American and British English pronunciation differences

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Differences in pronunciation between American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) can be divided into:

In the following discussion

  • superscript A2 after a word indicates that the BrE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in AmE.
  • superscript B2 after a word indicates that the AmE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in BrE.
  • superscript A1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as BrE is also the most common variant in AmE.
  • superscript B1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as AmE is also the most common variant in BrE.

Stress[edit]

French stress[edit]

For many loanwords from French where AmE has final-syllable stress, BrE stresses an earlier syllable. Such words include:

A few French words have other stress differences:

Verbs ending in –ate[edit]

Most 2-syllable verbs ending -ate have first-syllable stress in AmE and second-syllable stress in BrE. This includes castrate,[78] cremateA2,[79][80] dictateA2,[81][82] donateA2,[83][84] locateA2,[85][86] migrate,[87] narrateA2,[88][89] placate,[90] prostrate,[91] pulsate,[92] rotate,[93] serrateA2,B2,[citation needed] spectate,[citation needed] striate,[94][95] translateA1,[96] vacateA2,[97][98] vibrateA2;[99] in the case of cremate, narrate, placate and often vacate, the first vowel is in addition reduced to /ə/ or /ɨ/ in BrE. Examples where AmE and BrE match include create, debate, equate, elate, negate; and mandate and probate with first-syllable stress. Derived nouns in -ator retains the distinction, but those in -ation do not. Also, migratoryB1[100] and vibratoryB1[101] sometimes retain the distinction.

Most longer -ate verbs are pronounced the same in AmE and BrE, but a few have first-syllable stress in BrE and second-syllable stress in AmE: elongate,[102] infiltrateA2,[103][104] remonstrateA2,[105][106] tergiversateA2 (British also third-syllable stress).[107] For some derived adjectives ending -atory stress-shifting to -at- can occur in BrE. Among these cases are celebratoryA2[citation needed][108] (BrE: /ˌsɛl.ɨˈbreɪ.tər.i/), participatoryB2[citation needed],[109] regulatoryB1,[110] compensatory,.[111] AmE stresses the same syllable as the corresponding -ate verb (except compensatory, where AmE stresses the second syllable[112]). A further -atory difference is laboratory: AmE /ˈlæbrəˌtɔːri/ and BrE /ləˈbɒrətri/.[113]

Miscellaneous stress[edit]

There are a number of cases where same-spelled noun, verb and/or adjective have uniform stress in one dialect but distinct stress in the other (e.g. alternate, prospect): see initial-stress-derived noun.

The following table lists words where the only difference between AmE and BrE is in stress (possibly with a consequent reduction of the unstressed vowel). Words with other points of difference are listed in a later table.

BrE AmE words with relevant syllable stressed in each dialect
1st 2nd adultA2,B2,[114][115] basalt,[116] caffeine, cannotA2, casein, Kathleen, SuezA2, communal, escalopeA2,B2, harassA2, omega, paprikaA2,B2, patina, formidableB2, subaltern, stalactite, stalagmite, ThanksgivingA2,B2, transference, aristocratA2,B2, kilometre/kilometerB2
2nd 1st defence/defense (sport), guffawA2, ice creamA2,B2, guru, mama, papa, pretence/pretenseA2, princessA2,B2, weekendB2, Canton, anginaA2, AugustineA2, BushidoA2, Ghanaian, LofotenB2, marshmallow, patronal, spread-eagle, controversyB2, hospitableA2,B2, miscellany, predicative, saxophonistB2, submarinerA2, ancillary, capillary, catenary, corollary, fritillary, medullary, advertisement
1st 3rd premature, opportune
3rd 1st margarine, PyreneesB2, cockatoo
3rd 2nd arytenoidA2, oregano, obscurantistA2

Affixes[edit]

-ary,-ery,-ory,-bury,-berry,-mony[edit]

Where the syllable preceding -ary,-ery or -ory is stressed, AmE pronounce all these endings /əri/, while BrE pronounce these endings without the vowel sound, similar to that of atory, where the 'o' isn't pronounced. Where the preceding syllable is unstressed, however, AmE has a full vowel rather than schwa: /ˌɛri/ for -ary and -ery and /ˌɔri/ for -ory. BrE retains the reduced vowel /əri/, or even elides it completely to /ri/. (The elision is avoided in carefully enunciated speech, especially with endings -rary,-rery,-rory.) So military is AmE /ˈmɪləˌtɛri/ and BrE /ˈmɪlɪtəri/ or /ˈmɪlɪtri/. Likewise, inventory is AmE /ˈɪnvənˌtɔri/ and BrE /ˈɪnvəntəri/ or /ˈɪnvəntri/.

Note that stress differences occur with ending -atory (explained above) and a few others like capillary (included above). A few words have the full vowel in AmE in the ending even though the preceding syllable is stressed: library, primaryA2, rosemary. Pronouncing library as /ˈlaɪˌbɛri/ rather than /ˈlaɪˌbrɛri/ is highly stigmatized in AmE, whereas in BrE, /ˈlaɪbri/ is common in rapid or casual speech.

Formerly the BrE-AmE distinction for adjectives carried over to corresponding adverbs ending -arily, -erily or -orily. However, nowadays most BrE speakers adopt the AmE practice of shifting the stress to the antepenultimate syllable: militarily is thus /ˌmɪləˈtɛrɨli/ rather than /ˈmɪlɪtrɪli/.

The placename component -bury (e.g. Canterbury) has a similar difference after a stressed syllable: AmE /ˌbɛri/ and BrE /bri/ or /bəri/. The ending -mony after a stressed syllable is AmE /ˌmoʊni/ but BrE /məni/. The word -berry in compounds has a slightly different distinction: in BrE, it is reduced (/bəri/ or /bri/) after a stressed syllable, and may be full /ˌbɛri/ after an unstressed syllable; in AmE it is usually full in all cases. Thus, strawberry is BrE /ˈstrɔːbəri/ or /ˈstrɔːbri/ but AmE /ˈstrɔːˌbɛri/, while whortleberry is BrE /ˈwɔːtlbɛri/ and similarly AmE /ˈwɔrtlˌbɛri/.

-ile[edit]

Words ending in unstressed -ile derived from Latin adjectives ending -ilis are mostly pronounced with a full vowel (/aɪɫ/) in BrE but a reduced vowel /ɪɫ/ or syllabic /ɫ/ in AmE (e.g. fertile rhymes with fur tile in BrE but with furtle in AmE). AmE will have a reduced last vowel:

  • generally in agile, docile, facile, fertile, fissile, fragile, futile, infertile, missile, nubile, octile, puerile, rutile, servile, stabile, sterile, tactile, tensile, virile, volatile;
  • usually in ductile, hostile, juvenile,[117][118] (im)mobile (adjective), mobile (noun)[119] projectile, textile, utile, versatile;
  • not usually in decile, domicile, infantile, labile, mercantile, pensile, reptile, senile[citation needed];
  • not in crocodile, exile, gentile, percentile, reconcile; nor to compounds of monosyllables (e.g. turnstile from stile).

Related endings -ility, -ilize, -iliary are pronounced the same in AmE as BrE.

Camomile, febrile, mercantile,[120] mobile (sculpture), are sometimes pronounced with /iɫ/ in AmE and /aɪɫ/ in BrE. Imbecile has /iːɫ/ in BrE and often /ɪɫ/ in AmE.

-ine[edit]

The suffix -ine, when unstressed, is pronounced sometimes /aɪn/ (e.g. feline), sometimes /iːn/ (e.g. morphine) and sometimes /ɪn/ (e.g. medicine). Some words have variable pronunciation within BrE, or within AmE, or between BrE and AmE. Generally, AmE is more likely to favour /iːn/ or /ɪn/, and BrE to favour /aɪn/: e.g. adamantineA2, carbine, crystallineA2, labyrinthine, philistine, serpentineA2, turbineA2. However, sometimes AmE has /aɪn/ where BrE has /iːn/; e.g. iodineB2, strychnineA2.

Weak forms[edit]

Many function words can have a weak form with a reduced vocal used when the word is unstressed, but the full vowel is usually used in formal settings. For example could /kʊd/, weak form /kəd/.[121] In AmE there are weak forms that are not present in BrE (except in some dialects). These include: or /ɚ/, your /jɚ/, and in /ən/.

On the other hand, the titles Saint and Sir before a person's name have weak forms in BrE but not AmE: before vowels, [snt] and [sər]; before consonants, [sn] and [sə].

Miscellaneous pronunciation differences[edit]

These tables list words pronounced differently but spelled the same. See also the table of words with different pronunciation reflected in the spelling.

Single differences[edit]

Words with multiple points of difference of pronunciation are in the table after this one. Accent-based differences are ignored. For example, Moscow is RP /ˈmɒskəʊ/ and GAm /ˈmɑːskaʊ/, but only the /oʊ/-/aʊ/ difference is highlighted here, since both the /ɒ/-/ɑː/ difference and the RP use of /əʊ/ rather than /oʊ/ are predictable from the accent. Also, tiara is listed with AmE /æ/; the marry–merry–Mary merger changes this vowel for many Americans. Some AmE types are listed as /ɒ/ where GAm merges to /ɑː/. A2 means that American speakers may use either pronunciation; B2 means British speakers may use either pronunciation.

BrE AmE Words
(sounded) (silent) Beethoven, chthonicA2, herbA2 (plant), KnossosA2,B2, phthisicA2,B2, salveA2, solder
(silent) (sounded) medicineB2. See also -ary -ery -ory -bury, -berry
/ɑː/ /æ/ (Excluding trap–bath split words) banana, khakiA2, morale, NevadaA2, scenarioA2, sopranoA2, Pakistani
/æ/ /ɑː/ annato, Caracas, chiantiA2, GalapagosA2, GdańskA2, grappaA2, gulagA2, HanoiA2, JanA2 (male name, e.g. Jan Palach), KantA2, kebab, Las (placenames, e.g. Las Vegas), MafiaB2, MombasaA2, Natasha, Nissan, Pablo, pasta,B2 PicassoA2, ralentando, SanA2 (names outside USA; e.g. San Juan), SlovakA2, Sri LankaA2, Vivaldi, wigwamA2, YasserA2 (and A in many other foreign names and loanwords)
/iː/ /ɛ/ aesthete, anaesthetize, breveA2, catenaryA2, Daedalus, devolutionA2,B2, ecumenicalB2, epochA2, evolutionA2,B2, febrileA2, Hephaestus, KenyaB2, leverA2, methane, OedipusA2, (o)estrus, (o)estrogen, p(a)edophile, penalizeA2, predecessorA2, pyrethrinA2, senileA2, hygienic
/ɒ/ /oʊ/ Aeroflot, cognac, compost, homosexualB2, Interpol, Lod, pogrom, polkaB2, produce (noun), Rosh Hashanah, sconeA2,B2, shone, sojourn, trollB2, yogurt
/ɛ/ /iː/ CecilA2,B2, crematoriumA2, cretin, depot, inherentA2,B2, leisureA2, reconnoit(re/er)A2, zebraB2, zenithA2,B2
/æ/ /eɪ/ basilA2 (plant), compatriot, expatriate, patriotB2, patronise, phalanx, plait, repatriate, Sabine, satrapA2
/ɪ/ /aɪ/ advertisement, dynasty, housewifery, idyll, livelongA2, long-livedA2, privacyB2, simultaneous, vicariousA2, vitamin. See also -ine.
/z/ /s/ AussieA2, blouse (noun), complaisantA2, crescent, diagnoseA2, erase, GlasgowA2, parse, valise, trans-A2,B2 (in some words)
/ɑː/ /eɪ/ amenA2, charadeB2, cicada, galaA2, promenadeA2, pro rata, tomato, stratumB2
/oʊ/ /ɒ/ codify, goffer, ogleA2, process (noun), processor, progress (noun), projectB2(noun), slothA2,B2, wont A2, wroth
/ʌ/ /ɒ/ accomplice, accomplish, colanderB2, constableB2, Lombardy, monetaryA2, -mongerA2
/ɒ/ /ʌ/ hovelA2,B2, hover. Also the strong forms of these function words: anybodyA2 (likewise every-, some-, and no-), becauseA2,B2 (and clipping 'cos/'cause), ofA2, fromA2, wasA2, whatA2
/ɑː(r)/ /ɜr/ Berkeley, Berkshire, clerk, Derby, Hertford. (The only AmE word with er = [ɑr] is sergeant.)
/aɪ/ /iː/ eitherA2,B2, neitherA2,B2, Pleiades. See also -ine.
/iː/ /aɪ/ albino, migraineB2. Also the prefixes anti-A2, multi-A2, semi-A2 in loose compounds (e.g. in anti-establishment, but not in antibody). See also -ine.
/ə/ /ɒ/ Amazon, hexagon, octagon, paragon, pentagon, phenomenonA2, pythonA2
/iː/ /eɪ/ eta, beta, quayA2, theta, zeta, heinousB2
/aɪ/ /ɪ/ butylB2, divergeA2, minorityA2,B2, primer (schoolbook). See also -ine.
/ɛ/ /eɪ/ ateB2, mêléeA2, chaise longue
/ɜːz/ /uːs/ Betelgeuse, chanteuse, chartreuseA2, masseuse
/eɪ/ /æ/ apricotA2, comrade, dahliaA2, data, digitalis, patentA2,B2, statusA1[122]
/ʃ/ /ʒ/ AsiaB2, dispersionB2, excursionB2, PersiaB2, versionB2
/ɒ/ /ə/ Amos, condom, Enoch
/ə/ /oʊ/ boroughA2, thoroughA2, also place names such as EdinburghA2 (see also -ory and -mony)
/ɪr/ /ɜr/ chirrupA2, stirrupA2, sirupA2, squirrel
/siː/ /ʃ/ cassiaA2, CassiusA2, hessian
/uː/ /juː/ couponA2, fuchsine, HoustonB2
/uː/ /ʊ/ boulevard, snooker, woofA2 (weaving)
/ɜː(r)/ /ʊr/ connoisseurA2, entrepreneurA2
/ɜː/ /oʊ/ föhnB2, MöbiusB2
/ə/ /eɪ/ DraconianA2, hurricaneB2
/eɪ/ /iː/ deityA2,B2, HeleneA2, IsraelA2, Haggai[123][124]
/juː/ /w/ iguana, jaguar, Nicaragua
/ɔː(r)/ /ər/ record (noun), stridorA2,B2
/ziː/ /ʒ/ Frasier, Parisian, Malaysia, Tunisia
/tiː/ /ʃ/ consortium
/æ/ /ɒ/ twatB2
/ɒ/ /æ/ wrath
/ɑː/ /ət/ nougat
/ɑː/ /ɔː/ UtahA2,B2
/ɑː/ /ɔːr/ quarkA2,B2
/æ/ /ɛ/ femme fataleA2
/aɪ/ /eɪ/ Isaiah
/aʊ/ /uː/ nousA2
/ð/ /θ/ boothB2
/di/ /dʒi/ cordiality
/dʒ/ /ɡdʒ/ suggestA2
/eɪ/ /ɛ/ againB2, nonpareilA2
/eɪ/ /ə/ template
/eɪ/ /ət/ tourniquet
/ə(r)/ /ɑr/ MadagascarA2
/ə(r)/ /jər/ figureA2 for the verb
/ə/ /ɛ/ nonsense
/ɛ/ /ɑ/ envelopeA2,B2
/ɛ/ /ə/ Kentucky
/ə/ /æ/ trapeze
/ɜː(r)/ /ɛr/ errA2
/oʊ/ /ɒt/ HuguenotA2
/oʊ/ /aʊ/ MoscowA2
/oʊ/ /uː/ broochA2
/ɪ/ /iː/ pi(t)taB2, Tunisia
/iː/ /ɪ/ beenB2
/iːʃ/ /ɪtʃ/ nicheA2,B2
/jɜː/ /juː/ milieu
/juː/ /uː/ (Excluding words with predictable yod-dropping) barracuda, pumaA2
/ɔː/ /æ/ falconA2
/s/ /z/ asthma
/ʃ/ /sk/ scheduleB2
/t/ /θ/ AnthonyA2,B2
/ts/ /z/ piazzaA2
/ʊ/ /ɪ/ kümmel
/ʊ/ /uː/ BuddhaA2
/ʊ/ /ʌ/ brusque, hummus
/uː/ /aʊ/ routeA2
/uː/ /oʊ/ cantaloup(e)
/ʌ/ /oʊ/ covertA2,B2
/ziː/ /ʃ/ transientA2, nauseaA2

Multiple differences[edit]

The slashes normally used to enclose IPA phonemic transcriptions have been omitted from the following table to improve legibility.

Spelling BrE IPA AmE IPA Notes
barrage ˈbærɑːʒ (1) bəˈrɑːʒ
(2) ˈbærɪdʒ
The AmE pronunciations are for distinct senses (1) "sustained weapon-fire" vs (2) "dam, barrier" (Compare garage below.)
boehmite (1) ˈbɜːmaɪt
(2) ˈboʊmaɪt
(1) ˈbeɪmaɪt
(2) ˈboʊmaɪt
The first pronunciations approximate German [ø] (spelled ö or oe); the second ones are anglicized.
bouquet (1) buːˈkeɪ
(2) ˈbuːkeɪ
(1) boʊˈkeɪ
(2) buːˈkeɪ
 
boyar (1) ˈbɔɪɑː
(2) boʊˈjɑː
(1) boʊˈjɑr
(2) ˈbɔɪjər
 
buoy ˈbɔɪ ˈbuːi The U.S. pronunciation would be unrecognised in the UK. The British pronunciation occurs in America, more commonly for the verb than the noun, still more in derivatives buoyant, buoyancy.
canton kænˈtuːn (1) kænˈtɑːn
(2) kænˈtoʊn
difference is only in military sense "to quarter soldiers"
dilettante dɪləˈtænti (1) ˈdɪlətɑːnt
(2) ˌdɪləˈtɑːnt
BrE reflects the word's Italian origin; AmE approximates more to French.
enquiry/inquiry ɪŋˈkwaɪ(ə)ri (1) ˈɪnkwəri
(2) ɪŋˈkwaɪri
BrE uses two spellings and one pronunciation. In AmE the word is usually spelled inquiry.
febrile ˈfiːbraɪl (1) ˈfɛbriːl
(2) ˈfɛbrəl
The BrE pronunciation occurs in AmE
fracas ˈfrækɑː (1) ˈfreɪkəs
(2) ˈfrækəs
(3) frəˈkɑː
The BrE plural is French fracas /ˈfrækɑːz/. For AmE examples (1) and (2), the plural is anglicized fracases
garage (1) ˈɡærɪdʒ
(2) ˈɡærɑːʒ
ɡəˈrɑː(d)ʒ The AmE reflects French stress difference. The two BrE pronunciations may represent distinct meanings for some speakers; for example, "a subterranean garage for a car" (1) vs "a petrol garage" (2). (Compare barrage above.)
glacier (1) ˈɡlæsiə
(2) ˈɡleɪsiə
ˈɡleɪʃər  
jalousie (1)  ʒælʊˈziː
(2) ˈʒælʊziː
ˈdʒæləsi  
lapsang souchong ˈlæpsæŋ suːʃɒŋ ˌlɑːpsɑːŋ ˈsuːʃɑːŋ  
lasso ləˈsuː ˈlæsoʊ The BrE pronunciation is common in AmE
lieutenant (1) lɛfˈtɛnənt
(2) ləˈtɛnənt
luːˈtɛnənt The 2nd British pronunciation is restricted to the Royal Navy. Standard Canadian and Australian pronunciation is the same as the British.
lychee (1) ˈliːtʃiː
(2) laɪˈtʃiː
ˈliːtʃiː Spelling litchi has pronunciation /ˈlɪtʃiː/. The BrE pronunciation /laɪˈtʃiː/ also occurs in AmE.
Molière ˈmɒliɛə moʊlˈjɛr  
moustache[125] mʊˈstɑːʃ ˈmʌs.tæʃ  
oblique əbˈliːk əbˈlaɪk AmE is as BrE except in military sense "advance at an angle"
penchant pɑ̃ˈʃɑ̃ ˈpɛntʃənt The AmE pronunciation is anglicized; the BrE is French.
penult pɛˈnʌlt (1) ˈpiːnʌlt
(2) pɪˈnʌlt
 
premier (1) ˈprɛmjə
(2) ˈprɛmɪə
(1) ˈpriːmɪər
(2) prɪmˈɪər
 
première ˈprɛmɪɛə (1) prɪˈmɪər
(2) prɪmˈjɛr
 
provost ˈprɒvəst (1) ˈproʊvoʊst
(2) ˈproʊvəst
The BrE pronunciation also occurs in AmE
quinine ˈkwɪniːn (1) ˈkwaɪnaɪn
(2) ˈkwɪnaɪn
 
resource (1) rɨˈzɔːs
(2) rɨˈsɔːs
ˈriːsɔːrs  
respite ˈrɛspaɪt (1) ˈrɛspɪt
(2) rɨˈspaɪt
 
reveille rɪˈvæliː ˈrɛvəli  
slough slaʊ slʌf sense "bog"; in metaphorical sense "gloom", the BrE pronunciation is common in AmE. Homograph "cast off skin" is /slʌf/ everywhere.
toward(s)[126][127] ˌtʊˈwɔːd(z) (1) tɔːrd(z)
(2) toʊrd(z)
The same difference applies to "untoward".
Tunisia tjuːˈnɪziə (1) tuˈniʒə
(2) tuˈniʃə
 
vase vɑːz (1) veɪs
(2) veɪz
The BrE pronunciation also occurs in AmE
z (the letter) zɛd ziː The spelling of this letter as a word corresponds to the pronunciation: thus Commonwealth (including, Canada) zed and U.S. zee.

References[edit]

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  60. ^ "distingué (American)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  61. ^ "escargot (British)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  62. ^ "escargot (American)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  63. ^ "exposé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  64. ^ "fiancé". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  65. ^ "fiancée". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  66. ^ "fiancé". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  67. ^ "retroussé (British)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  68. ^ "retroussé (American)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  69. ^ "address". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  70. ^ "limousine (British)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  71. ^ "limousine (American)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  72. ^ "limousine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  73. ^ "magazine". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  74. ^ "mayonnaise". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  75. ^ "partisan". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  76. ^ "liaison". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  77. ^ "renaissance". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  78. ^ "castrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  79. ^ "cremate". Cambridge Dictionaries British English. 
  80. ^ "cremate". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  81. ^ "dictate". Cambridge Dictionaries British English. 
  82. ^ "dictate". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  83. ^ "donate". Cambridge Dictionaries British English. 
  84. ^ "donate". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  85. ^ "locate". Cambridge Dictionaries British English. 
  86. ^ "locate". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  87. ^ "migrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  88. ^ "narrate". Cambridge Dictionaries British English. 
  89. ^ "narrate". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  90. ^ "placate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  91. ^ "prostrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  92. ^ "pulsate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  93. ^ "rotate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  94. ^ "striate (British)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  95. ^ "striate (American)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  96. ^ "translate (American)". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  97. ^ "vacate". Cambridge Dictionaries British English. 
  98. ^ "vacate". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  99. ^ "vibrate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  100. ^ "migratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  101. ^ "vibratory(American)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  102. ^ "elongate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  103. ^ "infiltrate". Cambridge Dictionaries British English. 
  104. ^ "infiltrate". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  105. ^ "remonstrate (British)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  106. ^ "remonstrate (American)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  107. ^ "tergiversate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  108. ^ "celebratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  109. ^ "participatory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  110. ^ "regulatory (British)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  111. ^ "compensatory (British)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  112. ^ "compensatory (American)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  113. ^ "laboratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  114. ^ "adult (British)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  115. ^ "adult (American)". Macmillan Dictionary. 
  116. ^ "basalt". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  117. ^ "juvenile". Cambridge Dictionaries American English. 
  118. ^ "juvenile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  119. ^ "mobile". Cambridge Dictionaries British English. 
  120. ^ "mercantile". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  121. ^ http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/could
  122. ^ "status (AmE)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  123. ^ "Haggai (British)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  124. ^ "Haggai (American)". Oxford Dictionaries. 
  125. ^ "moustache". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  126. ^ "toward(s)". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. 
  127. ^ "toward(s)". Cambridge Dictionaries American English.