American Sniper

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from American Sniper (film))
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the film. For the book on which it is based, see American Sniper (book).
American Sniper
Chris Kyle is seen wearing desert fatigues army BDU, while his wife Taya embraces him. They are standing in front of a tattered US flag.
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Clint Eastwood
Produced by
Written by Jason Hall
Based on American Sniper 
by Chris Kyle
Scott McEwen
Jim DeFelice
Starring
Cinematography Tom Stern
Edited by
Production
company
Distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures
Release dates
  • November 11, 2014 (2014-11-11) (AFI Fest)
  • December 25, 2014 (2014-12-25) (United States)
Running time
132 minutes[1][2]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $58.8 million[3][4][5]
Box office $547.4 million[3]

American Sniper is a 2014 American biographical war drama film[6] directed by Clint Eastwood and written by Jason Hall. It is loosely based on the memoir American Sniper: The Autobiography of the Most Lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History (2012) by Chris Kyle, with Scott McEwen and Jim DeFelice. The film follows the life of Kyle, who became the deadliest marksman in U.S. military history with 255 kills from four tours in the Iraq War, 160 of which were officially confirmed by the Department of Defense.[7] While Kyle was celebrated for his military successes, his tours of duty took a heavy toll on his personal and family life. The film was produced by Eastwood, Robert Lorenz, Andrew Lazar, Bradley Cooper, and Peter Morgan. It stars Bradley Cooper as Kyle and Sienna Miller as his wife Taya, with Luke Grimes, Jake McDorman, Cory Hardrict, Kevin Lacz, Navid Negahban, and Keir O'Donnell in supporting roles.

The world premiere was on November 11, 2014, at the American Film Institute Festival, followed by a limited theatrical release in the United States on December 25, 2014 and a wide release on January 16, 2015. The film became a major success, with a worldwide gross of over $547 million,[8] making it the highest-grossing film of 2014 in the United States ($350 million), the highest-grossing war film of all time unadjusted for inflation, and Eastwood's highest-grossing film to date.

The film received mostly positive reviews from critics, with the majority of praise directed towards Cooper's lead performance and Eastwood's direction, though it attracted some controversy over its portrayal of both the War in Iraq and of Chris Kyle. At the 87th Academy Awards, American Sniper received six nominations, including Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Actor for Cooper, ultimately winning one award for Best Sound Editing.[9]

Plot[edit]

Growing up in Texas, Chris Kyle is taught by his father how to shoot a rifle and hunt deer. Years later, Kyle has become a ranch hand and rodeo cowboy, and returns home early, to find his girlfriend in bed with another man. After telling her to leave, he is mulling it over with his brother when he sees news coverage of the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings and decides to enlist in the Navy. He qualifies for special training and becomes a U.S. Navy SEALs sniper.

Kyle meets Taya Renae Studebaker at a bar, and the two soon marry. He is sent to Iraq after the September 11 attacks. His first kills are a woman and boy who attacked U.S. Marines with a Russian made RKG-3 anti-tank grenade. Chris is visibly upset by the experience but later earns the nickname "Legend" for his many kills. Assigned to hunt for the al-Qaeda leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Chris interrogates a family whose father offers to lead the SEALs to "The Butcher", al-Zarqawi's second-in-command. The plan goes awry when The Butcher captures the father and his son, killing them while Chris is pinned down by a sniper using a Romanian PSL sniper rifle. This sniper goes by the name Mustafa and is an Olympic Games medalist from Syria. Meanwhile, the insurgents issue a bounty on Chris.

Kyle returns home to his wife and the birth of his son. He is distracted by memories of his war experiences and by Taya’s concern for them as a couple; she wishes he would focus on his home and family.

Kyle leaves for a second tour and is promoted to Chief Petty Officer. Involved in a shootout with The Butcher, he helps in killing him. When he returns home to a newborn daughter, Chris becomes increasingly distant from his family. On Chris' third tour, Mustafa seriously injures a unit member, Ryan "Biggles" Job, and the unit is evacuated back to base. When they decide to return to the field and continue the mission, another SEAL, Marc Lee, is killed by gunfire.

Guilt compels Kyle to undertake a fourth tour, and Taya tells him that she may not be there when he returns. Back in Iraq, Chris is assigned to kill Mustafa, who has been sniping U.S. Army combat engineers building a barricade. Chris' sniper team is placed on a rooftop inside enemy territory. Chris spots Mustafa and takes him out with a risky long distance shot at 2100 yards (1920 meters), but this exposes his team's position to numerous armed insurgents. In the midst of the firefight, and low on ammunition, Chris tearfully calls Taya and tells her he is ready to come home. A sandstorm provides cover for a chaotic escape in which Chris is injured and almost left behind.

After Kyle gets back, on edge and unable to adjust fully to civilian life, he is asked by a Veterans Affairs psychiatrist if he is haunted by all the things he did in war. When he replies that it is “all the guys [he] couldn't save" that haunt him, the psychiatrist encourages him to help severely wounded veterans in the VA hospital. After that Kyle gradually begins to adjust to home life.

Years later, on February 2, 2013, Kyle says goodbye to his wife and family as he leaves in good spirits to spend time with a veteran at a shooting range. An on-screen subtitle reveals: "Chris Kyle was killed that day by a veteran he was trying to help", followed by archive footage of crowds standing along the highway for his funeral procession.[10] More are shown attending his memorial service.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Chris Kyle in 2012

On May 24, 2012, it was announced that Warner Bros. (WB) had acquired the rights to the book with Bradley Cooper set to produce and star in the screen adaptation.[11] Cooper had thought of Chris Pratt to play Kyle, but WB agreed to buy it only if Cooper would star.[22] In September 2012, David O. Russell said he was interested in directing the film.[23] On February 2, 2013, Chris Kyle was murdered. On May 2, 2013, it was announced that Steven Spielberg would direct.[24] Spielberg had read Kyle's book, though he desired to have a more psychological conflict present in the screenplay so an "enemy sniper" character could serve as the insurgent sharpshooter who was trying to track down and kill Kyle. Spielberg's ideas contributed to the development of a lengthy screenplay approaching 160 pages. Due to WB's budget constraints, Spielberg felt he could not bring his vision of the story to the screen.[4] On August 5, 2013, Spielberg dropped out of directing.[25] On August 21, 2013, it was reported that Clint Eastwood would instead direct the film.[26]

Casting[edit]

On March 14, 2014, Sienna Miller joined the cast.[12] On March 16, 2014, Kyle Gallner was cast,[18] as was Cory Hardrict on March 18, 2014.[15] On March 20, 2014, Navid Negahban, Eric Close, Eric Ladin, Rey Gallegos, and Jake McDorman also joined the cast,[14][17] as did Luke Grimes and Sam Jaeger on March 25, 2014.[13][19] Kevin Lacz, a former Navy SEAL, was also cast and served as a technical advisor.[16] Another former Navy SEAL, Joel Lambert, also joined the film, portraying a Delta sniper.[27] On June 3, Max Charles was added to the cast to portray Kyle's son, Colton Kyle.[21]

Filming[edit]

Principal photography began on March 31, 2014 in Los Angeles;[28] it was also shot in Morocco.[29] On April 23, the Los Angeles Times reported that ten days of filming set in an Afghan village was set to begin at the Blue Cloud Movie Ranch in the Santa Clarita area.[30] On May 7, shooting of the film was spotted around El Centro; a milk factory was used as the abandoned date factory which insurgents close in on from all directions at the climax of the film.[31][32] Later on May 14, Cooper was spotted filming some scenes in Culver City, California,[33] and then he followed by shooting scenes again in Los Angeles on May 16.[34] On May 30, Cooper and Miller were spotted during the filming of their characters' wedding scenes; they were filming aboard a yacht in Marina del Rey.[35] On June 3, Cooper was spotted in the uniform of a Navy SEAL marksman aiming during the filming of some scenes at a Los Angeles shooting range.[36] The pier and bar scenes were filmed in Seal Beach, California.[37]

Cinematographer Tom Stern shot the film with Arri Alexa XT digital cameras and Panavision C-, E- and G-Series anamorphic lenses.[38] The film is Eastwood's second to be shot digitally, after Jersey Boys.[39]

Music[edit]

There is no "Music by" credit on this film. Clint Eastwood, who has composed the scores for most of his films since Mystic River (2003), is credited as the composer of "Taya's Theme". Joseph S. DeBeasi is credited as composer of additional music and as music editor.[40][41] The film also features the song "Someone Like You" by Van Morrison, which plays during the wedding scene, and "The Funeral" by Ennio Morricone.[42]

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

American Sniper grossed $350.1 million in North America and $197 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $547.1 million, against a budget of around $58 million.[3] Calculating in all expenses and revenues, Deadline.com estimated that the film made a profit of $243 million, making it the second most profitable film of 2014 only behind Paramount's Transformers: Age of Extinction.[43] Worldwide, it is the highest-grossing war film of all time (breaking Saving Private Ryan's record)[44] and Eastwood's highest-grossing film to date. It is the seventh R-rated film to gross over $500 million.[45]

North America[edit]

In North America, it is the highest-grossing film of 2014,[46] the highest-grossing war film unadjusted for inflation and on an adjusted basis it stands second to Saving Private Ryan with $379 million,[47] the third highest-grossing R-rated film of all time (behind The Passion of the Christ and Deadpool),[48] Warner Bros' fourth highest-grossing film (behind The Dark Knight, The Dark Knight Rises and Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2),[49] and the eighth highest-grossing Best Picture nominee film (behind Avatar, Titanic, Star Wars, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Toy Story 3, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King and The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers).[50] It became the seventh Warner Bros' film to earn over $300 million in the U.S. and Canada and the 50th film to reach the mark.[51] It earned as much as the combined earnings of all of the other 2014 Best Picture nominees.[52] On March 8, 2015, it surpassed The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 1 to become the highest-grossing film of 2014,[50] making it the first R-rated film since Saving Private Ryan (1998) and the first non-franchise film since Avatar (2009) to top the year-end rankings.[50]

American Sniper premiered at the AFI Fest on November 11, 2014, just after a screening of Selma at Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in Los Angeles.[53] In North America, the film opened to a limited release on December 25, 2014, playing at four theaters — two in New York, one in Los Angeles, and one in Dallas — and earned $610,000 in its opening weekend ($850,000 including Christmas Day) at an average of $152,500 per venue debuting at #22.[54][55] The following week the film earned $676,909 playing at the same number of locations at an average of $169,277 per theater, which is the second-biggest weekend average ever for a live-action movie (previously held by 2001's Moulin Rouge!).[56] American Sniper holds the record for the most entries in the top 20 Top Weekend Theater Averages with 3 entries. It earned a total of $3.4 million from limited release in three weekends.[57]

The film began its wide debut across North American theaters on January 16, 2015 (Thursday night showings began at 7:00 pm).[58] It set an all-time highest Thursday night opening record for an R-rated drama with $5.3 million (previously held by Lone Survivor).[59][60][61] The film topped the box office on its opening day grossing $30.5 million (including Thursday previews) from 3,555 theaters setting January records for both biggest debut opening (previously held by Cloverfield) and single-day gross (previously held by Avatar).[62][63][64] In its traditional three-day opening the film earned $89.2 million which was double than expected and broke the record for the largest January opening (previously held by Ride Along)[65] and the largest winter opening,[66] which is also Eastwood's top opening as a director (breaking Gran Torino's opening).[67] The three-day opening is also the biggest opening weekend for a drama film (previously held by The Passion of the Christ),[68] the second biggest debut for a Best Picture Oscar nominee (behind Toy Story 3),[69] the second biggest debut for an R-rated film (behind The Matrix Reloaded), and the third biggest for a non-comic book, non-fantasy/sci-fi film (behind Furious 7 and Fast and Furious 6).[69][70] It also set an IMAX January opening and single weekend record with $10.6 million (previously held by Avatar in its fourth weekend) and an R-rated IMAX debut record (previously held by Prometheus).[71] It earned $107.2 million during its four-day Martin Luther King weekend setting a record for the biggest R-rated four-day gross.[72]

In its second weekend, the film expanded to 3,705 theaters making it the second widest launch for an R-rated movie (behind the film itself).[73][74] It grossed an estimated $64.6 million in its second weekend, declining only by 28%—and set the record for the second-best hold ever for a movie opening to more than $85 million and also set the record for the eight largest second-weekend gross.[75][76] In just 10 days of release, the film surpassed Pearl Harbor ($198.5 million) to become the second highest-grossing war film in North America.[77] By its second weekend, Box Office Mojo had already reported that the film was on poise to become the highest-grossing film of 2014 in North America, a record that was, at the time held by The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 1 ($334 million), judging from its gradual decline and strong holdovers.[78] It became the highest-grossing IMAX film of January grossing $18.8 million from 333 IMAX theaters.[79] On Thursday, January 29, 2015 – 35 days after its initial release, the film surpassed Saving Private Ryan ($216.5 million) to become the highest-grossing war film in North America, unadjusted for inflation.[80]

By its third weekend of wide release, the film expanded to 3,885 theaters (180 additional theaters added), breaking its own record of being the widest R-rated film ever released.[81][82] The film topped the box office through its third weekend earning $30.66 million, which is the second highest Super Bowl weekend gross (behind Hannah Montana and Miley Cyrus: Best of Both Worlds Concert).[83] After topping the box office for three consecutive weekends, the film was overtaken by The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water in its fourth weekend.[52]

Outside North America[edit]

The film had the biggest debut weekend for a Clint Eastwood movie ever and went on to become the director's top-grossing movie of all time in each of the countries it was released in.[84] It opened in Italy at number two with $7.1 million which is Eastwood's best opening of all time and Warner Bros' second biggest opening for a non-franchise U.S. film there[85] and topped the box office the following weekend.[86] Its other largest openings occurred in France ($6.3 million),[87] where it topped the box office for four consecutive weekends,[88] Australia ($4.3 million, $4.6 million including previews),[89] the UK, Ireland and Malta ($3.8 million),[90] Spain ($3.2 million), Japan ($2.8 million), Mexico ($2.6 million), Brazil ($1.8 million), and South Korea ($1.2 million).[87] In total earnings, its largest market outside of the U.S. are Italy ($23 million) and France ($22.8 million).[91]

Critical response[edit]

American Sniper received positive reviews from critics. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a "Certified Fresh" rating of 72%, based on 243 reviews from critics, with an average rating of 6.9/10. The site's consensus states, "Powered by Clint Eastwood's sure-handed direction and a gripping central performance from Bradley Cooper, American Sniper delivers a tense, vivid tribute to its real-life subject."[92] On Metacritic, the film has a score of 72 out of 100, based on reviews from 48 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[93] In CinemaScore polls conducted during the opening weekend, cinema audiences gave American Sniper a rare grade of "A+" on an A+ to F scale.[94]

Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter wrote: "A taut, vivid and sad account of the brief life of the most accomplished marksman in American military annals."[95] Justin Chang of Variety gave the film a positive review, saying "...an excellent performance from a bulked-up Bradley Cooper, this harrowing and intimate character study offers fairly blunt insights into the physical and psychological toll exacted on the front lines..."[96] David Denby of The New Yorker gave the film a positive review, saying "Both a devastating war movie and a devastating antiwar movie, a subdued celebration of a warrior's skill and a sorrowful lament over his alienation and misery."[97] Keith Phipps of The Dissolve wrote that the film, while well-made missed a chance to explore the toll that such service exacts on soldiers.[98] Chris Nashawaty of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a C+, saying "The film's just a repetition of context-free combat missions and one-dimensional targets."[99] Elizabeth Weitzman of New York Daily News gave the film four out of five stars, saying "The best movies are ever-shifting, intelligent and open-hearted enough to expand alongside an audience. American Sniper [...] is built on this foundation of uncommon compassion."[100] Kyle Smith of the New York Post gave the film four out of five stars, saying "After 40 years of Hollywood counterpropaganda telling us war is necessarily corrupting and malign, [...] American Sniper nobly presents the case for the other side."[101]

Peter Travers of Rolling Stone gave the film three and a half stars out of four, saying "Bradley Cooper, as Navy SEAL Chris Kyle, and director Eastwood salute Kyle's patriotism best by not denying its toll. Their targets are clearly in sight, and their aim is true."[102] Ignatiy Vishnevetsky of The A.V. Club gave the film a B, saying "American Sniper is imperfect and at times a little corny, but also ambivalent and complicated in ways that are uniquely Eastwoodian."[103] James Berardinelli of ReelViews gave the film three and a half stars out of four, saying "American Sniper lifts director Clint Eastwood out of the doldrums that have plagued his last few films."[104] Rafer Guzman of Newsday gave the film three out of four stars, saying "Cooper nails the role of an American killing machine in Clint Eastwood's clear-eyed look at the Iraq War."[105] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times gave the film a positive review, saying "Eastwood's impeccably crafted action sequences so catch us up in the chaos of combat we are almost not aware that we're watching a film at all."[106] Claudia Puig of USA Today gave the film three out of four stars, saying "It's clearly Cooper's show. Substantially bulked up and affecting a believable Texas drawl, Cooper embodies Kyle's confidence, intensity and vulnerability."[107] Joshua Rothkopf of Time Out New York gave the film four out of five stars, saying "Only Clint Eastwood could make a movie about an Iraq War veteran and infuse it with doubts, mission anxiety and ruination."[108] Dean Obeidallah praised the film, saying "His focus was not on whom we were fighting, but the unbearably high price Americans pay for waging war regardless of its target. The film is a cautionary tale for Americans about why we must avoid war. It is not a celebration of waging it."[109]

The film drew some negative reviews. Matt Taibbi, of Rolling Stone, wrote that the movie turned the complicated moral questions and mass-bloodshed of the Iraq war into a black and white fairy tale, without presenting the historical context.[110] John Wight writing for RT (formerly Russia Today) asserted that American Sniper depicted the Iraqi people as a dehumanized mass of savages, which the white man was in the process of civilizing.[111] Alex von Tunzelmann of The Guardian argued that the film presented a simplified black and white portrayal of the Iraq war, and that it features the distortion of facts into unreliable myths based upon previous legends.[112] David Masciotra of Salon criticized the movie's focus on physical rather than moral courage as the ultimate manly virtue.[113] Cavalry Scout Sniper Garett Reppenhagen stated that he did not view Iraqi civilians as savages, but as part of a friendly culture for which the movie has furthered ignorance, fear, and bigotry.[114] Cinematographer Paul Edwards wrote in CounterPunch that he believes the film to be dangerous due to mutilating the classic hero's journey into a simplistic, brutal, and sadistic destruction of "evildoers".[115] Inkoo Kang of The Wrap gave the film a negative review, saying "Director Clint Eastwood‘s focus on Kyle is so tight that no other character, including wife Taya (Sienna Miller), comes through as a person, and the scope so narrow that the film engages only superficially with the many moral issues surrounding the Iraq War."[116] Several other articles have also been critical of the movie.[117][118][119][120][121]

Responding to critics, Eastwood said that American Sniper shows "what it (war) does to the people left behind",[122] and that presenting "the fact of what [war] does to the family and the people who have to go back into civilian life like Chris Kyle did" is the "biggest antiwar statement any film" can make.[123] He stated: "One of my favorite war movies that I've been involved with is Letters from Iwo Jima and that was about family, about being taken away from life, being sent someplace. In World War II, everybody just sort of went home and got over it. Now there is some effort to help people through it."[123] He also said: "I was a child growing up during World War II. That was supposed to be the one to end all wars. And four years later, I was standing at the draft board being drafted during the Korean conflict, and then after that there was Vietnam, and it goes on and on forever ... I just wonder ... does this ever stop? And no, it doesn't. So each time we get in these conflicts, it deserves a lot of thought before we go wading in or wading out. Going in or coming out. It needs a better thought process, I think."[124]

Bradley Cooper stated that much of the criticism ignores that the film was about widespread neglect of returning veterans, and that people who take issue with Kyle should redirect their attention to the leaders who put troops there in the first place. He said: "We looked at hopefully igniting attention about the lack of care that goes to vets. Discussion that has nothing to do with vets or what we did or did not do, every conversation in those terms is moving farther and farther from what our soldiers go through, and the fact that 22 veterans commit suicide each day." Cooper said that an increasing number of soldiers are returning from conflict psychologically damaged, only to be more or less discarded.[125]

First Lady Michelle Obama and former Republican Party vice presidential nominee Sarah Palin also spoke out in support of the movie.[126][127][128]

Accuracy[edit]

Several major news sources commented on the accuracy of the film and how it differs from Chris Kyle's written accounts. The enemy sniper Mustafa is a major character in the film but receives only a small mention in the memoir; Kyle noted: "I never saw him, but other snipers later killed an Iraqi sniper we think was him."[129][130] According to the memoir, Kyle's 2100-yard shot was taken against an insurgent holding a rocket launcher, not Mustafa.[130][131] TIME notes that according to screenwriter Jason Hall, Kyle said of Mustafa: "He shot my friend. I'm not going to put his name in my book." [132] The first combat scene in the film has Kyle killing a boy and mother who try to attack U.S. troops with a grenade; the boy was added for the film.[129][130][132] The film depicts Ryan "Biggles" Job as dying shortly after he is shot by Mustafa; in reality, Job survived for several years after the incident but died after surgical complications from an operation on his face.[130][131] The character "the Butcher" was created for the film,[129][132] although this character may have been based on the real-life Abu Deraa.[129]

Fake baby[edit]

One aspect of the film that received negative comment was its use of a fake baby doll in one scene, which was so obviously artificial that it became a distraction.[133] In at least one media screening of the film, the audience laughed out loud at how artificial the doll appeared.[134] When discussing the film's prospects for winning an Academy Award, Fandango critic Dave Karger said, "The reason why American Sniper is not going to win is because of the plastic baby."[135] In The Telegraph, journalist Mark Harris said, "That plastic baby is going to be rationalised by Eastwood auteur cultists until the end of days."[136] In response, screenwriter Jason Hall replied, "Hate to ruin the fun but real baby #1 showed up with a fever. Real baby #2 was no show. [Clint voice] 'Gimme the doll, kid.'"[136][137]

Top ten lists[edit]

American Sniper was listed on many critics' top ten lists.[138]

Home media[edit]

American Sniper was released on Blu-ray and DVD on May 19, 2015.[139]

Upon its first week of release on home media in the U.S., the film topped both the Nielsen VideoScan First Alert chart, which tracks overall disc sales, as well as the Blu-ray Disc sales chart in the week ending May 24, 2015.[140]

Accolades[edit]

List of awards and nominations
Award / Film festival Category Recipient(s) and nominee(s) Result Ref(s)
Academy Awards Best Picture Clint Eastwood, Robert Lorenz, Andrew Lazar, Bradley Cooper, Peter Morgan Nominated [141]
Best Actor Bradley Cooper Nominated
Best Adapted Screenplay Jason Hall Nominated
Best Film Editing Joel Cox and Gary D. Roach Nominated
Best Sound Editing Alan Robert Murray and Bub Asman Won
Best Sound Mixing John T. Reitz, Gregg Rudloff and Walt Martin Nominated
Art Directors Guild Awards Excellence in Production Design for a Contemporary Film James J. Murakami, Charisse Cardenas Nominated [142]
ACE Eddie Awards Best Edited Feature Film – Dramatic Joel Cox and Gary D. Roach Nominated [143]
American Film Institute Awards 2014 Top Ten Films of the Year Won [144]
British Academy Film Awards Best Adapted Screenplay Jason Hall Nominated [145]
Best Sound Walt Martin, John Reitz, Gregg Rudloff, Alan Robert Murray, Bub Asman Nominated
Cinema Audio Society Awards Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for a Motion Picture – Live Action Walt Martin, Gregg Rudloff, John Reitz, Robert Fernandez, Thomas J. O'Connell, James Ashwell Nominated [146]
Critics' Choice Award Best Action Movie American Sniper Nominated [147]
Best Actor in an Action Movie Bradley Cooper Won
Denver Film Critics Society Best Picture American Sniper Won [148][149]
Best Director Clint Eastwood Nominated
Best Actor Bradley Cooper (tied with Ralph Fiennes in The Grand Budapest Hotel) Won
Best Supporting Actress Sienna Miller Nominated
Best Adapted Screenplay Jason Hall Nominated
Best Cinematography Tom Stern Nominated
Directors Guild of America Award Outstanding Directing – Feature Film Clint Eastwood Nominated [150]
Empire Awards Best Actor Bradley Cooper Nominated [151]
Iowa Film Critics Best Movie Yet to Open in Iowa American Sniper (tied with A Most Violent Year) Won [152]
MPSE Golden Reel Awards Feature English Language - Effects/Foley Bub Asman, Alan Robert Murray Won [153]
MTV Movie Awards Movie of the Year American Sniper Nominated [154]
Best Male Performance Bradley Cooper Won
National Board of Review Top Ten Film Won [155]
Best Director Clint Eastwood Won
Producers Guild of America Awards Best Theatrical Motion Picture Bradley Cooper, Clint Eastwood, Andrew Lazar, Robert Lorenz, Peter Morgan Nominated [156]
Satellite Awards Best Adapted Screenplay Jason Hall Nominated
Best Editing Gary Roach and Joel Cox Nominated
Saturn Awards Best Thriller Film American Sniper Nominated
Writers Guild of America Awards Best Adapted Screenplay Jason Hall Nominated [157]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "AMERICAN SNIPER (15)". British Board of Film Classification. December 15, 2014. Retrieved December 15, 2014. 
  2. ^ "American Sniper". Ontario Film Review Board. Retrieved February 4, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c "American Sniper (2014)". Box Office Mojo. IMDB. Retrieved August 29, 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Ben Block, Alex (January 2, 2015). "The Making of 'American Sniper': How an Unlikely Friendship Kickstarted the Clint Eastwood Film". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 5, 2015. a slender $60 million 
  5. ^ Lang, Brent (January 14, 2015). "Box Office: 'American Sniper' Aims for Biggest Weekend of Clint Eastwood's Career". Variety. Retrieved January 15, 2015. 
  6. ^ "American Sniper (2014)". AllMovie. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  7. ^ "'American Sniper' Co-Author Defends Chris Kyle's Military Record Over New Controversy". We submitted the book for vetting with the DOD ... and certain parts of the manuscript were, at their request, redacted. [C]ertain other figures ... for example the number of Chris’ confirmed kills —were agreed upon as something that could be released to the public. 
  8. ^ "American Sniper (2014) - Box Office Mojo". boxofficemojo.com. 
  9. ^ Chumley, Cheryl K. (February 23, 2015). "'American Sniper' wins Academy Award — for sound editing". The Washington Times. Washington, D.C. Retrieved February 23, 2015. Alan Robert Murray and Bub Asman accepted the statue for their work on the Clint Eastwood-directed film. They're two-time Oscar winners and beat out several other top-tier candidates for the award. 
  10. ^ Thompson, Paul (December 22, 2014). "How Clint Eastwood and Bradley Cooper Asked Father of American Sniper Chris Kyle for Permission to Film the Navy SEAL Hero's Life". Daily Mail. London. 
  11. ^ a b "Bradley Cooper Sets Up Navy SEAL Pic 'American Sniper' at Warner Bros. (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. May 24, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b "Sienna Miller Joins 'American Sniper' With Bradley Cooper - /Film". Slashfilm.com. March 14, 2014. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Kroll, Justin (March 25, 2014). "'Fifty Shades of Grey' Actor to Co-star With Bradley Cooper in 'American Sniper'". Variety. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  14. ^ a b "'Greek' Star Jake McDorman, Real Navy SEALs Join Bradley Cooper's 'American Sniper' (Exclusive)". TheWrap. March 20, 2014. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "Daniel Bernhardt Joins 'Term Life'; 'American Sniper' Adds Cory Hardrict". Deadline.com. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  16. ^ a b Hedelt, Rob (April 23, 2014). "King George: Ex-SEAL helping keep film on target; The News Desk". News.fredericksburg.com. Archived from the original on April 26, 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c d "4 Join Clint Eastwood's 'American Sniper'". Deadline.com. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b "'Dear White People' Star Kyle Gallner Joins Bradley Cooper in 'American Sniper' (Exclusive)". TheWrap. March 26, 2014. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  19. ^ a b "Sam Jaeger Enlists For 'American Sniper'; Jon Tenney Joins 'The Best Of Me'". Deadline.com. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  20. ^ Taylor, Adam (January 22, 2015). "Iraqi Sniper: The Legendary Insurgent Who Claimed to Have Killed Scores of American Troops". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 6, 2015. 
  21. ^ a b Sneider, Jeff (June 3, 2014). "'Amazing Spider-Man' Actor to Play Bradley Cooper's Son in 'American Sniper'". thewrap.com. Retrieved June 9, 2014. 
  22. ^ Los Angeles Times (December 25, 2014). "Makers of 'American Sniper' press ahead to tell a tale of war and home". latimes.com. 
  23. ^ "Bradley Cooper and David O. Russell May Re-team for AMERICAN SNIPER". Collider.com. November 20, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Steven Spielberg's Next Movie: 'American Sniper'". Hollywood Reporter. February 5, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  25. ^ Fleming, Mike. "Steven Spielberg Drops Out of Directing 'American Sniper'". Deadline.com. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Clint Eastwood in Talks to Direct 'American Sniper'". The Hollywood Reporter. August 21, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Joel Lambert Books 'American Sniper'". deadline.com. May 16, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  28. ^ "On The Set For 3/31/14: Paul Feig and Melissa McCarthy Start 'Spy' and Michael Fassbender Wraps 'Macbeth'". Studiosystemnews.com. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  29. ^ "'American Sniper', starring Bradley Cooper, filming in Los Angeles this week". onlocationvacations.com. April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2014. 
  30. ^ Verrier, Richard (April 23, 2014). "Eastwood starts shooting 'American Sniper' at Santa Clarita ranch". latimes.com. Retrieved April 26, 2014. 
  31. ^ Rubio, Heric (May 9, 2014). "Bradley Cooper and Clint Eastwood set their sights on El Centro for "American Sniper"". Imperial Valley Press. Retrieved January 18, 2015. 
  32. ^ Christine (May 8, 2014). "Bradley Cooper filming 'American Sniper' in El Centro, CA this week". onlocationvacations.com. Retrieved May 9, 2014. 
  33. ^ GUSMAROLI, DANIELLE (May 15, 2014). "Bradley Cooper shows off his bulkier frame on the set of American Sniper with co-star Sienna Miller after gaining a dramatic 40lbs for the role". dailymail.co.uk. London. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Bradley Cooper Shoots Scenes for "American Sniper" in LA". gossipcenter.com. May 17, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  35. ^ KIRBY, IONA (May 31, 2014). "You may now kiss the bride! Sienna Miller looks stunning in a wedding dress while smooching Bradley Cooper for American Sniper scene". dailymail.co.uk. London. Retrieved May 31, 2014. 
  36. ^ CARPENTER, CASSIE (June 4, 2014). "Camouflage-clad Bradley Cooper takes aim as a Navy SEAL marksman on the LA set of American Sniper". London: dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved June 4, 2014. 
  37. ^ Boessenkool, Antonie (January 18, 2015). "Orange County, please report to the set". The Orange County Register. p. News 1. 
  38. ^ "Academy Award Nominee American Sniper Hits Theaters". Panavision. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  39. ^ Goldman, Michael (August 1, 2014). "Capturing All 4 Seasons". American Cinematographer. Los Angeles, California, United States: American Society of Cinematographers. 95 (8): 43. ISSN 0002-7928. 
  40. ^ "American Sniper (2014)". IMDb. 
  41. ^ "Joseph DeBeasi Adds Poignant Dimension to 'American Sniper'". BMI.com. 
  42. ^ "American Sniper (2014) - Song Credits". Soundtrack.Net. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  43. ^ Mike Fleming Jr (March 13, 2015). "No. 2 'American Sniper' – 2014 Most Valuable Blockbuster Movie Tournament". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 14, 2015. 
  44. ^ McClintock, Pamela (March 8, 2015). "Box Office Milestone: 'American Sniper' Hits $500M Globally, Becomes Top 2014 Title in U.S.". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 9, 2015. 
  45. ^ Mendelson, Scott (March 5, 2015). "Box Office: 'Fifty Shades Of Grey' Becomes 6th R-Rated Film To Top $500M". Forbes. Retrieved March 6, 2015. 
  46. ^ "2014 Domestic Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 5, 2014. 
  47. ^ Mendelson, Scott (February 1, 2015). "Box Office: 'American Sniper' Sets Super Bowl Record, 'Game Of Thrones' Scores IMAX Touchdown". Forbes. Retrieved February 1, 2015. 
  48. ^ "Domestic grosses by MPAA rating". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  49. ^ "Box Office by Studio - Warner Bros.". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 17, 2015. 
  50. ^ a b c Mendelson, Scott (March 8, 2015). "Clint Eastwood's 'American Sniper' Is Now The Biggest Box Office Smash Of 2014". Forbes. Retrieved March 8, 2015. 
  51. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 15, 2015). "'American Sniper' Crosses $300M, Warner's No. 5 Best Domestic Run: Pic's Road To Success". Deadline.com. Retrieved February 16, 2015. 
  52. ^ a b Subers, Ray (February 8, 2015). "Weekend Report: 'Jupiter Ascending' Crushed By Super 'SpongeBob'". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  53. ^ "'American Sniper' Is AFI Fest's Secret Screening". deadline.com. November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  54. ^ Subers, Ray (December 28, 2014). "Weekend Report (cont.): Huge Limited Debuts for 'American Sniper', 'Selma'". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  55. ^ Subers, Ray (January 15, 2015). "Lowest-Grossing Best Picture Nominees Since Category Expansion". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  56. ^ Subers, Ray (January 4, 2015). "Weekend Report: 'Hobbit' Finale Three-Peats on First Weekend of 2015". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 5, 2015. 
  57. ^ "Top weekend theater averages". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 15, 2015. 
  58. ^ Subers, Ray (January 15, 2015). "Forecast: 'Sniper' Sets Sights on January Record". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  59. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 16, 2015). "'American Sniper' Hits A Mighty $5.3M, Biggest R-Rated Drama Preview Ever – Thursday B.O.". Deadline.com. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  60. ^ McNary, Dave (January 16, 2015). "Box Office: 'American Sniper' Scores Hit with $5.3 Million on Thursday Night". Variety. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  61. ^ McClintock, Pamela (January 16, 2015). "Box Office: 'American Sniper' Scores Record $5.3M Thursday Night". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  62. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 17, 2015). "'American Sniper' Makes Eastwood's Friday With $30.5M, Can It Hit $80M By Monday? – Saturday Update". Deadline.com. Retrieved January 18, 2015. 
  63. ^ McClintock, Pamela (January 16, 2015). "Box-Office Shocker: 'American Sniper' Tops Friday With $30.5M, Could Approach $80M". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 18, 2015. 
  64. ^ Khatchatourian, Maana (January 17, 2015). "'American Sniper' Earns Record-Breaking $30.5 Mil Friday, Shoots for $80 Mil-Plus Weekend". Variety. Retrieved January 18, 2015. 
  65. ^ "Top opening weekends by month". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 24, 2015. 
  66. ^ "Top opening weekends by season". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 24, 2015. 
  67. ^ Subers, Ray (January 18, 2015). "Weekend Report: 'Sniper' Sets January Record with Stunning $90 Million Debut". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  68. ^ Mendelson, Scott (January 18, 2015). "Box Office: Clint Eastwood's 'American Sniper' Earns Massive $90.2M Weekend". Forbes. Retrieved January 19, 2015. 
  69. ^ a b Mendelson, Scott (January 19, 2015). "Why The 'American Sniper' Box Office Blowout Is Even Bigger Than You Think". Forbes. Retrieved January 20, 2015. 
  70. ^ McClintock, Pamela (January 18, 2015). "Box-Office Shocker: 'American Sniper' Now Targeting $105M Debut". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 18, 2015. 
  71. ^ Mendelson, Scott (January 19, 2015). "Thoughts On 'American Sniper: The IMAX Experience'". Forbes. Retrieved February 7, 2015. 
  72. ^ McClintock, Pamela (January 20, 2015). "Final Box Office: 'American Sniper' Even Bigger, Hits $107.2M Over MLK Weekend". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 22, 2015. 
  73. ^ Subers, Ray (January 22, 2015). "Forecast: 'Sniper' to Easily Fight Off Weak Competition This Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 24, 2015. 
  74. ^ "Widest releases by MPAA rating". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 24, 2015. 
  75. ^ Subers, Ray (January 25, 2015). "Weekend Report: 'Sniper' Scores Stunning $64 Million in Second Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 27, 2015. 
  76. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 26, 2015). "'American Sniper' Higher In Actuals With $200.4M, Oscar Fare Surging – Monday Final Box Office". Deadline.com. Retrieved January 27, 2015. 
  77. ^ McClintock, Pamela (January 25, 2015). "Box Office: 'American Sniper' Hits Stunning $200M; Johnny Depp Fizzles". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 16, 2015. 
  78. ^ Subers, Ray (January 25, 2015). "Weekend Report: 'Sniper' Scores Stunning $64 Million in Second Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 27, 2015. 
  79. ^ Lieberman, David (January 27, 2015). "IMAX Stock Buoyed by 'Mission: Impossible' Switch And Box Office Sales". Deadline.com. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 
  80. ^ Linda Ge (January 30, 2015). "'American Sniper' Overtakes 'Saving Private Ryan' as No. 1 Domestic Grossing War Movie of All Time". The Wrap. Retrieved January 31, 2015. 
  81. ^ McNarry, Dave (January 28, 2015). "Box Office: 'American Sniper' to Dominate Super Bowl Weekend with $35 Million". Variety. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  82. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 28, 2015). "Super Bowl Won't Sideline 'American Sniper': Box Office Preview". Deadline.com. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  83. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 2, 2015). "'American Sniper' Misses Super Bowl Record; Most Top 10 Films Off – Monday B.O. Actuals". Deadline.com. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  84. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (March 8, 2015). "'American Sniper' Shoots Past $500M At Global B.O.; More Eastwood Records Set". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 9, 2015. 
  85. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (January 6, 2015). "'Sniper' Hits Bullseye For Eastwood In Italy, 'Hobbit' Grows: Intl BO Update". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015. 
  86. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (January 13, 2015). "Strong Frame For Fox, Eastwood, Local Pics At International Box Office: Update". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015. 
  87. ^ a b Tartaglione, Nancy (February 24, 2015). "'Fifty Shades' Still Sexy At Overseas Box Office; Chinese New Year Festive For 'Kingsman' – In'tl B.O.Update". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015. 
  88. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (March 15, 2015). "'Cinderella' Tops International Box Office As 'Fifty Shades' Joins Uni's Top 10". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 15, 2015. 
  89. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (January 27, 2015). "'Sniper', 'Boy Next Door', 'Mortdecai' Up In Actuals; 'Taken 3′ Cume Shifts: Intl BO". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015. 
  90. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (January 21, 2015). "'Sniper' Hits Eastwood Highs; 'Taken', 'Son' Top International Box Office: Final". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015. 
  91. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (June 22, 2015). "Euro Summer Box Office's Rosy Outlook: Admissions Up, Soccer Off – Chart". Deadline.com. (Penske Media Corporation). Retrieved June 22, 2015. 
  92. ^ "American Sniper". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved June 8, 2015. 
  93. ^ "American Sniper Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  94. ^ Riley, Jenelle (January 8, 2015). "Can Box Office Help 'American Sniper', 'Unbroken' Win Over Academy Voters?". Variety. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  95. ^ McCarthy, Todd. "'American Sniper': AFI Fest Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  96. ^ Chang, Justin (November 12, 2014). "'American Sniper' Review: Bradley Cooper Stars in Clint Eastwood's Powerful War Movie". Variety. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  97. ^ Denby, David (December 22, 2014). ""Selma" and "American Sniper" Reviews". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  98. ^ American Sniper. Phipps, Keith. The Dissolve, December 23, 2014
  99. ^ Nashawaty, Chris (December 25, 2014). "American Sniper Review". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  100. ^ Weitzman, Elizabeth (December 22, 2014). "'American Sniper': Movie review". NY Daily News. New York. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  101. ^ Smith, Kyle (December 23, 2014). "'American Sniper' is the year's most extraordinary film". New York Post. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  102. ^ Travers, Peter. "'American Sniper' Movie Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  103. ^ Vishnevetsky, Ignatiy. "Review: Clint Eastwood's American Sniper is a war movie that's tensest on the home front". The A.V. Club. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  104. ^ Berardinelli, James. "Reelviews Movie Reviews". ReelViews. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  105. ^ Guzman, Rafer. "'American Sniper' review: Bradley Cooper nails the role". Newsday. 
  106. ^ Turan, Kenneth (December 24, 2014). "Review: 'American Sniper' goes above and beyond war-hero tradition - LA Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  107. ^ Puig, Claudia (December 23, 2014). "Bradley Cooper's aim is true in 'American Sniper'". USA Today. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  108. ^ Rothkopf, Joshua. "American Sniper". Time Out New York. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  109. ^ Obeidallah, Dean (2015-01-27). "'American Sniper' a powerful anti-war film". CNN.com. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  110. ^ Taibbi, Matt (January 21, 2015). "'American Sniper' is almost too dumb to criticize". Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved February 6, 2015. 
  111. ^ Wight, John (January 23, 2015). "Hollywood uses 'American Sniper' to destroy history & create myth". RT. Retrieved February 6, 2015. 
  112. ^ Von Tunzelmann, Alex (January 20, 2015). "Is American Sniper historically accurate?". The Guardian. Retrieved January 31, 2015. 
  113. ^ Masciotra, David (February 1, 2015). "Civil war at the cineplex: "American Sniper", "Selma" and the battle over American masculinity". Salon. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  114. ^ Reppenhagen, Garett (February 1, 2015). "I was an American sniper, and Chris Kyle's war was not my war". Salon. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  115. ^ Edwards, Paul (February 4, 2015). "The Sociopath as Hero". CounterPunch. Retrieved February 6, 2015. 
  116. ^ Kang, Inkoo. "'American Sniper' Review: War Plays Out Like a Video Game in Clint Eastwood's Navy SEAL Biopic". TheWrap. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 
  117. ^ Hedges, Chris (January 25, 2015). "Killing Ragheads for Jesus". Truthdig. Retrieved January 26, 2015. 
  118. ^ Pulliam Bailey, Sarah (January 14, 2015). "Here's the faith in the 'American Sniper' you won't see in the film". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2015. 
  119. ^ Beauchamp, Zack (January 21, 2015). "American Sniper is a dishonest whitewash of the Iraq war". Vox. Retrieved January 28, 2015. 
  120. ^ Alvarez, Max (January 30, 2015). "From Psychopaths to American Hero? A Short History of Sniper Cinema". Counterpunch. Retrieved January 31, 2015. 
  121. ^ Scranton, Roy (January 25, 2015). "The Trauma Hero: From Wilfred Owen to "Redeployment" and "American Sniper"". Los Angeles Review Of Books. Retrieved February 8, 2015. 
  122. ^ Haithman, Diane (January 24, 2015). "Eastwood Talks Impact Of 'American Sniper' At PGA Nominees Breakfast". Deadline.com. 
  123. ^ a b Kilday, Gregg (January 24, 2015). "Clint Eastwood on 'American Sniper's' "Biggest Antiwar Statement"". The Hollywood Reporter. 
  124. ^ Howell, Peter (January 16, 2015). "Think before you shoot, Clint Eastwood says of war: interview". The Star. Toronto. 
  125. ^ Buckley, Cara (February 2, 2015). "Bradley Cooper Says 'American Sniper' Debate Ignores Plight of Veterans". The New York Times. 
  126. ^ "Remarks by the First Lady at Got Your Six Screenwriters Event - Conversation on the Power of Telling Veterans' Stories". WhiteHouse.gov. January 30, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2015. 
  127. ^ Johnson, Ted (January 30, 2015). "First Lady Michelle Obama Offers Praise for 'American Sniper'". Variety. Retrieved January 31, 2015. 
  128. ^ Sarah Palin To Critics Of 'American Sniper' Movie: God Bless Our Snipers, Ahiza Garcia, January 21, 2015, Talking Points Memo
  129. ^ a b c d Alex von Tunzelmann. "Is American Sniper historically accurate? | Film". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  130. ^ a b c d Duckworth, Courtney (2015-01-23). "American Sniper fact vs. fiction: How accurate is the Chris Kyle movie?". Slate.com. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  131. ^ a b Lamothe, Dan (2015-02-18). "Fact-checking 'American Sniper' as the Oscars near". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  132. ^ a b c Dockterman, Eliana (January 16, 2015). "The True Story Behind American Sniper". Time. 
  133. ^ McWeeny, Drew (December 1, 2014). "The Real Star of American Sniper is a Creepy Robot Baby". Hitfix. Retrieved July 4, 2015. 
  134. ^ Galuppo, Mia (January 19, 2015). "American Sniper's Fake Baby Mocked by Critics, Moviegoers". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 4, 2015. 
  135. ^ Respers France, Lisa (February 22, 2015). "'American Sniper', the Oscars, and that Fake Baby". CNN. Retrieved July 4, 2015. 
  136. ^ a b Vincent, Alice (January 19, 2015). "The Mystery of American Sniper's Plastic Babies". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved July 4, 2015. 
  137. ^ Galuppo, Mia (January 19, 2015). "American Sniper's Fake Baby Mocked by Critics, Moviegoers". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  138. ^ "Film Critic Top 10 Lists - Best Movies of 2014". Metacritic. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  139. ^ "American Sniper Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved April 11, 2015. 
  140. ^ Thomas K. Arnold (May 28, 2015). "'American Sniper' Shoots to the Top of the Home-Video Charts". Variety. (Penske Media Corporation). Retrieved May 29, 2015. 
  141. ^ "Oscar Nominations: 'Grand Budapest Hotel' & 'Birdman' Lead Way With 9 Noms; 'Imitation Game' Scores 8". Deadline.com. January 15, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015. 
  142. ^ "'Birdman', 'Foxcatcher' Among Art Directors Guild Nominees". Deadline.com. January 5, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2015. 
  143. ^ McNary, Dave (January 2, 2015). "'American Sniper', 'Boyhood', 'Gone Girl' Among ACE Eddie Award Nominees (FULL LIST)". Variety. Retrieved January 2, 2015. 
  144. ^ "AFI List of Top Ten Films Expands to Include 11 Movies". The Hollywood Reporter. December 9, 2014. Retrieved December 9, 2014. 
  145. ^ "BAFTA Nominations: 'Grand Budapest Hotel' Leads With 11 – Full List". Deadline.com. January 8, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2015. 
  146. ^ "Cinema Audio Society Nominates 'American Sniper', 'True Detective' and More". Indiewire. January 13, 2015. Retrieved January 13, 2015. 
  147. ^ Pedersen, Erik. "Critics' Choice Awards Winners 2015 — Full List: 'Boyhood', 'Birdman' - Deadline". Deadline. 
  148. ^ "Denver critics nominate 'American Sniper', 'Birdman' and 'Inherent Vice'". Hitfix. January 7, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2014. 
  149. ^ "Denver critics name Clint Eastwood's 'American Sniper' the year's best film". Hitfix. January 12, 2015. Retrieved January 12, 2015. 
  150. ^ "DGA Awards Film Nominations: Anderson, Eastwood, Inarritu, Linklater, Tyldum". Deadline.com. January 13, 2015. Retrieved January 13, 2015. 
  151. ^ "Vote Now For The Jameson Empire Awards 2015". empireonline.com. 
  152. ^ "'Boyhood' is Iowa Critics' Best Picture of 2014". Hitfix. January 7, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2015. 
  153. ^ "'Birdman', 'Apes' Top 2015 Golden Reel Nominations". Deadline.com. January 14, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2015. 
  154. ^ "Here Are Your 2015 MTV Movie Awards Nominees". MTV News. 
  155. ^ "National Board of Review Announces 2014 Award Winners". National Board of Review. December 2, 2014. Retrieved December 2, 2014. 
  156. ^ "'American Sniper', 'Birdman' & 'Boyhood' Among PGA Awards Nominees". Deadline.com. January 5, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2015. 
  157. ^ "Writers Guild Awards Nominations: 'Whiplash', 'Gone Girl', 'Guardians' On Diverse List". Deadline.com. January 7, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2015. 

External links[edit]