American Airlines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from American airlines)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the airline known as American Airlines. For a list of airlines of the United States, see List of airlines of the United States.
American Airlines
American Airlines logo 2013.svg
IATA ICAO Callsign
AA AAL AMERICAN
Founded 1931 (as American Airways)
Commenced operations 1934
AOC # AALA025A [1]
Hubs
Frequent-flyer program AAdvantage
Airport lounge Admirals Club
Alliance Oneworld
Fleet size 963 (mainline only)
Destinations 344 [4]
Company slogan The new American is arriving.
Parent company American Airlines Group
Headquarters Fort Worth, Texas, USA
Key people
Revenue Increase US$ 42.7 billion (2014)[5]
Operating income Increase US$ 4.2 billion (2014)[5]
Net income Increase US$ 2.9 billion (2014)[5]
Total assets Increase US$ 43.8 billion (2014)[5]
Employees 94,400 (2014)[5]
Website aa.com

American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major United States-based airline, operating an extensive international and domestic network, and is the world's largest airline by passengers flown, fleet size and revenue, and the second-most by number of destinations, only after United Airlines. It operates from its hubs at Dallas/Fort Worth, Charlotte, Los Angeles, John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Miami, O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Philadelphia, Phoenix, and Washington, D.C., while its primary maintenance base is at Tulsa International Airport. The company, which is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, also has a significant presence in Boston, London-Heathrow, New York-LaGuardia and San Francisco.[6] The airline primarily competes with Delta, United, and Southwest.

American Airlines is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance, and coordinates fares, services, and scheduling with British Airways, Finnair, and Iberia in the transatlantic market and with Japan Airlines in the transpacific market . Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle.[7]

The former parent company of American Airlines, AMR Corporation, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in November 2011,[8][9] and in February 2013 announced plans to merge with US Airways Group, creating the largest airline in the world.[10] AMR and US Airways Group completed the merger on December 9, 2013, with the new holding company American Airlines Group, Inc. being listed on NASDAQ that day,[11] and the two airlines received a single air operator's certificate on April 8, 2015.[12] The combined airline will carry the American Airlines name and branding, and plans to maintain the existing US Airways hubs in Charlotte, Philadelphia, Phoenix, and Washington, D.C., for a period of at least five years under the terms of a settlement with the US Department of Justice and several state attorneys general.[13][14]

History[edit]

Predecessors[edit]

American Airlines has merged with several carriers since its formation in 1930 (which itself happened by a merger of 80 carriers), these have included Trans Caribbean Airways in 1971,[15] Air California in 1987, Trans World Airlines (TWA) London Heathrow Airport Routes in 1990,[15] Reno Air in 1999,[15] Trans World Airlines (TWA) itself in 2001,[15] and US Airways in 2013.

Early history[edit]

1927 American Airways FC-2
A Stinson Trimotor first operated by Century Airlines

American Airlines was developed from a conglomeration of 82 small airlines through acquisitions in 1930[16] and reorganizations: initially, American Airways was a common brand by a number of independent carriers. These included Southern Air Transport[17] in Texas, Southern Air Fast Express (SAFE)[18] in the western United States, Universal Aviation[19] in the Midwest (which operated a transcontinental air/rail route in 1929), Thompson Aeronautical Services[20] (which operated a Detroit-Cleveland route beginning in 1929), and Colonial Air Transport[21] in the Northeast. Like many early carriers, American earned its keep carrying U.S. Mail. By 1933 American Airways operated a transcontinental route network serving 72 cities, mostly in the northeastern, midwestern, and southwestern United States.[22]

DC-3 "Flagship", American's chief aircraft type during the World War II period

In 1934 American Airways Company was acquired by E. L. Cord, who renamed it "American Air Lines". Cord hired Texas businessman C. R. Smith to run the company. Smith worked with Donald Douglas to develop the DC-3, which American Airlines was first to fly, in 1936. American's DC-3 made it the first airline to be able to operate a route that could earn a profit solely by transporting passengers; other carriers could not earn a profit without U.S. Mail.[23] With the DC-3, American began calling its aircraft "Flagships" and establishing the Admirals Club for valued passengers. The DC-3s had a four-star "admiral's pennant" outside the cockpit window while the aircraft was parked. American operated daily overnight transcontinental service between New York and Los Angeles through Dallas/Fort Worth and other intermediate stops, advertising the service as an "all-year southern route."[24]

American Airlines was the first to cooperate with Fiorello LaGuardia to build an airport in New York City,[citation needed] and became owner of the world's first airline lounge at the new LaGuardia Airport (LGA), known as the Admirals Club. Membership was initially by invitation only, later changing to an open policy that accepted members who paid dues.[25]

Post war[edit]

American Airlines BAC 1-11 short haul jet airliner at Cleveland Hopkins Airport in 1971 wearing the early jet era color scheme

After World War II American acquired American Export Airlines, renaming it as American Overseas Airways, to serve Europe. AOA was sold to Pan Am in 1950. AA launched another subsidiary, American Airlines de Mexico S.A., to fly to Mexico and built several airports there. American Airlines provided advertising and free usage of its aircraft in the 1951 film Three Guys Named Mike.[26] Until Capital merged into United in 1961 AA was the largest American airline, which meant second-largest in the world, after Aeroflot.[citation needed]

American Airlines ordered British-built De Havilland Comets; the orders were cancelled when the Comets were found to suffer serious metal fatigue. American Airlines introduced transcontinental Boeing 707s on 25 January 1959 and invested $440 million in jet aircraft up to 1962;[citation needed] launched the first electronic booking system, Sabre, with IBM (the basis of today's Travelocity); and built a terminal at Idlewild (now JFK) Airport in New York City, which became the airline's largest base.[27] Vignelli Associates designed the AA eagle logo in 1967.[28] Vignelli attributes the introduction of his firm to American Airlines to Henry Dreyfuss, the legendary AA design consultant. The logo was in use until January 17, 2013.

In 1970 American Airlines had flights from St. Louis, Chicago, and New York to Honolulu and on to Sydney and Auckland via American Samoa and Nadi, Fiji.[29] In 1971, American acquired Trans Caribbean Airways. On March 30, 1973 American became the first major airline to employ a female pilot when Bonnie Tiburzi was hired to fly Boeing 727s. American Airlines has been innovative in other aspects, initiating several of the industry's major competitive developments including computer reservations systems, frequent flyer loyalty programs, and two-tier wage scales.[30]

Revenue passenger-miles[31] (millions) (Scheduled service only)
American Trans Caribbean
1951 2,554
1955 4,358
1960 6,371 208
1965 9,195 433
1970 16,623 819
1975 20,871 (merged 1971)
Boeing 707 of American Freighter at EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg in France (near Basel) in 1976

American operated a cargo operation called American Freighter until 1984, using cargo-only Boeing 707 and Boeing 747 aircraft that had previously been used in passenger service.[32]

1980s–1990s[edit]

After moving its headquarters to Fort Worth, Texas from New York City in 1979,[33] American Airlines changed to a hub-and-spoke system in 1981, opening its first hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. American opened a second hub in the new Terminal 3 at Chicago O'Hare in 1982, and began transatlantic service between Dallas and London in May 1982.[citation needed] Led by its new chairman and CEO, Robert Crandall, American expanded its service from these hubs through the 1980s, adding service to other European destinations as well as Japan.

In the late 1980s, American Airlines opened three hubs for north-south traffic. San Jose International Airport was added after American purchased AirCal. American built a terminal and runway at Raleigh-Durham International Airport for the growing Research Triangle Park nearby,[citation needed] and to compete with USAir's hub in Charlotte/Douglas International Airport. Nashville International Airport was also added as a hub. American also planned a north-south hub at Stapleton International Airport in Denver during the mid-1980s, but postponed those plans due to the planned development of Denver International Airport.[34]

Revenue Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions
Year Traffic
1980 45,347
1985 71,027
1991 132,313
1995 165,247
2000 187,542
2005 222,449
2011 219,492
2013 346,878
Source: IATA World Air Transport Statistics

In 1990, American Airlines bought the assets of TWA's operations at London Heathrow for $445 million. Until open skies came into effect in April 2008, American Airlines and United Airlines were the only U.S. carriers permitted to serve Heathrow.[citation needed]

Lower fuel prices and a favorable[vague] business climate led to higher profits in the 1990s.[citation needed] The industry's expansion was not lost on pilots who on February 17, 1997 went on strike for higher wages. President Bill Clinton invoked the Railway Labor Act citing economic impact to the United States, quashing the strike.[35] Pilots settled for wages lower than their demands.

The three new hubs were abandoned in the 1990s: some San Jose facilities were sold to Reno Air, and at Raleigh/Durham to Midway Airlines.[citation needed] Midway went out of business in 2001. American Airlines purchased Reno Air in February 1999 and integrated its operations on 31 August 1999,[citation needed] but did not resume hub operations in San Jose. American discontinued most of Reno Air's routes, and sold most of the Reno Air aircraft, as it did with Air California 12 years earlier. The only remaining route from the Air California and Reno Air purchases is from San Francisco to Los Angeles.

During this time concern over airline bankruptcies and falling stock prices brought a warning from American's CEO Robert Crandall. "I've never invested in any airline", Crandall said. "I'm an airline manager. I don't invest in airlines. And I always said to the employees of American, 'This is not an appropriate investment. It's a great place to work and it's a great company that does important work. But airlines are not an investment.'" Crandall noted that since airline deregulation of the 1970s, 150 airlines had gone out of business. "A lot of people came into the airline business. Most of them promptly exited, minus their money", he said.[36]

Miami International Airport became a hub after American Airlines bought Central and South American routes ("El Interamericano") from Eastern Air Lines in 1990 (inherited from Braniff International Airways but originated by Pan American-Grace Airways which was known as Panagra). Through the 1990s, American Airlines expanded its network in Latin America to become the dominant U.S. carrier in the region.

On October 15, 1998, American Airlines became the first airline to offer electronic ticketing in the 44 countries it serves.[citation needed]

In 1999, American Airlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Canadian Airlines, and Qantas founded the global airline alliance Oneworld.

2000s[edit]

Robert Crandall left in 1998 and was replaced by Donald J. Carty, who negotiated the purchase of the near bankrupt Trans World Airlines (it would file for its third bankruptcy as part of the purchase agreement)[37] and its hub in St. Louis in April 2001.

Another American Boeing 747-100 At Los Angeles International Airport.
American Boeing 747-100 Freighter.

American Airlines began losing money in the economic downturn that followed the September 11, 2001 attacks, which destroyed two of its planes. Carty negotiated wage and benefit agreements with the unions but resigned after union leaders discovered he was planning to award executive compensation packages at the same time. This undermined AA's attempts to increase trust with its workforce and to increase its productivity.[30] The St. Louis hub was downsized, AA rolled back its "More Room Throughout Coach" program (which eliminated several rows of seats on certain aircraft), ended three-class service on many international flights,[citation needed] and standardized its fleet at each hub. However, the airline also expanded into new markets, including Ireland, India, and mainland China. On July 20, 2005, American announced a quarterly profit for the first time in 17 quarters; the airline earned $58 million in the second quarter of 2005.

AA was a strong backer of the Wright Amendment, which regulated commercial airline operations at Love Field in Dallas. On June 15, 2006, American agreed with Southwest Airlines and the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth to seek repeal of the Wright Amendment on condition that Love Field remained a domestic airport and its gate capacity be limited.[38]

The 2008 financial crisis again placed strain on the airline. On July 2, 2008, American furloughed of up to 950 flight attendants, via Texas' Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act system,[39] in addition to the furlough of 20 MD-80 aircraft.[40] American's hub at Luis Muñoz Marin International Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico was truncated from 38 to 18 daily inbound flights.[41] All Airbus A300 jets were retired by the end of August 2009 and are stored in Roswell, New Mexico.[42]

Boeing 767–300ER taking off

American also closed its Kansas City overhaul base, inherited from TWA. On August 13, 2008, The Kansas City Star reported that American would move some overhaul work from the base, with repairs on Boeing 757s moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma along with one or two Boeing 767 repair lines; the city's aviation department offered to upgrade repair facilities on condition that the airline maintain at least 700 jobs.[43] On October 28, 2009, American notified its employees that it would close the Kansas City base in September 2010, and would also close or make cutbacks at five smaller maintenance stations, resulting in the loss of up to 700 jobs.[44] American closed its maintenance base at Kansas City (MCI) on September 24, 2010.[45]

American had repeated run-ins with the FAA regarding maintenance of its MD-80 fleet, canceling 1,000 flights to inspect wire bundles over three days in April 2008 to make sure they complied with government safety regulations.[46] In September 2009, the Associated Press and The Wall Street Journal reported that American was accused of hiding repeated maintenance lapses on at least 16 MD-80s from the FAA. Repair issues included such items as faulty emergency slides, improper engine coatings, incorrectly drilled holes, and other examples of shoddy workmanship. The most serious alleged lapse is a failure to repair cracks to pressure bulkheads; the rupture of a bulkhead could lead to cabin depressurization. It is also alleged that the airline retired one airplane in order to hide it from FAA inspectors.[47][48] American began the process of replacing its older MD-80 jets with Boeing 737s and Airbus A319s and A321s.

American was a key player in the 2009-2011 restructuring of Japan Airlines. In September 2009, AMR Corporation showed interest in buying part of the financially struggling JAL,[49] while rival Delta Air Lines was also looking into investing in the troubled airline along with its SkyTeam partner Air France-KLM.[50] Japan Airlines called off negotiations of the possible deal with all airlines on October 5, 2009. Delta, with help from TPG, made a bid of $1 billion in November 2009 for JAL to partner with them; two days later, reports came from Japan that AA and TPG had teamed up and made a $1.5 billion cash offer to JAL.[51] In February 2010, JAL officially announced that it would strengthen its relationship with American Airlines and Oneworld.[52] This led to an enhanced joint venture between American and JAL beginning April 1, 2011.[53]

2010s[edit]

Numerous American Airlines aircraft at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport in 2005

In early July 2010, it was reported that American Airlines was trying to find buyers for its regional airline American Eagle. The move followed Delta Air Lines and its spin off of its wholly owned regional airlines Compass Airlines and Mesaba Airlines.[54][55]

American began a joint venture with British Airways and Iberia Airlines in October 2010, which included frequent flyer reciprocity.[56] The USDOT granted AA preliminary antitrust immunity for the venture in February 2010,[57] and the partnership was officially approved by the USDOT on 20 July 2010.[58]

American also began an interlining partnership with JetBlue Airways in March 2010,[59] which covered 27 JetBlue destinations not served by American and 13 American international destinations from New York and Boston. American gave JetBlue eight slot pairs (arrival and departure slots) at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and one slot pair at Westchester County Airport, in return for which JetBlue gave American 12 slot pairs at JFK Airport. Effective November 18, 2010, the two airlines would give travelers miles in either airline's frequent flyer program when flying on a qualifying route, regardless of whether the travels include an international connection.[60]

American expanded its service to Asia and the Pacific. It was one of the initial US bidders in February 2010 to serve Tokyo's Haneda Airport,[61] and was awarded rights to serve Haneda from New York JFK.[62] American planned to begin JFK-Haneda service in January 2011, but postponed the service until February 2011 citing low booking demand,[63] ultimately terminating its JFK-Narita service in favor of JFK-Haneda service in June 2012. American later cancelled its JFK-Haneda service in October 2013 due to the service being "quite unprofitable" due to the time constraints at Haneda Airport.[64] American also began service between Los Angeles and Shanghai in 2011[65] and between Dallas/Fort Worth and Seoul in 2013,[66] and from Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to both Shanghai and Hong Kong in the summer of 2014, providing the first ever nonstop service between Dallas/Fort Worth and China.[67] In October 2014, American filed a report to the DOT to launch flights from Los Angeles to Tokyo-Haneda in place of Delta's Seattle-Tacoma operating slot,[68] sparking a war that lasted for over eight months. American was originally granted the slot as a back-up to Delta's Seattle-Haneda route if it failed to operate on a daily basis on March 28, 2015 (which would give the operating rights to American), but in June 2015, Delta announced the cancellation of its Seattle-Haneda service, claiming the daily operation was not feasible due to the route not being an economically viable one in the Seattle market due to certain regulatory and market conditions.[69] American confirmed it will launch daily service from Los Angeles to Tokyo-Haneda on October 15, 2015 using their Boeing 777-200ER, as well as daily service from Los Angeles to Sydney, Australia on December 17, 2015 on their flagship Boeing 777-300ER,[70] returning to Australia for the first time since the 1990s and providing the first ever non-stop service between the Continental U.S. and Australia on American Airlines.

Since late 2010, American Airlines has been involved in a dispute with two online ticketing agencies, Expedia and Orbitz.[71] This relates to American's "Direct Connect" fare booking system for large travel agents, which Expedia claimed might raise costs and was less transparent for passengers.[72] The Direct Connect allows American to exert more control over its distribution, save costs, and better sell ancillary services to its customers.[73] In December 2010, American pulled its price listings from Orbitz, and on 1 January 2011, Expedia removed American Airlines' fares from its site.[74][75]

American placed the "largest aircraft order in history" in July 2011, purchasing 460 "next generation" Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 aircraft for delivery between 2013 and 2022. These aircraft were designated to replace American's short and medium-haul fleet of 757-200, 767-200, and MD-80 aircraft, eventually consolidating the fleet around four aircraft families (Boeing 737, Airbus A320, Boeing 787, and Boeing 777).[76] American Airlines became the second U.S. carrier to receive the new Boeing 787 in January 2015.[77]

Bankruptcy of AMR Corporation[edit]

An American Airlines Boeing 737-800 with new livery taking off from Montréal airport in 2013

AMR Corporation filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on 29 November 2011, and American began capacity cuts in July 2012 due to the grounding of several aircraft associated with its bankruptcy and lack of pilots due to retirements. American's regional airline, American Eagle, was to retire 35 to 40 regional jets as well as its Saab turboprop fleet. American ceased its service to Delhi, India in March 2012.[78]

By summer 2012, American was considering merging with another airline as part of its restructuring plan. AMR was reportedly considering merger proposals involving US Airways, JetBlue, Alaska Airlines, Frontier Airlines, and Virgin America.[79] In a July 12 court filing, US Airways said it supported an American Airlines request to extend a period during which only American could file a bankruptcy reorganization plan ("exclusivity period"); in the filing US Airways disclosed that it was an American Airlines creditor and prospective merger partner. On August 31, 2012, American Airlines and US Airways signed a nondisclosure agreement, which stated that the airlines would discuss their financials and a possible merger.[80]

American notified more than 11,000 workers of possible job loss as part of its bankruptcy reorganization, and cut flights by one to two percent in September and October 2012.[81] In October, the airline announced plans to hire 2,500 pilots over two years to staff new international and domestic routes, with about 1,500 of the new hires replacing retiring pilots or jobs that open up due to attrition.[82] The Allied Pilots Association, representing pilots of American Airlines, voted in December 2012 to ratify a tentative agreement between the company and the union.[83]

In January 2013, American introduced a new logo, livery, and brand image, unveiling the livery on its first Boeing 777-300 aircraft which went into service later that month.[84]

Merger with US Airways[edit]

American's first Airbus A319 ready for delivery in July 2013 at Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport.

On February 14, 2013, AMR Corporation and US Airways Group officially announced that the two companies would merge to form the largest airline (and airline holding company) in the world, with bondholders of American Airlines parent AMR owning 72% of the new company and US Airways shareholders owning the remaining 28%. The combined airline would carry the American Airlines name and branding, while US Airways' management team, including CEO Doug Parker, would retain most operational management positions, and the headquarters would be consolidated at American's current headquarters in Fort Worth, Texas.[13][85] The merger would create the world's largest airline, which, along with United Airlines and Delta Air Lines, would control three-quarters of the U.S. market.[10] Bankruptcy judge Sean Lane approved the merger in March while refusing to approve American CEO Tom Horton's $20 million golden parachute and deeming it "inappropriate".[86]

The United States Department of Justice, along with attorneys general from six states and the District of Columbia, filed a lawsuit in August 2013 seeking to block the merger, arguing that it would mean less competition and higher prices. Both American Airlines and US Airways said that they would fight the lawsuit and continue with their merger after regulatory approval.[87] On November 12, the airlines reached a settlement with the U.S. Justice Department and several state attorneys general to settle the lawsuit and allow the merger to be finalized.[88]

An antitrust suit, filed by a group of 40 passengers and travel agents, also sought to block the merger.[89] However, American's bankruptcy court judge refused to enjoin the two airlines from merging, saying that the group did not demonstrate that the merger would irreparably harm them.[90] The plaintiffs' lawyer appealed and was turned down at the U.S. District Court level and was further rebuffed at the Supreme Court after Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg denied a stay request filed by him.[91]

On April 8, 2015, the Federal Aviation Administration awarded American Airlines and US Airways a single operating certificate.[92]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Headquarters[edit]

American Airlines is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, adjacent to the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.[93] The headquarters is located in two office buildings in the CentrePort office complex and these buildings together have about 1,400,000 square feet (130,000 m2) of space. As of 2014 over 4,300 employees work at this complex.[94]

Before it was headquartered in Texas, American Airlines was headquartered at 633 Third Avenue in the Murray Hill area of Midtown Manhattan, New York City.[95][96] In 1979 American moved its headquarters to a site at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, which affected up to 1,300 jobs. Mayor of New York City Ed Koch described the move as a "betrayal" of New York City.[97] American moved to two leased office buildings in Grand Prairie, Texas.[98] The airline finished moving into a $150 million ($355178750.42 when adjusted for inflation), 550,000-square-foot (51,000 m2) facility in Fort Worth on January 17, 1983; $147 million (about $348075175.41 when adjusted for inflation) in Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport bonds financed the headquarters. The airline began leasing the facility from the airport, which owns the facility.[98]

U.S. federal government subsidies[edit]

As of November 2013 American Airlines and American Eagle received $10,011,836 in annual federal subsidies for Essential Air Services.[99] These subsidies are awarded by public tender and ensure that small, rural airports can be connected to the national air network.

Labor unions[edit]

ALPA, AFA, and TWU are affiliated with AFL-CIO, while APA and APFA are not.

Environmental record[edit]

Violations occurring over a 4½ year period—from October 1993 to July 1998—targeted American Airlines for using high-sulfur fuel in motor vehicles at 10 major airports around the country. Under the federal Clean Air Act high sulfur fuel cannot be used in motor vehicles. American Airlines promptly identified and corrected these violations of the Clean Air Act.[101]

American Airlines' wastewater treatment plant recycles water used at the base to wash aircraft, process rinse water tanks, and irrigate landscape. That alone has saved almost $1 million since 2002. In addition to that, American Airlines has also won the award for the reduction of hazardous waste that saved them $229,000 after a $2,000 investment. A bar code system is used to track hazardous waste. It has led to reduction of waste by 50 percent since 2000.[102]

American Airlines Vacations[edit]

The division was initially founded over 25 years ago under the name FlyAAway Vacations. The name was eventually changed to AAV Tours. Today it operates as American Airlines Vacations (www.aavacations.com), offering vacations in the Caribbean, Mexico, Hawaii, Europe, Canada, the United States, Latin America, and Asia. American Airlines Vacations is the only travel company that allows payment with AAdvantage miles (or oneworld miles). The current president of American Airlines Vacations is Richard Elieson.

Sponsorships[edit]

Corporate identity[edit]

[edit]

American Airlines' second logo, in use from 1967 until 2013

In 1931, Goodrich Murphy, an American employee, designed the AA logo.[106] The logo was redesigned by Massimo Vignelli in 1967.[107][108] Thirty years later, in 1997, American Airlines was able to make its logo Internet-compatible by buying the domain AA.com. AA is also American's two-letter IATA airline designator.

On January 16, 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign with FutureBrand dubbed, "A New American". This included a new logo replacing the classic 1967 logo. American Airlines calls the new logo the "Flight Symbol", incorporating the eagle, star, and "A" of the classic logo.[109]

Livery[edit]

American's early liveries varied widely, but a common livery was adopted in the 1930s, featuring an eagle painted on the fuselage. The eagle became a symbol of the company and inspired the name of American Eagle Airlines. Propeller aircraft featured an international orange lightning bolt running down the length of the fuselage, which was replaced by a simpler orange stripe with the introduction of jets.

A Boeing 737 in the Astrojet livery

In the late 1960s, American commissioned designer Massimo Vignelli to develop a new livery. The original design called for a red, white, and blue stripe on the fuselage, and a simple "AA" logo, without an eagle, on the tail; instead, Vignelli created a highly stylized eagle, which remained the company's logo until 2013. In 1999, American painted a new Boeing 757 (N679AN) in its 1959 international orange livery. One Boeing 777 and one Boeing 757 were painted in standard livery with a pink ribbon on the sides and on the tail, in support for the Susan G. Komen for the Cure. One Boeing 757 is painted with a yellow ribbon on the tailfin on the aircraft and on the side of the body says "Flagship Independence". American Eagle, the airline's regional airline has the same special livery on ERJ-145 aircraft.

AA "Flagship Freedom", labeled with a "yellow awareness ribbon" symbol, representing support of the United States Armed Forces overseas operations.

On January 17, 2013, American unveiled a new livery.[110] Before then, American had been the only major U.S. airline to leave most of its aircraft surfaces unpainted. This was because C. R. Smith hated painted aircraft, and refused to use any liveries that involved painting the entire plane. Robert "Bob" Crandall later justified the distinctive natural metal finish by noting that less paint reduced the aircraft's weight, thus saving on fuel costs.[111]

In January 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign dubbed, "The New American". In addition to a new logo, American Airlines introduced a new livery for it's fleet. The airline calls the new livery and branding "a clean and modern update".[109] The current design features an abstract American flag on the tail, along with a silver-painted fuselage, as a throw-back to the old livery. The new design was painted by Leading Edge Aviation Services in California.[112] Doug Parker, the incoming CEO indicated that the new livery could be short-lived, stating that "maybe we need to do something slightly different than that ... The only reason this is an issue now is because they just did it right in the middle, which kind of makes it confusing, so that gives us an opportunity, actually, to decide if we are going to do something different because we have so many airplanes to paint".[113]

So American Airlines let the employees decide. They posted on the employee website two options. One was the new current livery. The other the same livery and color with the new logo and billboard titles. However the old AA and crossed winged eagle logo would be on the tail instead of the American flag look. All of the American Airlines Group employees (including US Airways and other express affiliates) were able to vote. American ultimately decided the keep the new look stating two different logos, one on the tail the other on the fuselage, would be confusing to passengers. Doug Parker CEO of American Airlines Group announced that they will keep the US Airways heritage aircraft and a TWA heritage aircraft will be added in the future "We will continue that tradition at American, including introducing a TWA aircraft in the future and keeping a US Airways livery aircraft. That also means we will keep a heritage American livery in the fleet" and possibility a Reno Air and AirCal

Slogans[edit]

  • Current: "Going for great."[114]
  • 2013–2014: AA/US merger – "The new American is arriving." (Spanish: "La nueva American esta llegando.") (With the introduction of new logo and branding in 2013.)[115]
  • 2011–13: – "Be yourself. Nonstop."
  • 2000s–13: – "We know why you fly." (Spanish: "Sabemos por qué vuelas")[116]
  • AA/TWA merger – "Two great airlines, one great future."[117]
  • 2001 (post-9/11) – "We are an airline that is proud to bear the name: American."[118]
  • 1998 – early 2000s - "New York's Bridge To The World" (Used for marketing in the New York metropolitan area.)
  • Early – mid-1990s – "We Mean Business In Chicago." (Used for marketing in the Chicago market.)[119]
  • 1988 – mid-1990s – "Based Here. Best Here." (Used for marketing in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex.)[120]
  • 1988 – "The On-Time Machine."[121]
  • Late 1980s – "No other Airline gives you more of America, than American."
  • 1984–2000 – "Something special in the air." (Several variants of this slogan existed. Variant used on the website: "Something special online.", Spanish variant: "Todo es especial, tú eres especial.", Variant used to market European routes: "Something special to Europe." Variant used with the previous tune: "We're American Airlines. Something special in the air.")[122]
  • 1982 – late 1980s – "En American, tenemos lo que tú buscas." (Spanish slogan, translated to "At American, we've got what you're looking for").
  • 17 March 1975 – 1984 – "We're American Airlines. Doing what we do best." (The tune used for the campaign would be retained for several years with the "Something special in the air" slogan).[123]
  • 1971 – 1975 – "Our passengers get the best of everything." (also known as "You get the best of everything.")[124]
  • 1969 – 1971 – "It's good to know you're on American Airlines."[125]
  • 1967 – 1969 – "Fly the American Way."[126]
  • 1964 – 1967 – "American built an airline for professional travelers." (also known as "You'll love it.")[127]
  • 1950s – 1964 – "America's Leading Airline."

Destinations[edit]

AA aircraft at Concourse D of Miami International Airport in April 2005.
AA Boeing 777 at Galeão International Airport, Rio de Janeiro in November 2003

American Airlines serves four continents, trailing Delta Air Lines and United Airlines, which both serve six. Hubs at Dallas/Fort Worth and Miami serve as gateways to the Americas, hubs at Philadelphia and New York Kennedy (JFK) serve as gateways for both the Americas and Europe, while the Los Angeles hub (LAX) is the primary gateway to Asia, and Phoenix is the primary gateway to Mexico and Hawaii.

Lambert-St. Louis International Airport served as a regional hub for several years. However, the airline's 2009 restructuring led to the airport being removed as a focus city on April 5, 2010.[128] In the U.S., American serves the second-largest number of international destinations, after Delta Air Lines.

AA major airports listed by departures (December 19, 2014)[129]
Rank Airport Flights
1 Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport 877
2 Charlotte-Douglas International Airport 740
3 Chicago O'Hare International Airport 522
4 Philadelphia International Airport 469
5 Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport 316
6 Miami International Airport 310
7 Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport 292
8 Los Angeles International Airport 180
9 LaGuardia Airport (New York) 180
10 John F. Kennedy International Airport (New York) 157

Hub information[edit]

Current hubs[edit]

American has nine hubs. American carries more passengers than any other airline at Charlotte, Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami, Philadelphia, Phoenix, and Washington-National.[citation needed]

  • Charlotte-Douglas International Airport – Acquired through the merger with US Airways, Charlotte is American's second-largest hub.
  • Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport – The largest hub for American Airlines, as well as its headquarters site. American flies to more than 200 nonstop destinations from DFW.
  • John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York City – a secondary European gateway, American operates the third most flights at JFK behind Delta Air Lines and JetBlue.
  • Los Angeles International Airport – American's West Coast hub and primary Asian gateway.
  • Miami International Airport – American's primary South American gateway.
  • O'Hare International Airport, Chicago – American's third-largest hub.
  • Philadelphia International Airport – Acquired through the merger with US Airways, Philadelphia is American's fourth-largest hub, and has become its primary European and transatlantic gateway.
  • Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport – Acquired through the merger and the former headquarters site of US Airways. Phoenix is American's fifth-largest and primary western hub.[130] It also serves as the primary gateway to Mexico and Hawaii.
  • Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport – Acquired through the merger with US Airways, American was forced to give up slots in order to merge with US Airways; as a result, Washington-National is one of American's smallest hubs.

Former hubs[edit]

  • Lambert-St. Louis International Airport – American closed its St. Louis hub in 2010 during its bankruptcy in order to cut costs. The St. Louis hub was inherited from Trans World Airlines.
  • Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico – American used San Juan as a connection point for Caribbean destinations using ATR-72 commuter aircraft. American has since removed the ATR-72 series aircraft from its regional fleet and closed its hub at San Juan.
  • Nashville International Airport – American saw a decrease in passenger traffic and closed its Nashville hub in the mid 1990s to cut costs.
  • Raleigh-Durham International Airport – American closed its Raleigh-Durham hub in the mid 1990s after it was deemed not profitable.
  • San Jose International Airport – American closed their Sun Jose hub in the early 2000s. The San Jose hub was inherited from Reno Air.

Maintenance Bases[edit]

Codeshare agreements[edit]

In addition to partnerships and codeshare agreements with fellow Oneworld members, American Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines as of May 2015:[132]

In particular, American has joint ventures with British Airways, Iberia, and Finnair on transatlantic routes and with Japan Airlines and Qantas on transpacific routes.[139][140][141]

American also operated interchange flight services in conjunction with Alaska Airlines during the 1970s between Texas and Alaska during the construction of the Trans-Alaska oil pipeline. This interchange agreement allowed for single, no change of aircraft service between Houston, Texas and Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, and Anchorage, Alaska and Fairbanks, Alaska. The round trip routing of this interchange flight was Houston-Dallas/Fort Worth-Seattle-Anchorage-Fairbanks with Seattle, Washington serving as the interchange point where flight and cabin crews were changed from one airline to the other. Boeing 727-200 jetliners provided by both American and Alaska Airlines were utilized to provide this interchange service.[citation needed]

Fleet[edit]

An American Airlines Boeing 777-200ER with the new livery departing Shanghai Pudong Airport in 2013.

As of June 2015, American Airlines operates a mainline fleet of 963 aircraft, making it the largest commercial fleet in the world. It primarily operates a mix of Airbus and Boeing (including McDonnell Douglas) narrow-body and wide-body aircraft, as well as one narrow-body variant from Embraer. American is currently in the process of the largest fleet renewal in its history, with over 380 aircraft on order from Airbus and Boeing.[142]

Following American's merger with US Airways, all US Airways airframes were transferred to American on April 8, 2015 when a Single Operating Certificate was awarded by the Federal Aviation Administration.[143]

American is the largest operator of Airbus A320 family aircraft in the world. They operate the largest fleet of A321 aircraft, and have the second largest A319 fleet, only behind EasyJet.[citation needed]

American operates the fourth largest fleet of Boeing 737 Next Generation family aircraft worldwide (behind Ryanair, Southwest Airlines, and United Airlines), while having the second largest fleet of the Boeing 737-800 variant, trailing Ryanair.[144]

Cabin[edit]

Flagship Suite on a Boeing 777-300ER
First class seat on an A321 Transcontinental

Flagship Suite[edit]

The Flagship Suite is American’s international first class product, with the newest version being exclusively offered on all Boeing 777-300ERs in the fleet. The cabin features eight suites that are laid out in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration with direct aisle access. Each suite features an 80-inch (203 cm) long fully lie-flat seat with swivel capabilities (enabling the passenger to set up a dedicated work space), a 17-inch (43 cm) touchscreen monitor, and multiple AC power outlets and USB ports. Amenities that are exclusively offered to Flagship Suite passengers include Flagship check-in privileges, access to the Flagship Lounge, inflight wine tasting, a turndown service with pajamas, and a class-specific amenity kit. Other amenities include 3 complementary checked bags, early boarding, a pair of Bose QuietComfort Acoustic Noise Canceling Headsets, premium alcoholic beverage and wine selections (including pre-departure champagne service), chef-inspired dining options, and access to the premium cabin walk-up bar, which features assorted snacks and beverages throughout the duration of the flight.[145]

An older version of the Flagship Suite is available on select Boeing 777-200ERs. However, these aircraft are in the process of being retrofitted, with the first class section being replaced with an all-new, expanded business class. These aircraft feature 16 suites in a 1-2-1 configuration with direct aisle access, privacy dividers, and a 78-inch (198 cm) long fully lie-flat seat with swivel capabilities. Each seat comes equipped with an 8.4 inch tilting touchscreen monitor and a DC power outlet.[146]

Business Class[edit]

Sky Club boarding pass

International Business Class is available on American’s entire wide-body fleet and select Boeing 757-200s that are used on international routes. Layout, seat type and amenities vary among aircraft:

Airbus A330: Fully lie-flat Cirrus seats designed by Zodiac Seats France with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration. Seat length: 76-80 inches (193–203 cm). Equipped with a 12.1 inch (30.7 cm) touchscreen monitor, universal AC power outlet and USB port.[147]

Boeing 777-300ER: Fully lie-flat seats with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration. Equipped with a 15.4 (39 cm) inch touchscreen monitor, universal AC power outlets, and USB ports.[145]

Boeing 787-8 and retrofitted Boeing 777-200ER: Fully lie-flat seats with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration with front- and rear-facing seats. Seat length: 77 inch (196.5 cm). Equipped with a 16-inch touchscreen monitor, two universal AC power outlets, and two USB ports.

Boeing 777-200ER pre-retrofit: Angled lie-flat seats in a 2-3-2 configuration. Equipped with a 10.6 inch touchscreen and a DC power outlet. These seats are currently in the process of being replaced.[148]

• Retrofitted Boeing 767-300ER: Fully lie-flat seats designed by Thompson Aero Seating in a staggered 1-2-1 configuration with direct aisle access. Equipped with two universal AC power outlets and 2 USB ports. Seats are not equipped with a personal inflight entertainment system, but a Samsung Galaxy Tab™ 10.1 tablet is provided.[149]

Boeing 767-300ER without retrofit: Angled lie-flat seats in a 2-2-2 configuration. Equipped with a DC power outlet. Not equipped with personal inflight entertainment.[150]

Boeing 757-200: Legacy American 757s feature Recaro angled lie-flat seats in a 2-2 configuration equipped with a 10.4 inch (26 cm) tilting touchscreen monitor, and DC power outlets. Former US Airways 757s have 160° reclining seats in a 2-2 configuration equipped with DC power outlets. These seats are not equipped with a personal inflight entertainment system, but a Samsung Galaxy Tab™ 10.1 tablet is provided.[151] All internationally configured 757s are to be retrofitted with new business class cabins featuring fully lie-flat seats.[152]

All international Business Class passengers are provided with the following amenities; three complementary checked bags, Admirals Club access, early boarding, a pair of Bose QuietComfort Acoustic Noise Canceling Headsets, premium alcoholic beverage and wine selections (including pre-departure champagne service), chef-inspired dining options, and class-specific amenity kits. Business Class passengers traveling on 787-8, 777-300ER, and retrofitted 777-200ER aircraft have access to the walk-up bar.

Transcontinental[edit]

American has dedicated 17 Airbus A321s in its fleet for the specific use of flying transcontinental routes between New York JFK–Los Angeles and New York JFK–San Francisco. These aircraft offer two premium cabins, First Class and Business Class, which are unique among domestic mainline aircraft in American’s fleet:

First Class: Seats are arranged in a 1-1 reverse herringbone configuration offering direct aisle access. They are fully lie-flat, and come equipped with a 15.4 (39 cm) inch touchscreen monitor, universal AC power outlets, and USB ports. These seats are similar to the ones in the Business Class cabin on the Boeing 777-300ER. Transcontinental First Class passengers receive exclusive amenities such as Flagship check-in at New York JFK and LAX, and an amenity kit that is identical to the one given to international Business Class passengers.[153]

Business Class: Fully lie-flat seats are set up in a 2-2 configuration. Equipped with a 15.4 inch (39 cm) touchscreen monitor, two universal AC power outlets, and two USB ports.[153]

Amenities offered to all Transcontinental premium cabin passengers include Admirals Club access, premium food and beverage options, and a pair of Bose QuietComfort Acoustic Noise Canceling Headsets.[153]

Domestic First Class[edit]

First Class is offered on all domestic mainline aircraft, as well as regional aircraft with more than 50 seats. When such aircraft are used on flights to international destinations including Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, the First Class cabin is branded as Business Class. Seats range from 19–21 inches (48–53 cm) in width and have 37–40 inches (94–102 cm) of pitch.[154] Dining options include free snacks, beverages, and alcohol on all flights, with three-course meals offered on flights 900 miles (1,448 km) or longer (select routes under 900 miles offer meal service).[155]

Main Cabin Extra[edit]

American’s premium economy product, Main Cabin Extra, is available on most of the mainline fleet and American Eagle regional aircraft with more than 50 seats. Exceptions include all former US Airways aircraft (as of May 2015), US Airways Express regional aircraft, and a handful of 777-200ERs that have yet to be retrofitted. Seats range from 17.2–18.5 inches (44–47 cm) in width and have 34–37 inches (86–94 cm) of pitch, which is 3–6 more inches of pitch offered in regular economy seating.[154]

Main Cabin[edit]

Main Cabin is American’s economy product, and is found on all mainline and regional aircraft in the fleet. Seats range from 17–18.5 inches (43–47 cm) in width and have 30–32 inches (76–81 cm) of pitch.[154] Newer aircraft including all A319, A321, and Newer 737 Include audio video on demand in each seat, including movies, tv series, and a map.

AAdvantage[edit]

Main article: AAdvantage

AAdvantage is the frequent flyer program of American Airlines. Launched May 1, 1981, it was the second such loyalty program in the world (after the first at Texas International Airlines in 1979), and remains the largest with more than 67 million members as of October 2011.[156][157]

This program allow participants to redeem tickets, upgrade service class, or obtain free or discounted car rentals, hotel stays, merchandise, or other products and services through partners.

Lounges[edit]

Admirals Club[edit]

Admirals Club logo
Inside an Admirals Club

The Admirals Club was conceived by AA president C.R. Smith as a marketing promotion shortly after he was made an honorary Texas Ranger. Inspired by the Kentucky colonels and other honorary organizations, Smith decided to make particularly valued passengers "admirals" of the "Flagship fleet" (AA called its aircraft "Flagships" at the time).[158] The list of Admirals included many celebrities, politicians, and other VIPs, as well as more "ordinary" customers who had been particularly loyal to the airline.

There was no physical Admirals Club until shortly after the opening of LaGuardia Airport. During the airport's construction, New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia had an upper-level lounge set aside for press conferences and business meetings. At one such press conference, he noted that the entire terminal was being offered for lease to airline tenants; after a reporter asked whether the lounge would be leased as well, LaGuardia replied that it would, and a vice president of AA immediately offered to lease the premises. The airline then procured a liquor license and began operating the lounge as the "Admirals Club" in 1939.[citation needed]

The second Admirals Club opened at Washington National Airport. Because it was illegal to sell alcohol in Virginia at the time, the club contained refrigerators for the use of its members, so they could store their own liquor at the airport.[citation needed] For many years, membership in the Admirals Club (and most other airline lounges) was by the airline's invitation. After a passenger sued for discrimination,[159] the Club (and most other airline lounges) switched to a paid membership program.

Flagship Lounge[edit]

Though affiliated with the Admirals Club and staffed by many of the same employees, the Flagship Lounge is a separate lounge specifically designed for customers flying in First Class on transcontinental domestic flights and international flights, as well as AAdvantage Executive Platinum and Oneworld Emerald frequent flyers.[160] Flagship Lounges are now available at four airports: Chicago-O'Hare, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, and New York-JFK.[161] American also previously offered a Flagship Lounge in Miami from 2000 to 2002, and again from 2009.[162]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

More than 50 American Airlines flights have crashed or been involved in incidents with fatalities. The most recent fatal crash was American Airlines Flight 587 in New York on November 12, 2001.

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Airline Certificate Information – Detail View". av-info.faa.gov. Federal Aviation Administration. May 12, 2015. Certificate Number AALA025A 
  2. ^ "Building a Stronger American". aa.com. Retrieved June 26, 2015. 
  3. ^ "American Airlines Group". American Airlines. Retrieved 2015-06-03. Together with American Eagle® and US Airways Express, the airlines operate [...] from its hubs in Charlotte, Chicago, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix and Washington, D.C. 
  4. ^ "Oneworld Network and Operations". Oneworld. April 2013. Retrieved September 25, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "AA Annual Revenue 2014". New York: American Airlines Group. January 27, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2015. 
  6. ^ "American Airlines Ticket Counters | Airport Information | aa.com". www.aa.com. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
  7. ^ Associated, The (September 12, 2012). "American Air signs deal to contract out some flying to SkyWest". Yahoo! News. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  8. ^ Isidore, Chris (November 29, 2011). "American Airlines and AMR file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy". CNN. Retrieved December 2, 2011. 
  9. ^ Rushe, Dominic (November 29, 2011). "American Airlines files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection". The Guardian (London). Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  10. ^ a b Lazarowitz, Elizabeth (February 14, 2013). "American Airlines and US Airways merge to create world's largest airline; move may potentially increase airfares". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  11. ^ Maxon, Terry (November 27, 2013). "Judge OKs American Airlines-US Airways merger, American's exit from bankruptcy". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 29, 2013. 
  12. ^ Spira, Jonathan (1 December 2013). "American Airlines: Challenges Ahead Include Merging Systems, Changing Alliances, and Aligning In-Flight Service". Frequent Business Traveler. Retrieved December 3, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "American Airlines and US Airways to Create a Premier Global Carrier – The New American Airlines" (Press release). Fort Worth, TX & Tempe, AZ: AMR & US Airways Group. 14 February 2013. Archived from the original on February 16, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ a b c d Harty, Jack; Sloan, Chris (February 14, 2013). "The American Airlines-US Airways Merger Will Unite 2 Companies With Tumultuous Pasts". Business Insider, Inc. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  16. ^ Koenig, David (November 29, 2011). "American Airlines parent seeks Ch. 11 protection". Google News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 4, 2011. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  17. ^ "American Airlines". Cincinnati Aviation Heritage Society & Museum. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  18. ^ Eggebeen, Janna (2007). Airport Age: Architecture and Modernity in America. ProQues. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  19. ^ "UAL". Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  20. ^ "American Airways Pilot Hat Badge 2nd Issue Usage 1934-1947". Stanley Baumwald. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  21. ^ "American Airlines". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  22. ^ "1933 - August 6 - American Airlines Timetables, Route Maps, and History". Airchive. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  23. ^ "For American, a blemish on a distinguished history". Yahoo News. November 29, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2015. 
  24. ^ "1938 - August 5 - American Airlines Timetables, Route Maps, and History". Airchive. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  25. ^ "Admirals Club History". aa.com. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  26. ^ "Aviation in Film:Three Guys Named Mike". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved December 22, 2008. 
  27. ^ "Jets Across the U.S.". TIME. November 17, 1958. 
  28. ^ Smith, Patrick (January 6, 2014). "American Airlines to Keep New Livery. Was the Election Rigged?". The Boston Globe. 
  29. ^ Timetables & Route Maps – American – 1970 – September 14. Airchive. Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
  30. ^ a b Bamber, G.J., Gittell, J.H., Kochan, T.A. & von Nordenflytch, A. (2009). "Up in the Air: How Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging their Employees". Cornell University Press, Ithaca. chapter 5. 
  31. ^ Handbook of Airline Statistics (biannual CAB publication)
  32. ^ "History Of AMR And American Airlines". AA.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013. 
  33. ^ "American Airlines Mulls Headquarters Move Year After Merger". Bloomberg. Retrieved 11 December 2014. 
  34. ^ Washburn, Gary (June 6, 1985). "American Airlines Plans Nashville Hub". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  35. ^ Knowlton, Brian (February 17, 1997). "American Airlines Resuming Service After Clinton Stops Strike". International Herald Tribune. 
  36. ^ "Inside American Airlines, A Week in the Life". CNBC. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 
  37. ^ Bryant, AdamDAM (June 29, 1995). "T.W.A. Cleared for 2d Bankruptcy Filing". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2010. 
  38. ^ "American Airlines Joins Southwest Airlines in Defeating the Wright Amendment". USA Today Today In The Sky. November 2, 2006. 
  39. ^ Maxon, Terry (July 3, 2008). "American Airlines' parent AMR to cut 6,500 or more jobs". The Dallas Morning News. 
  40. ^ Wallace, James (June 24, 2008). "Aerospace Notebook: MD-80 era winding down as fuel costs rise". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 
  41. ^ Coto, Danica (June 16, 2008). "Flight cuts may hurt Caribbean tourism". USA Today. 
  42. ^ American Airlines Fleet of A300 (Stored) | Airfleets aviation. Airfleets.net. Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
  43. ^ "Up to 600 jobs in jeopardy at overhaul base". Kansas City Star. August 13, 2008. [dead link]
  44. ^ Koenig, David (October 28, 2009). "American Airlines will close Kansas City base". Associated Press in Tulsa World. Retrieved October 28, 2009. 
  45. ^ American Airlines closes former TWA base in Kansas City | News for Dallas, Texas | The Dallas Morning News | Dallas Business News. Dallasnews.com (25 September 2010). Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
  46. ^ "American's MD-80s cleared to fly again". Associated Press. April 14, 2008. 
  47. ^ American Faces Escalating Dispute with FAA, Wall Street Journal, Corporate News, September 4, 2009
  48. ^ FAA investigating American's MD-80 repairs, Associated Press, reported on AT&T on-line news, September 4, 2009[dead link]
  49. ^ The Associated Press (September 12, 2009). "American Airlines in talks to invest in Japan Airlines". Thestreet.com. Retrieved December 2, 2011. 
  50. ^ "Delta Air Lines also after stake in Japan Airlines". Reuters. September 11, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2011. 
  51. ^ [2][dead link]
  52. ^ "Japan Airlines Decides to Stick With American". The New York Times. February 9, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2010. 
  53. ^ "Japan Airlines and American Airlines Announce Joint Business Benefits for Trans-Pacific Consumers". PR Newswire. January 11, 2011. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  54. ^ MarketWatch.com. MarketWatch.com (2 July 2010). Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
  55. ^ Koenig, David (February 7, 2010). "AMR studies letting Eagle leave American's roost". Business Week. Retrieved October 30, 2010. 
  56. ^ Airline Partners | Europe Travel | Airline Miles | oneworld Alliance. AA.com (October 1, 2010). Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
  57. ^ DOT Snubs DOJ In Approving Airline Alliance. Main Justice (15 February 2010). Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
  58. ^ "DOT Approves oneworld Antitrust Immunity Application" (Press release). US DOT. July 20, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2010. 
  59. ^ American Airlines Bolsters Commitment to New York by Enhancing Network, Schedule, Facilities and Fleet at New York's Airports, and Introduces New Partnerships With JetBlue Airways and NYC & Company – March 31, 2010. aa.mediaroom.com (March 31, 2010). Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
  60. ^ "JetBlue". American Airlines. Retrieved November 17, 2010. 
  61. ^ "American Airlines Applies to Fly From New York and Los Angeles to Tokyo (Haneda), the Busiest Airport in Asia". aa.mediaroom.com. Retrieved December 2, 2011. 
  62. ^ American Airlines wins coveted route to Tokyo's close-in airport | News for Dallas, Texas | The Dallas Morning News | Dallas Business News. Dallasnews.com (7 May 2010). Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
  63. ^ American Airlines New And Seasonal Nonstop Service Routes On. aa.com. Retrieved on November 4, 2010.
  64. ^ American Airlines to cancel New York-Tokyo Haneda service | News for Dallas, Texas | The Dallas Morning News | Airline Biz Blog
  65. ^ "American Airlines Receives U.S. Department of Transportation Approval to Fly Between Los Angeles and Shanghai, China". PR Newswire. 2010-10-08. Retrieved 2014-08-07. 
  66. ^ "American Airlines Announces New Non-Stop Service Between Seoul Incheon and Dallas/Fort Worth" (PDF). American Airlines. Retrieved December 6, 2013. 
  67. ^ "American Airlines Responds to Customer Demand with New Service from Dallas/Fort Worth to Hong Kong and Shanghai" (Press release). American Airlines. October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2013. 
  68. ^ "American Airlines wants one of Delta’s Tokyo Haneda routes". The Dallas Morning News. 2014-03-10. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  69. ^ "American Airlines wins the fight for Tokyo Haneda route as Delta concedes". Dallas Business Journal. 2015-06-18. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  70. ^ Mutzabaugh. "American Airlines announces service to Australia". USA Today. USA Today. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  71. ^ Schaal, Dennis (November 13, 2010). "Travelport, Orbitz, Farelogix in patent dispute over American Airlines Direct Connect". tnooz.com. Archived from the original on March 25, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2011. 
  72. ^ Kawai, Mina (January 1, 2011). "Expedia Drops American Airlines Listing From Its Site". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 11, 2011. 
  73. ^ Strauss, Michael (2010). Value Creation in Travel Distribution. ISBN 978-0-557-61246-8. 
  74. ^ "Expedia Drops American Airlines Tickets From Listings". Wall Street Journal. January 1, 2011. Archived from the original on February 25, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2011. 
  75. ^ Cameron, Doug (January 5, 2011). "American Airlines Wants Expedia, Orbitz to Come Around". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 31, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2011. 
  76. ^ "AMR Corporation Announces Largest Aircraft Order In History With Boeing And Airbus :: American Airlines Newsroom". Hub.aa.com. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 
  77. ^ Martin, Grant (January 26, 2015). "American Airlines Becomes Second American Carrier To Receive New Composite Boeing 787". Forbes. 
  78. ^ "American Airlines ends Chicago-New Delhi service". PTI. January 16, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2013. 
  79. ^ "American looking at 5 airlines for merger partner". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. July 11, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  80. ^ "Creditor, 'prospective merger partner' US Airways gives support to American exclusivity extension". LeveragedLoan.com. July 15, 2012. 
  81. ^ Jacobs, Karen (September 18, 2012). "American Airlines issues layoff notices, cuts flight schedule". Reuters. Retrieved September 18, 2012. 
  82. ^ Isidore, Chris (October 25, 2012). "American Airlines to hire 2,500 pilots". CNN. Retrieved October 25, 2012. 
  83. ^ Zimmerman, Alan. "American pilots ratify new labor contract". 
  84. ^ "American Airlines introduces new logo". CBS News. 
  85. ^ "American Airlines, US Airways unveil $11 billion merger". Reuters. February 14, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  86. ^ Judge Nixes $20M Airline CEO Payout - ABC News.(2013-03-28). Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  87. ^ Perez, Evan (August 13, 2013). "US government seeks to block American-US Airways merger". CNN. 
  88. ^ Isidore, Chris; Perez, Evan (November 12, 2013). "The Justice Department has reached a settlement with American Airlines and US Airways that requires the airlines to sell facilities at seven airports in order to complete their planned merger". CNN Money. Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  89. ^ American-US Merger Still Faces Private Antitrust Lawsuit. Frequent Business Traveler (2013-11-18). Retrieved on December 8, 2013.
  90. ^ Gives Green Light for American Air Exit from Bankruptcy and Merger with US Airways. Frequent Business Traveler (2013-11-27). Retrieved on December 8, 2013.
  91. ^ Supreme Court Declines to Block American, US Air Merger. Frequent Business Traveler (December 8, 2013). Retrieved on December 8, 2013.
  92. ^ http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-american-airlines-and-us-airways-take-big-step-in-merger-20150408-story.html
  93. ^ "Corporate Structure." American Airlines. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
  94. ^ "American Airlines Group Overview" (Archive). American Airlines. Retrieved on April 24, 2014.
  95. ^ World Airline Directory. Flight International. March 20, 1975. "472.
  96. ^ "Flatiron / Gramercy / Murray Hill / Union Square: Manhattan Neighborhood Map." About.com. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
  97. ^ Sterba, James P. "American Will Shift Headquarters From Manhattan to Dallas Airport; Big Economies Predicted." The New York Times. Thursday November 16, 1978. Page A1. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
  98. ^ a b "American Airlines Finishes Moving into Headquarters Monday." Associated Press at Ocala Star-Banner. January 16, 1983. 6A. Google News 4 of 62. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
  99. ^ http://www.dot.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/docs/Subsidized%20EAS%20web%20report%20for%20non-Alaska%20communities-Nov%202013.pdf
  100. ^ About the Allied Pilots Association. Alliedpilots.org. Retrieved on 4 November 2010.
  101. ^ "American Airlines Will Make Clean Air Improvements at Logan Airport Reports to EPA the Use of Illegal High Sulfur Fuel in Motor Vehicles". United States Environmental Protection Agency. July 19, 1999. Archived from the original on July 7, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  102. ^ "American Airlines Receives Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's Governor's Award". Airline Industry Information. May 11, 2006. 
  103. ^ "American Airlines scores big as new official airline of Cubs". Chicago Tribune. 2015-02-05. Retrieved 2015-02-07. 
  104. ^ "American Airlines Announces Exclusive Sponsorship and Promotions Agreement With the Dallas Cowboys". American Airlines. 2007-10-07. Retrieved 2015-02-07. 
  105. ^ a b "American Airlines, New England Patriots and New England Revolution Kick Off an Exciting New Partnership". American Airlines. 2013-02-13. Retrieved 2015-02-07. 
  106. ^ "Tales From an Era When Airlines Knew Good Design". WIRED.com. Retrieved May 22, 2015. 
  107. ^ "Vignelli Associates About the AA Logo". Vignelli.com. Retrieved December 2, 2011. 
  108. ^ "iconic logo designers". logosdesigners.com. Retrieved April 3, 2015. 
  109. ^ a b "Becoming a new American". aa.com. Retrieved March 6, 2013. 
  110. ^ "American Airlines unveils new logo, livery". Chicago Tribune. January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  111. ^ "Delta, Air Canada Among Carriers Weighing Benefit of Paint Stripping". Industry.bnet.com. 8 October 2008. Retrieved December 2, 2011. 
  112. ^ Ahles, Andrea. "Star-Telegram 18 January 2013: "American Airlines shows off new look for new era"". Star-telegram.com. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 
  113. ^ King, Eric. (2013-03-28) American Airline's New Livery Soon Could Become Its Old Look | NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth. Nbcdfw.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  114. ^ Elliott, Stuart (November 17, 2014). "Ads for American Airlines Seek 'Great' Results". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  115. ^ "US Airways Merger with American Airlines". New American Arriving. Retrieved March 29, 2013. 
  116. ^ "American Airlines Escape Commercial". YouTube. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  117. ^ "TWA and AA merger commercial". YouTube. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  118. ^ "American Airlines Post 9-11 Ad Campaign (Part 2)". YouTube. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  119. ^ "American Airlines commercials - 1992". YouTube. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  120. ^ "American Airlines Based Here, Best Here commercial 1988". YouTube. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  121. ^ "American Airlines TV Commercial 1988". YouTube. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  122. ^ "1987 American Airlines Commercial". YouTube. Retrieved March 29, 2013. 
  123. ^ "JINGLE: AMERICAN "DOING WHAT WE DO BEST" (1975)". Fly The Branded Skies. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  124. ^ "American Airlines Introduces the DC-10 - 1971". YouTube. Retrieved March 29, 2013. 
  125. ^ "American Airlines 1970s Commercial - The One Minute Vacation". YouTube. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  126. ^ "Fly the American Way!". YouTube. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  127. ^ "American Airlines...An Airline Built for Professional Travelers". YouTube. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  128. ^ Mutzabaugh, Ben. "Aviation Photos & Video". USA Today. 
  129. ^ "Flight Stats". flightstats.com. December 19, 2014. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. 
  130. ^ http://www.dallasnews.com/business/airline-industry/20130215-loss-of-a-corporate-headquarters-may-cost-phoenix-jobs-prestige.ece
  131. ^ a b c d http://www.aa.com/i18n/amrcorp/corporateInformation/facts/americanairlinesgroup.jsp
  132. ^ "Codeshare Partners". American Airlines. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  133. ^ "Air Tahiti Offers Flights to Tahiti from 18 U.S. Cities for the Same Price as Flights from LAX". Yahoo! Finance. August 27, 2012. Archived from the original on August 30, 2012. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 
  134. ^ "American Airlines and Air Pacific Sign Codeshare Agreement – 27 October 2011". aa.mediaroom.com. October 27, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011. 
  135. ^ "American, Chinese airline strike code-sharing deal at O'Hare". Chicago Tribune. December 7, 2011. 
  136. ^ "American Airlines and Jetstar Japan Announce Codeshare Agreement". Yahoo Finance Canada. October 22, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2015. 
  137. ^ "American Airlines to codeshare with OpenSkies". News.yahoo.com. 6 December 2011. Retrieved January 27, 2012. 
  138. ^ American Airlines And Seaborne Airlines Announce Codeshare Relationship - Yahoo! Finance. Finance.yahoo.com (June 24, 2013). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  139. ^ Esterl, Mike (October 7, 2010). "BA, Iberia, American Launch Venture, Add Routes". The Wall Street Journal. 
  140. ^ Martin, Timothy W. (April 1, 2011). "AMR, JAL Forge a Partnership". The Wall Street Journal. 
  141. ^ Walton, John (November 11, 2011). "US govt greenlights Qantas & American Airlines joint venture". Australian Business Traveller. 
  142. ^ "AMR Corporation Announces Largest Aircraft Order In History With Boeing And Airbus" (Press release). AMR Corporation. July 20, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2011. 
  143. ^ "American Airlines Receives Single Operating Certificate". Aero News Network. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  144. ^ http://www.boeing.com/commercial/?cm_re=March_2015-_-Roadblock-_-Orders+%26+Deliveries/#/orders-deliveries
  145. ^ a b "American Airlines Boeing 777-300ER". aa.com. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  146. ^ "American Airlines Boeing 777 First Class". aa.com. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  147. ^ "US Airways A330 Business Class". Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  148. ^ "American Airlines Boeing 777 Business Class". aa.com. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  149. ^ "American Airlines Unveils New 767-300 Cabin". Airways News. March 20, 2014. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  150. ^ "American Airlines Boeing 767 Business Class". aa.com. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  151. ^ "US Airways 757 International Business Class". Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  152. ^ "American celebrates its first anniversary with US Airways, outlines an upgraded travel experience going forward". World Airline News. December 8, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  153. ^ a b c "American Airlines Airbus A321 Transcontinental Business Class". Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  154. ^ a b c "American Airlines Planes and Seat Maps". tripadvisor.com. Retrieved May 24, 2015. 
  155. ^ "First and Business Class Dining". aa.com. Retrieved May 24, 2015. 
  156. ^ Rowell, David M. (August 13, 2010). "A History of US Airline Deregulation Part 4: 1979 – 2010: The Effects of Deregulation – Lower Fares, More Travel, Frequent Flier Programs". The Travel Insider. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  157. ^ American Airlines. "American Airlines AAdvantage Program Details". Retrieved May 28, 2009. 
  158. ^ Li, Lucy. "Ultimate Guide to Admirals Club". LoungeBuddy. LoungeBuddy, Inc. Archived from the original on 20 July 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  159. ^ "Toward Equality for VIPs". TIME. July 15, 1966. Archived from the original on January 14, 2014. Retrieved January 26, 2009. 
  160. ^ "Flagship Lounge | American Airlines" https://www.aa.com/i18n/travelInformation/airportAmenities/AAFlagshipLounges.jsp
  161. ^ "Flagship Lounge(R)". American Airlines. Retrieved December 2, 2013. 
  162. ^ "AA lounge opens at Miami International". Business Traveller. February 16, 2009. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 
  163. ^ Andrew Adam Newman (December 20, 2009). "A Dream for an Airline and a Hotel Chain". The New York Times. 
  164. ^ Up in the Air (2009). IMDB.com. Retrieved on September 17, 2014.
  165. ^ Disney Collaborates With American Airlines for PLANES. Toonbarn.com (July 1, 2013). Retrieved on July 1, 2013.

Further reading[edit]

Capozzi, John M. (2001). A Spirit of Greatness. JMC. ISBN 0-9656410-3-1. 
Bedwell, Don (1999). Silverbird: The American Airlines Story. Airways. ISBN 0-9653993-6-2. 
Casey, Al (1997). Casey's Law. Arcade. ISBN 1-55970-307-5. 
Forty, Simon (1997). ABC American Airlines. Ian Allan. ISBN 1-882663-21-7. 
Reed, Dan (1993). The American Eagle: The Ascent of Bob Crandall and American Airlines. St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-08696-2. 
Serling, Robert J. (1985). Eagle. St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-22453-2. 
International Directory of Company Histories. St. James Press. 
Hieger, Linda H. (2010) With Wings of Silver and Gold ISBN 978-1-60458-271-0

External links[edit]