height, its third floor recessed behind a balustrade. Its east-facing main facade has a central classical temple portico, with six Corinthian columns supporting a gabled pediment with a red cross at the center. The flanking building bays are articulated by attached Corinthian columns. The main bronze doorways lead into a large central marble entrance hall, with a broad stairway to the second floor. Niches in the hall are filled with sculptural depictions of "Faith", "Hope", and "Charity", executed by Hiram Powers.
The Board of Governors room contains three Favrile windows by designer Louis Comfort Tiffany. The windows are notable for being the largest suite of Tiffany windows outside a religious building. Unlike many other Tiffany windows, these windows have remained in their original setting. The costs of these windows were donated by two organizations of Civil War women: the Woman's Relief Corps of the North and the United Daughters of the Confederacy. The left panel was based on Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, Santa Filomena, that honored the work of Florence Nightingale. The center panel depicts the conception of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement at the Battle of Solferino near Solferino, Italy. The right panel depicts a scene from Edmund Spenser's epic poem The Faerie Queene.
The American Red Cross was founded in the aftermath of the American Civil War, in 1881 as a unique public-private partnership for providing disaster relief and medical support for military forces. This headquarters building was built in 1915-17 to a design by Trowbridge and Livingston, and serves as both headquarters and as a memorial to women involved in the Civil War.
- List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C.
- National Register of Historic Places listings in central Washington, D.C.
- National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- "Red Cross (American National) Headquarters". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
- Blanche Higgins Schroer (1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: American Red Cross National Headquarters" (pdf). National Park Service. and Accompanying three photos, exterior and interior, from 1964 and undated (32 KB)
- "American Red Cross Museum". American Red Cross. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
- Media related to American Red Cross National Headquarters at Wikimedia Commons
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. DC-347, "Red Cross Building, Southwest corner of Seventeenth & E Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC", 8 photos, 1 color transparency, 3 data pages, 2 photo caption pages
- American Red Cross Museum