American and British English pronunciation differences

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Differences in pronunciation between American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) can be divided into

In the following discussion:

  • superscript A2 after a word indicates that the BrE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in AmE.
  • superscript B2 after a word indicates that the AmE pronunciation of the word is a common variant in BrE.
  • superscript A1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as BrE is also the most common variant in AmE.
  • superscript B1 after a word indicates that the pronunciation given as AmE is also the most common variant in BrE.

Stress[edit]

Subscript a or b means that the relevant unstressed vowel is also reduced to /ə/ or /ɪ/ in AmE or BrE, respectively.

French stress[edit]

For many loanwords from French, AmE has final-syllable stress, while BrE stresses an earlier syllable. French loanwords that differ in stress only are listed below.

BrE AmE words with relevant syllable stressed in each dialect[1]
1st 2nd débâcleB2[nb 1]
2nd 1st artisanalA1, liaisonabA2*[nb 2], macraméab, moustache/mustache,[nb 3] Renaissance,ab[nb 4] reveille[nb 5]
1st last ballet, bandeau, barragea,[nb 6] batonab*, beignet, bereta[nb 7], bidet, blaséA2, bouffantA2,[nb 8] brasserieb, brassièreab, brevetabA2,[2] brochureb*B2,[nb 9][3] brûlée, buffeta,[nb 10][4] bustier,[nb 11] cachetA2, café*a*b, caffeineA2, calvados,[nb 12] canardaB1,[5] chagrina, chaletA2, château, chauffeurA2, cliché*a, collagea*B2, cornet, crochet, croissant*a, croquet, debrisaA2,[nb 13] debut, décorA2, detailaA2, duvet, épée, figurineB2, filetb,[nb 14][6] flambé,[nb 15] frappé, fricandeau, frisson, frontier, garageaB2,[nb 16] gâteau, glacé, gourmetA2, lamé,[nb 17] lingerie,[nb 18] massif, massage, matinée, métier, mirageB2, negligeeA2, névé, nonchalantbA2, nondescript, nouveau, parfait, parquet*b, pastelbB2, pastilleb,[nb 19] pâté,[nb 20] pension,[nb 21] pissoir, plateau, précisA2, protégébB2,[nb 22][8] purée, rentier, risqué, roué, rouleau, sachet, salona, sauté, savantabA2, soirée, solfège,[9] sorbeta,[nb 23][10] sortie, soufflé, soupçon,[11] tableau, tonneau, touché, toupée, triage, trousseau, vaccine, valet, vermouthB2.

Also some French names, including: Argand,[nb 24] Avignona[nb 25][12] Beauvoir,[nb 26][13] Bizet,[nb 27][14] Calais,[nb 28][15] Cartier,[nb 29][16] Chardonnay,[nb 30][17] Chopin,[nb 31][18] Citroën,[nb 32] Degas,[nb 33][19] Depardieu,[nb 34][20] Dijon,[nb 35][21] Dumas,[nb 36][22] Flaubert,[nb 37][23] Gerard,[nb 38][24] Lyon,[nb 39][25] Manet,[nb 40][26] Massenet,[nb 41] Maurice,[nb 42][27] Millais,[nb 43][28] Molière,[nb 44][29] Monet,[nb 45][30] Perpignan,[nb 46][31] Peugeot,[nb 47] Piaf,[nb 48][32] Poitiers,[nb 49][33] Poussin,[nb 50][34] Rabelais,[nb 51][35] Renaulta,[nb 52][36] Rimbaud,[nb 53][37] Roget,[nb 54][38] Rouen,[nb 55][39] Rousseau,[nb 56][40] Roussillon,[nb 57][41] Satie,[nb 58][42] Seurat,[nb 59][43] Thoreau,[nb 60][44] Valois,[nb 61][45] Vouvray,[nb 62][46] Watteau.[nb 63][47]

last 1st addressbA1(noun), cigarette, esquireb*A2, lychee,[nb 64] magazineA2, mayonnaiseA2,[nb 65] penchant,[nb 66] shallotA2,[nb 67] timbale,[nb 68] tiradeA2, ((bi)p)artisana.B1/2[nb 69]

Also some French names, including: Dunkirk, Niger[nb 70]

2nd last accouchement, arrondissement, attaché, au courant, charivari, consomméa, cor anglaisB2, décolleté, déclassé, démodé,[48] dénouement, divertissement,[nb 71] distingué, escargot, exposé, fiancé(e)A2,[nb 72] financier, hotelier, portmanteau, rapprochement, retroussé, sommelier.

Also some French names, including: Debussyb, Dubonneta, Montpellier, Parmentier, Piaget, Rambouillet.

Verbs ending in -ate[edit]

Most 2-syllable verbs ending in -ate have first-syllable stress in AmE and second-syllable stress in BrE. This includes castrate, collate, cremateA2,[49] curate, dictateA2, donateA2, frustrate, gradate, gyrate, hydrate, locateA2, migrate, mutate, narratebA2, phonate, placatebB2, prostrate, pulsate, rotate, serrateA2, spectate, stagnate, striate,[50] translateA2, truncate, vacateb*A2,[51] vibrateA2. Examples where AmE and BrE match include conflate, create, debate, equate, elate, inflate, negate; and mandate and probate with first-syllable stress. Derived nouns in -ator retain the distinction, but those in -ation do not. Also, migratoryB2[52] and vibratoryB2[53] sometimes retain the distinction.

Most longer -ate verbs are pronounced the same in AmE and BrE, but a few have first-syllable stress in BrE and second-syllable stress in AmE: elongateaA2, impregnate, inculcate, inculpate, infiltrateA2, remonstrateabA2,[54] sequestrate, tergiversateaA1[nb 73].[55] For some derived adjectives ending -atory stress-shifting to -a(tory)- occurs in BrE. Among these cases are celebratorya[56] (BrE: /ˌsɛlɪˈbrtəri/), compensatorya,[57] participatorya,[58] regulatoryaB1.[59] AmE stresses the same syllable as the corresponding -ate verb (except compensatory, where AmE stresses the second syllable). A further -atory difference is laboratoryB2: AmE /ˈlæbərətɔːri/ and BrE /ləˈbɒrətəri/.[60]

Miscellaneous stress[edit]

There are a number of cases where same-spelled noun, verb and/or adjective have uniform stress in one dialect but distinct stress in the other (e.g. alternate, prospect): see initial-stress-derived noun.

The following table lists words not brought up in the discussion so far where the main difference between AmE and BrE is in stress. Usually, it also follows a reduction of the unstressed vowel. Words marked with subscript A or B are exceptions to this, and thus retains a full vowel in the (relatively) unstressed syllable of AmE or BrE. A subsequent asterisk, *, means that the full vowel is usually retained; a preceding * means that the full vowel is sometimes retained.

Words with other points of difference are listed in a later table.

BrE AmE words with relevant syllable stressed in each dialect[1]
1st 2nd AdonaiAB2, adultBAB2, albumen/albumin, aristocrat, Bernard,[nb 74] bitumen, cerebral/cerebrumA2, combatant/combative, communal, complex (adj.), composite, converseA2(adj.),[61] illustrativeA2, majusculeA2, miniscule/minuscule, Mosul, omegaA,[nb 75] patinaA1, perfume (noun), pianistAB2, sitar, sojourn (verb), stalactiteA2, stalagmiteA2, subalternA2,[nb 76] SuezA2*, thanksgivingABB2, transferenceAA2, travail, UlyssesA
2nd 1st accent (verb)A2, alternate (adj.), amortise/amortize, ancillaryB, archangelB1, Argyle, AugustineBA2, Azores, backfire (verb), banalA2, baptize, Baghdad, Balthazar, Byzantine, capillary, capsize, catenary, cervicalAB2,[nb 77] (bi/quin/quater)centenaryB2, circulatory, controversyB1, Corfu, corollary, defence/offenseAA2(sports only), deficitB1,[nb 78] despicableB2, elsewhereABAB2, enquiry/inquiryAA2,[nb 79] epsilon, expletiveA, fritillary,[nb 80] Galbraith, guffawA1,[nb 81][62] hegemony, Hong KongA2, implicative/multiplicative/predicative, Mardi Gras, marshmallowAB,[nb 82] maxillary, medullary,[nb 83] metallurgy, miscellany,[nb 84] nomenclatureAB2, obligatory, patronal, pretence/pretenseAA1, princess*AB2,[nb 85] prospect (verb), recluse, recourse, research (noun), resource, respiratory, rupee, saxophonist/xylophonistBB2, skeletalBB2,[nb 86] spinet, spread(-)eagledAB,[63] Stonehenge, stonewall, substratumABA2, tracheaAB2, urinalAB2,[nb 87] vaginalAB2,[nb 88] volatilise/volatilize, wastepaper, waylay, weekendABB2, Zoroaster
1st 3rd opportuneABB2
3rd 1st Bucharest, Budapest, disciplinary,[nb 89] furthermore, h(a)emoglobinAB, manganese, manateeB2, margarineB, PakistanA2,[64] Panama, PyreneesAB, Singapore, stewardessB2
2nd 3rd submarinerA2, Yom Kippur
3rd 2nd aboveboard, aluminium/aluminum, arytenoidA1, CaribbeanA2, centrifugalB2, chimpanzeeA1, obscurantismABA2[65]
4th 1st manageress

Affixes[edit]

-ary, -ery, -ory, -mony, -ative, -bury, -berry[edit]

Where the syllable preceding the suffixes -ary, -ery, -ory, -mony or -ative is unstressed, AmE pronounces the penultimate syllable with a full vowel sound: /-ɛri/ for -ary and -ery, /-ɔːri/ for -ory, /-mni/ for -mony and /-tɪv/ -ative. BrE reduces the vowel to a schwa or even elides it completely: [-əri] or [-ri] (hereafter transcribed as /-əri/ in diaphonemic transcription), /-məni/ and /-ətɪv/. So military is AmE /ˈmɪlətɛri/ and BrE /ˈmɪlɪtəri/,[66] inventory is AmE /ˈɪnvəntɔːri/ and BrE /ˈɪnvəntəri/,[67] testimony is AmE /ˈtɛstəmni/ and BrE /ˈtɛstɪməni/[68] and innovative is AmE /ˈɪnvtɪv/ or /ˈɪnəvtɪv/ and BrE /ˈɪnəvətɪv/.[69] (The elision is avoided in carefully enunciated speech, especially with endings -rary, -rery, -rory.[citation needed])

Where the syllable preceding -ary, -ery, -ory, -mony or -ative is stressed however, AmE also usually reduces the vowel: /-əri/, /-məni/. Exceptions include library,[70] primaryA2,[71] rosemary.[72] (Pronouncing library as /ˈlbɛri/ rather than /ˈlbrɛri/ is stigmatized in the United States, for example as associated with African-American Vernacular English,[73] whereas in BrE, /ˈlbri/ is common in rapid or casual speech.)

The suffix -berry is pronounced by similar rules, except that in BrE it may be full /-bɛri/ after an unstressed syllable, while in AmE it is usually full in all cases. Thus we have strawberry: BrE /ˈstrɔːbəri/, AmE /ˈstrɔːbɛri/, and whortleberry: BrE/AmE /ˈhwɔːrtəlbɛri/.

The placename component -bury (e.g. Canterbury) has a similar difference: AmE has a full vowel: /-bɛri/ where BrE has a reduced one: /-bəri/.

Note that stress differences between the dialects occur with some words ending in -atory (listed above) and a few others like capillary (included in #Miscellaneous stress above).

Formerly the BrE–AmE distinction for adjectives carried over to corresponding adverbs ending -arily, -erily or -orily. However, nowadays some BrE speakers adopt the AmE practice of shifting the stress to the penultimate syllable: militarily is thus sometimes /ˌmɪlɪˈtɛrɪli/ rather than /ˈmɪlɪtərəli/, and necessarily is in BrE either /ˈnɛsəsərɪli/ or /ˌnɛsəˈsɛrɪli/.[74]

-ile[edit]

Words ending in unstressed -ile derived from Latin adjectives ending -ilis are mostly pronounced with a full vowel in BrE /l/ but a reduced vowel or syllabic L in AmE /əl/ (e.g. fertile rhymes with fur tile in BrE but with furtle in AmE).

AmE will (unlike BrE, except when indicated withB2) have a reduced last vowel:

  • generally in facile, (in)fertile, fissile, fragile, missile, stabile (adjective), sterile, tensile, versatile, virile, volatile
  • usually in agile, docile,[nb 90] decile, ductile,[75] futile, hostile, juvenile, (im)mobile (adjective and phone), puerile, tactile
  • rarely in domicileB2,[nb 91] erectile, febrileA2,[76][nb 92] infantile, nubile, pensile, percentile, projectile,[77] reptile, senileA2,[nb 93] servile, textile, utile[78]
  • never in crocodile, exile, gentile, reconcile; nor to compounds of monosyllables (e.g. turnstile from stile)

In some words the pronunciation /l/ also comes into play:

Related endings -ility, -ilize, -iliary are pronounced the same in AmE as BrE.

di-[edit]

The pronunciation of the vowel of the prefix di- in words such as dichotomy, digest (verb), dilate, dilemma, dilute, diluvial, dimension, direct, dissect, disyllable, divagate, diverge, diverse, divert, divest, and divulge as well as their derivational forms vary between // and /ɪ/ or /ə/ in both British and American English.[80]: 237 

-ine[edit]

The suffix -ine,[9] when unstressed, is pronounced sometimes /n/ (e.g. feline), sometimes /n/ (e.g. morphine) and sometimes /ɪn/ (e.g. medicine). Some words have variable pronunciation within BrE, or within AmE, or between BrE and AmE. Generally, AmE is more likely to favor /n/ or /ɪn/, and BrE to favor /n/.

BrE /n/, AmE (1) /n/: carbineA2, FlorentineA2, internecineA2, philistineA2, pristineB2[nb 94], salineA2, serpentineA2.

BrE /n/, AmE (1) /n/ (2) /ɪn/: adamantineA2.

BrE /n/, AmE /ɪn/: uterineB2.

BrE /n/, AmE (1) /ɪn/ (2) /n/ (3) /n/: crystalline, labyrinthine.[81]

BrE (1) /n/, AmE (1) /n/ (2) /ɪn/: strychnineA2.

Effects of the weak vowel merger[edit]

The weak vowel merger causes affixes such as -ate (as in climate), be- (before a consonant), de- (as in decide), -ed (with a sounded vowel), -es (with a sounded vowel), -est, -less, -ness, pre- (as in prepare) and re- (before a consonant) to be pronounced with the schwa /ə/ (the a in about), rather than the unstressed /ɪ/ (found in the second syllable of locksmith). Conservative RP uses /ɪ/ in each case, so that before, waited, roses and faithless are pronounced /bɪˈfɔːr, ˈwtɪd, ˈrzɪz, ˈfθlɪs/, rather than /bəˈfɔːr, ˈwtəd, ˈrzəz, ˈfθləs/, which are more usual in General American. The pronunciations with /ə/ are gaining ground in RP and in the case of certain suffixes (such as -ate and -less) have become the predominant variants. The noun carelessness is pronounced /ˈkɛərləsnəs/ in modern RP and /ˈkɛərlɪsnɪs/ in conservative RP; both pronunciations typically merge in GA (usually towards the latter). This variation is denoted with the symbol ⟨⟩ in some of the dictionaries published by Oxford University Press and in the Routledge Dictionary of Pronunciation of Current English. In the latter, the British pronunciation of climate is transcribed ⟨ˈklʌɪmᵻt⟩, though carelessness is transcribed ⟨ˈkɛːləsnəs⟩.

Affixes such as dis-, in-, -ing and mis- contain /ɪ/ in conservative RP as well as General American and modern RP, so that words such as disloyal or teaching are phonemically /dɪsˈlɔɪəl/ and /ˈtɪŋ/ in all three varieties.

Weak forms[edit]

The title Saint before a person's name has a weak form in BrE but not AmE: before vowels, /sənt/.[82]

Miscellaneous pronunciation differences[edit]

Entry for "Herb" from Walker's Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, (London: Tegg, 1833), showing pronunciation without /h/

These tables list words pronounced differently but spelled the same. See also the table of words with different pronunciation reflected in the spelling.

Single differences[edit]

Words with multiple points of difference of pronunciation are in the table after this one. Accent-based differences are ignored. For example, Moscow is RP /ˈmɒsk/ and GAm /ˈmɒsk/, but only the //// difference is highlighted here, since both the presence of a contrastive /ɒ/ vowel in RP (which falls together with /ɑː/ in GA) and the RP use of [əʊ] rather than [oʊ] are predictable from the accent. Also, tiara is listed with AmE /æ/; the marry–merry–Mary merger changes this vowel for many Americans.

Many sources omit the length marks in transcriptions of AmE, so that words such as father or keep are transcribed /ˈfɑðər/ and /ˈkip/ rather than /ˈfɑːðər/ and /ˈkp/. Even though it is not phonemic, vowel length in GA works in a very similar manner to RP, so this is mainly a difference in transcription.

BrE AmE Words
/ɑː/ /æ/ Excluding words changed by the trap–bath split,[83] (which affects most southern British speakers and almost no American speakers): banana, cabana, choraleA2, ColoradoA2, finale, Internationale, khakiA2, localeA2, mascara, morale, musicale, NevadaA2,[nb 95][84] pajama(s)A2, PakistaniAB2, pastorale, plaqueB2, rale, rationale, SaharaA2, sarsaparilla, scenarioA2, sopranoA2, SudanB2, sultana, tiaraA2. Suffix words ending in -orama/-ramaA2: cyclorama, diorama and panorama.
/æ/ /ɑː/ "A" in the anglicised pronunciation of many foreign names and loanwords,[85] e.g.: accelerando, AngstA2, AnkaraA2, aquaA2, Ariosto, Asti, Avogadro, Baku, Balaton, Basra, Białystok, Bratislava, camaraderie, CaracasB2, Carpaccio, CasablancaA2, Casals, caveatA2, Cézanne,[nb 96] chiantiA2, Chiapas, dacha, Dachau, d'Annunzio, Delgado, Dushanbe, Dvořák, Francesca, ganja, Gdansk, gestalt, glissando, goulashA2, grappa, Gulag, gratin, hacienda, Haryana, jalapeño, Kafka, kakemono, kamikaze, Kampala, kampong, kanji, Kant, katakana, kebab,[86] lambada, Las (placenames, e.g. Las Vegas)A2, lasagnaB2, latteB2, Lausanne, Luhansk, macho, mafia, mamba/o, MannA2, mantra, maraca, MarioA2, Mascagni, Mazda, MilanA2, Mohammed, MombasaA2, Pablo PicassoA2, paparazzo, paso doble, pasta, patioA2, pilaf(f), quattrocento, Rachmaninoff, rallentandoA2, ravioliA2, regattaA2, ritardando, Rwanda, salsa, samba, samizdat, sanitaire, sashimi, shiatsu, SlovakA2, squacco, Sri LankaA2, taco, tagliatelle, trattoria, tzatziki, Uganda, Vivaldi, wigwam, Wuhan, Yerevan
/ɑː/ // charade, cicadaA2, galaAB2,[nb 97] graveA2(accent), pralineB2,[87] stratumB2,[nb 98][9] tomatoA2
// /ɑː/ agave, swathe
/æ/ // AdolfA2, basil (plant)A2, canineB2, granary, (im)placable, macronA2, pal(a)eo-, patronise/-izeA2, (com/un)patriot(ic)B2, (ex/re)patriate/-ationB2, phalanxA2, plaitA2, Sabine, satrapA2, satyrA2,[9]
// /æ/ apparatusA2, apricotA2, babel, comrade, dahlia,[nb 99] dataA2, digitalisA2, gratisB2, patentB2, rabidB2, statusA2[9]
/æ/B2 /ɒ/ twat
/ɒ/ /æ/ quagmireB2,[88] scallopB2, wrath[nb 100]
/ɔɪ/ // Boulogne, Dordogne
/ɔː/B2 //A2 Xhosa
// /ɔː/ or /ɒ/ sloth, trothA2, wontA2, wrothB2
/ɔː/ /ɑː/A2 schmaltz(y)
/ɒ/ /ɔː/ Excluding words changed by the lot-cloth split: alcoholA2, atollA2, gnocchiA2,[nb 101] parasolA2
/ɔː/ /ɒ/A2 leprechaun[89]
/æ/ /ɔː/ asphalt, mall
/ɔː(l)/ or /ɒl/[9][90] /æl/A2 falcon
// /ɛ/ Aesculapius, Aeschylus, (a)esthete/-ticB2,[91] an(a)esthetist/-ize, amenityB2,[92] breveA2, D(a)edalus, (d)evolutionB2, eco-A2, ecumenicalB2, epochalB2,[93] esotericB2,[94] h(a)emo-A2, Hephaestus, hygienicA2,[nb 102] KenyaB2, lever(age)A2, methaneB2, OedipusA2, (o)estrogenB2,[95] (o)estrusB2,[96] p(a)edophile, penalizeA2, Ph(a)edrus, predecessorA2, predilectionA2, pyrethrinA2, qu(a)estor, schizophreniaA2, Semite, systemic
/ɛ/ // crematoriumA2, cretin, depotA2, fetidB2, hedonism/-ist(ic), leisureA2, presentationA2, reconnoit(re/er)A2, zebraB2
// // gazeboA2, heinousB2, Mekong, quayA2, reparteeA2. Greek alphabet letters containing eta: beta, theta and zeta.
// // detourB2, HeleneA2
/i/B2 // Zimbabwe
// /i/ Haggai,[97] IsraelA2
/ɛ/ // ateB2, étui, mêléeA2,[9] presa
// /ɛ/ again(st)B2, cortègeB2, nonpareil[9]
/ɛər/ /.ər/A2 mayor
/ɒ/ /ʌ/ coloratura, hoverA2, Somme. Also the strong forms of these function words: (every/some/no/any)bodyA2, from, of, was, whatA2
/ʌ/ /ɒ/ accomplice/-ishB2, colanderB2, conjureA2, constableB2, monetaryA2, -mongerA2
/ɒ/ // adios, Aeroflot, ayatollah, Barbados, baroqueB2,[98] BoccheriniA2, Bogotá,[nb 103] cognacA2, compost, doldrumsA2, dolo(u)r, groschen, grossoA2, homo-B2, Interpol, Lod, mocha, olfactoryA2, Pinocchio, pogrom, polkaB2, produce (noun)A2, professorialA2, prophy-(lactic/laxis), realpolitikA2, riposte, Rosh HashanahA2, sconeB2, shone, solsticeA2, Sonia,[99] TolstoyA2, trollB2, yogurtB2.[100] Also, in general, Greek-derived names of places, people, or ideas that end in "-os", for example, ErosA2, ethos,[nb 104] Helios, logos (singular)A2, mythos, pathos,[nb 105] etc.; although chaos follows the British norm in both countries.
// /ɒ/ Adonis, codicilB2,[101] codifyA2, goffer, ogleA2, processA2(noun), projectB2(noun)
/ɪ/ // dynasty, hibiscus, housewifery,[93] idyll, italicA2, pipette, privacyB2,[102] simultaneousA2, sinecure, tinnitus, totalizator, tricolo(u)rB2,[103] trimester, Tyrolean, vitaminB2. See also -ine.
// /ɪ/ butylB2, condyle, cyclic(al)B2, doctrinal, finance/-ialAB2, forsythia, -isation/-izationA2, kinesis/-ticB2, Minotaur, primer (schoolbook),A2 Pythagoras,A2 respite,[nb 106] subsidence/-ent, synapseB2,[nb 107] umbilicalB2. See also -ine.[9]
// // Isaiah
// // (n)eitherAB2,[nb 108] Pleiades, via. See also -ine.
// // albino, geyser, migraineB2, oblique (verb)[nb 109]. See also -ine.
//B2 /i/ symbiosis/-tic
/i/ //A2 In the prefixes anti-, multi- and semi- in loose compounds (e.g. in anti-establishment, but not in antidote).
// /ɪ/ beenB2,[104] cliqueA2, creekA2, invalid (noun)B2, prima
/ɪ/ // aphrodisiac, Biarritz, bulimia, memorabilia, pi(t)taB2, prestigiousA2, tricot
/ɛ/ /ɑː/ enclave, envoi/-voy
/æ/ /ɛ/A2 catch, femme fatale, pall-mall[nb 110][9]
// //A2 nous
/ʊ/ /ɪ/ kümmel
/ʊ/ // Buddha, cuckoo, Düsseldorf, Gutiérrez, guru, Ljubljana, Mussolini
// /ʊ/ boogie-woogie, boulevard,[105] hoofA2, roofAB2, rootA2, snooker, woofA2 (weaving)
// /ə/ ferrule, fortune
/ʊr/ /ɜːr/A2 courier
/ʊ/ or //B2 /ʌ/ brusque
/ə/ /ʌ/ surplus
/ʌ/B2 /(j)/ cumin
//[nb 111][106] //A2 (re)route(r)
// // broochA2, provenB2
// // cantaloup(e), hecatomb
/ʌ/ // plover
// //A2 Moscow
/ər/ /ɑːr/A2 Madagascar
/ɑːr/ /ɜːr/ Berkeley, Berkshire, Cherwell, clerk, derby, Hertford(shire). (The only AmE word with ⟨er⟩ = /ɑːr/ is sergeant.)
/ɜːr/ /ɛər/A2 err
/ɛər/B2 /ɜːr/ Ernst
/ɛr/ /ɜːr/A2 deterrent
/ɛər/ /ɪər/ ampereA2
/ɛr/ /ɪər/A2 inherent
/ɪər/ /ɛr/A2 coherent, era, hysteria
/ɜːr/ /ɪər/ Irkutsk
/ɪr/ /ɜːr/ chirrupA2, squirrel, stirrupA2, syrupA2
/ɜːr/ /ɔːr/A2 whorl
/ɔːr/ /ər/ acornA2,[107] record (noun), the weak form of or (occasional in RP)
/ər/ /ɔːr/ Eleanor, metaphorB2, Westmor(e)land
/ə/ /ɒ/ Amazon, anacoluthon, automatonA2, Avon, capon, crampon, crayonA2, Lebanon, lexicon, marathon, (m)ascot, melancholy,[108] myrmidon, OregonA2, pantechnicon, paragon, Parthenon, phenomenon, pylon, python, Rubicon, saffronA2, siliconA2, wainscot. Also any geometric shapes ending in "-agon"; for example, hexagon, octagon, pentagon, polygon, etc.
/ɒ/ /ə/ AesopA2, Amos, condom, despot, EnochA2, ingot, mosquito, sombrero, Winthrop
/ɒ/ /ɛ/ röntgen, Stendhal
/ə/ /ɛ/ accent (noun), nonsense
/ɛ/ /ə/, /ɪ/ congress, Kentucky, parallelepiped[109]
/ɪ/B2 /ɛ/ Manchester, Winchester
/ɪ/ // Ceylon
/ɪ/ /ə/ Some of the words affected by the weak vowel merger: carpet, Martin, rabbit, etc. The merger also creates weak forms of words such as in and it which are non-RP.
/ɪ/B2 /ə/A2 Some of the words affected by the weak vowel merger: impetigo, orange, Semitic, etc. See also effects of the weak vowel merger.
/ə/ /æ/ baboonA2, bassoonA2, CapriA2, fastidiousAB2, nasturtiumA2, papooseA2, platoonA2, raccoon, taboo, tattoo, toucan, trapeze
/ə/ // DraconianA2, hurricaneB2, legislature, satanic. Also, longer words ending in -ative.
// /ə/ entrailsA2, magistrateA2, portrait, template[110]
// /ər/A2 foyer
/ɜː/ /ɛ/ Göttingen
/ɜː/ // föhn, Göthe
/ɜː/ // Montreux, Schönberg
/ɜː/ /ʊ/ or // bleu, œuvre
/ə/ /ɔː/ Mauritius
/ə/ // anchovy, borough, thorough, varicose, volitionA2. Also place names that end in "-burgh", such as EdinburghA2 and surnames ending in -stone, e.g. Johnstone (see also -ory and -mony). Words prefixed with an unstressed "pro-"A2, with the exceptions of process, progress and project (verb), commonly use either pronunciation in American English; for example, probation, procedure, prohibit, proliferate, prolific, Prometheus, prophetic, propinquity, prorogation, protest (verb), protract, protrude, protuberance/-ant, and Provence.
/j/ // Excluding words altered by the yod-dropping phenomenon: barracuda, culotte, pumaA2
// /j/ couponA2, fuchsine, HoustonB2
/ju/ /w/ conduitA2, iguanaB2,[111] unguent
/ər/ /jər/A2 figure
/ʊ/ /jʊ/ eruditeA2,[112] purulent, virulenceB2
/jʊ/ /ʊ/ duress, Kuwait, résuA2[113]
/jʊər/B2 /ʊər/ Excluding words altered by the yod-dropping phenomenon: Honduras
/ɑː/[nb 112] /ət/ nougat
// /ɒt/A2 Huguenot
/ɜːr/ /ʊər/A2 connoisseur, entrepreneur, masseur
/ʊər/ /ɜːr/A2 tournament
/ɜːz/ /s/ Betelgeuse, chanteuse, chartreuseA2, masseuse
/z/ /s/ AussieA2, blouse (noun), blouson, complaisantA2, crescentB2, dextrose, diagnoseA2, erase, fuselageA2, mimosa, parse, ruseA2, talisman, treatise, valise, venisonB2, visaA2,[114] xylose
/s/ /z/ asthma, chromosomeA2
/ts/ /z/ piazzaA2, schnauzer, terrazzo
/ks/ /z/ xi
/kʃ/ /ɡʒ/ luxury
/ʃ/ /ʒ/ AsiaB2, cashmere, PersiaB2, (as/dis)persionA2, (ex/in)cursionB2, (im/sub)mersion, (a/con/di/in/per/re)versionA2
/ʒ/ /ʃ/ erasure
/ɡ/ // Elgin
//B2 // sandwich,[115] spinach
// // Chou (en Lai)
// /ʃ/A2 braggadocio
/ʃ/ // chassis
/si/ /ʃ/ cassiaA2, CassiusA2, DionysiusA2,[116] hessian, Lucius, (ne/omni/pre)scient/-ence, Theodosius
/sj/B2 /ʃ/ or /ʃj/ issue, sexual,[nb 113] tissue
/zi/ or /si/ /zi/, /ʒ/, or /ʃ/ nausea,[117] transient[118]
/zi/, /zj/ /ʒ/ artesianB2, Elysian, FrisianB2, Frasier, glazier, grazier, hosieryB2, IndonesiaB2, MalaysiaB2, Parisian, PolynesiaB2, Rabelaisian, visualB2[119]
/di/ // cordial[nb 114]
/ti/ /i/ besti(al/ary), celestial[120]
/ti/ /ʃ/ consortiumB2,[121] otiose, ratiocinate, sentientB2[122]
/ʃ/B2[123] /sk/ schedule
/ʃ/B2 /ɪ/A2 niche
/ð/ /θ/ bequeath, boothB2, loath(ful/ly/some)A2, smithyA2, withA2
/t/B2 /θ/ Anthony
/t/ /d/A2 Excluding words changed by flapping (sometimes described as the /t–d/ merger): Taoism
/kw/ /k/ conquistador
/k/B2 /kw/ questionnaire
/v/B2[nb 115] /f/ nephew
(sounded) (silent) Excluding words changed by nasal flapping: bona fideA2, chthonicB2,[93][125] coupé (vehicle), diaper, furore, herbA2,[126] KnossosB2,[127] phthisisB2, ricochetB2, salveA2,[128] solder,[nb 116] (un)toward(s)A2(prep.), B2, vaudeville
(silent) (sounded) Excluding words changed by non-rhoticity: geographyB2, medicineB2, miniature,A2 Nantes, physiognomy, schismB2, Singhalese, suggestA2,[9] traitB2, Valenciennes, vehicleA2, Warwick(shire). See also -ary -ery -ory -bury, -berry.

Multiple differences[edit]

Spelling BrE IPA AmE IPA Notes
advertisement /ədˈvɜːrtɪsmənt/ /ˌædvərˈtzmənt/ Older Americans may use the British pronunciation, and some British dialects use the American pronunciation.
agent provocateur /ˌæʒɒ̃ prəˌvɒkəˈtɜːr/ (1) /ˌɑːʒɒ̃ prˌvɒkəˈtʊər/[verification needed]
(2) /ˌɑːʒɒ̃ prˌvɒkəˈtɜːr/
 
Ajaccio /əˈæ(k)si/ /ɑːˈjɑː(i)/ BrE approximates more to French [aʒaksjo]; AmE reflects the word's Italian origin [aˈjattʃo].
Algarve (1) /ælˈɡɑːrv/
(2) /ˈælɡɑːrv/
/ɑːlˈɡɑːrvə/ The original Portuguese pronunciation is [alˈɡaɾvɨ].
Aloysius /ˌælˈɪʃəs/ /ˌæləˈwɪʃəs/  
amateur (1) /ˈæmətər/
(2) /ˌæməˈtɜːr/
(1) /ˈæməər/
(2) /ˈæmətjʊər/
 
appliqué /əˈplk/ (1) /ˈæplɪk/
(2) /ˌæplɪˈk/
 
atelier /əˈtɛli/ (1) /ˈætəlj/
(2) /ˌætəlˈj/
 
avoirdupois /ˌævwɑːrdjˈpwɑː/ /ˌævərdəˈpɔɪz/  
basalt /ˈbæsɔːlt/ (1) /bəˈsɔːlt/
(2) /ˈbsɔːlt/
 
Boccaccio /bəˈkæi/ /bˈkɑːi/ The original Italian pronunciation is [bokˈkattʃo].
böhmite (1) /ˈbɜːmt/
(2) /ˈbmt/
(1) /ˈbmt/
(2) /ˈbmt/
The first pronunciations approximate German [øː] (spelled ⟨ö⟩ or ⟨oe⟩); the second ones are anglicized.
bœuf /bɜːf/ (1) /bʊf/
(2) /bʌf/
(3) /bf/
The original French pronunciation is [bœf].
bolognaise/bolognese /ˌbɒləˈnz/ /ˌblənˈjz/ BrE uses two spellings & pronounced /ˌbɒləˈnz/. In AmE the word is usually spelled bolognese & pronounced /ˌblənˈjz/.
bouquet (1) /bˈk/
(2) /ˈbk/
(1) /bˈk/
(2) /bˈk/
 
boyar (1) /ˈbɔɪɑːr/
(2) /ˈbjɑːr/
(1) /bˈjɑːr/
(2) /ˈbɔɪər/
 
buoyA2 /ˈbɔɪ/ /ˈbi/ The British pronunciation occurs in America more commonly for the verb than the noun; still more in derivatives buoyant, buoyancy & lifebuoy.
Burkina Faso /bɜːrˈknəˈfæs/ /bʊərˈknəˈfɑːs/  
canton /kænˈtn/ (1) /kænˈtɒn/
(2) /kænˈtn/
difference is only in military sense "to quarter soldiers"
other senses can have stress on either syllable in both countries.
caramelA2 /ˈkærəməl/ (1) /ˈkɑːrməl/
(2) /ˈkærəmɛl/
 
carburettor/carburetor (1) /ˌkɑːrbjʊˈrɛtər/
(2) /ˈkɑːrbərɛtər/
/ˈkɑːrbərtər/ BrE is spelled carburettor & pronounced /ˌkɑːrbjʊˈrɛtər/ or /ˈkɑːrbərɛtər/. In AmE the word is usually spelled carburetor & pronounced /ˈkɑːrbərtər/.
cheong sam /ˈɒŋˈsæm/ /ˈɔːŋˈsɑːm/  
clientele /ˌklɒnˈtɛl/ /ˌklənˈtɛl/  
cloisonné (1) /klwɑːˈzɒn/
(2) /klwʌˈzɒn/
/ˌklɔɪzəˈn/ The original French pronunciation is [klwazɔne].
corral /kɒˈrɑːl/ /kəˈræl/  
cosmosA2[129] /ˈkɒzmɒs/ (1) /ˈkɒzms/
(2) /ˈkɒzməs/
 
dachshund (1) /ˈdæksənd/
(2) /ˈdæʃənd/
(3) /ˈdækshʊnd/
/ˈdɑːkshʊnd/  
Dante (1) /ˈdænti/
(2) /ˈdænt/
/ˈdɑːnt/  
dilettante (1) /ˌdɪlɪˈtænti/
(2) /ˌdɪlɪˈtænt/
(1) /ˈdɪlətɑːnt/
(2) /ˌdɪləˈtɑːnt/
BrE reflects the word's Italian origin; AmE approximates more to French.
divisiveA2 /ˈdɪˈvsɪv/ /ˈdɪˈvɪzɪv/  
Don Quixote /ˈdɒn ˈkwɪksət/ /ˌdɒn kiˈht/ Compare to Spanish [doŋ kiˈxote]
epochA2 /ˈpɒk/ /ˈɛpək/  
foreheadAB2 /ˈfɒrɪd/ /ˈfɔːrhɛd/  
fracas /ˈfrækɑː/ (1) /ˈfrkəs/
(2) /ˈfrækəs/
(3) /frəˈkɑː/
The BrE plural is French fracas /ˈfrækɑːz/. For AmE examples (1) and (2), the plural is anglicized fracases
fusillade /ˌfjzɪˈld/ /ˌfjsəˈlɑːd/  
Galápagos /ɡəˈlæpəɡɒs/ /ɡəˈlɑːpəɡs/  
glacier (1) /ˈɡlæsiər/
(2) /ˈɡlsiər/
/ˈɡlʃər/  
harem (1) /ˈhɑːrm/
(2) /hɑːˈrm/
/ˈhærəm/  
holocaustA2 /ˈhɒləkɔːst/ (1) /ˈhləkɔːst/
(2) /ˈhɔːləkɔːst/
 
impasse (1) /æmˈpɑːs/
(2) /ˈæmpɑːs/
(1) /ˈɪmpæs/
(2) /ɪmˈpæs/
 
IranA2 /ɪˈrɑːn/ /ˈræn/  
IraqA2 /ɪˈrɑːk/ /ˈræk/  
jaguarB2 /ˈæɡjuər/ /ˈæɡwɑːr/  
jalousie (1) /ˌʒælʊˈz/
(2) /ˈʒælʊz/
/ˈæləsi/  
junta /ˈʌntə/ /ˈhʊntə/ The BrE pronunciation is anglicized; the AmE is closer to Spanish.
kudos /ˈkjdɒs/ /ˈkds/  
Lanzarote /ˌlænzəˈrɒti/ /ˌlɑːntsəˈrti/  
lapsang souchong /ˌlæpsæŋ sˈʃɒŋ/ /ˌlɑːpsɑːŋ ˈsʃɒŋ/  
lieutenantB2 (1) /lɛfˈtɛnənt/
(2) /ləˈtɛnənt/
/lˈtɛnənt/ The 2nd British pronunciation is restricted to the Royal Navy. Standard Canadian and Australian pronunciation is the same as the British.
liqueur /lɪˈkjʊər/ (1) /lɪˈkɜːr/
(2) /lɪˈkʊər/
 
longitudeB2 /ˈlɒnɡɪtjd/ /ˈlɒnətd/  
Los AngelesB2 /lɒs ˈænɪlz/ (1) /lɔːs ˈænələs/
(2) /lɔːs ˈæŋɡələs/
 
machismo (1) /mæˈɪzm/
(2) /məˈɪzm/
(3) /məˈkɪzm/
(1) /mɑːˈzm/
(2) /məˈzm/
AmE reflects the word's Spanish origin; BrE example (3) approximates more to Italian.
mama[130] (1) /ˈmæmə/
(2) /məˈmɑː/
/ˈmɑːmə/  
methyl /ˈmθl/ /ˈmɛθəl/  
milieuA2 (1) /ˈmljɜː/
(2) /mlˈjɜː/
(1) /mɪlˈj/
(2) /mlˈjʊ/
 
Möbius /ˈmɜːbiəs/ (1) /ˈmbiəs/
(2) /ˈmbiəs/
The original German pronunciation is [ˈmøːbi̯ʊs] and this is approximately reproduced in BrE.
Neuchâtel /ˌnɜːʃæˈtɛl/ /ˌnʃəˈtɛl/ The original French pronunciation is [nøʃɑtɛl].
NicaraguaB2 (1) /ˌnɪkəˈræɡjuə/
(2) /ˌnɪkəˈræɡwə/
/ˌnɪkəˈrɑːɡwə/  
oreganoB2 /ˌɒrɪˈɡɑːn/ (1) /əˈrɛɡən/
(2) /ɔːˈrɛɡən/
 
Otranto /ɒˈtrænt/ /ˈtrɑːnt/ The original Italian pronunciation is [ˈɔːtranto].
pedagogyB2 /ˈpɛdəɡɒɡi/ (1) /ˈpɛdəɡɒi/
(2) /ˈpɛdəɡi/
 
penult /pɛˈnʌlt/ (1) /ˈpnʌlt/
(2) /pɪˈnʌlt/
 
phthisic[131] (1) /ˈ(f)θsɪk/
(2) /ˈtsɪk/
(1) /ˈtɪzɪk/
(2) /ˈθɪzɪk/
 
premature[132] (1) /ˈprɛməər/
(2) /ˈprɛmətjʊər/
(1) /ˌprməˈʊər/
(2) /ˌprməˈtʊər/
 
premierA2 /ˈprɛmiər/ (1) /prɪˈmɪər/
(2) /ˈprmɪər/
 
première /ˈprɛmiɛər/ (1) /prɪˈmɪər/
(2) /prɪˈmjɛər/
 
premise (verb) /prɪˈmz/ /ˈprɛmɪs/  
progress (noun) /ˈprɡrɛs/
(verb) /prˈɡrɛs/
(noun) /ˈprɒɡrɛs/
(verb) /prəˈɡrɛs/
In both British and American, the noun has stress on the first syllable.
The verb has stress on the second syllable. Canadians follow the British pronunciation.
ProvençalA2 (1) /ˌprɒvɒ̃ˈsɑːl/
(2) /ˌprɒvɒ̃ˈsæl/
(1) /ˌprvɒ̃ˈsɑːl/
(2) /ˌprvənˈsɑːl/
 
provostA2[133] /ˈprɒvəst/ /ˈprvst/  
quasi- /ˈkwz/ (1) /ˈkwɑːzi/
(2) /ˈkwɑːs/
 
quinine /ˈkwɪnn/ (1) /ˈkwnn/
(2) /ˈkwɪnn/
 
Rawalpindi /ˌrɔːlˈpɪndi/ /ˌrɑːwəlˈpɪndi/  
renegue/renege (1) /rɪˈnɡ/
(2) /rɪˈnɡ/
(1) /rɪˈnɪɡ/
(2) /rɪˈnɛɡ/
BrE uses two spellings & pronounced /rɪˈnɡ/ or /rɪˈnɡ/. In AmE the word is usually spelled renege & pronounced /rɪˈnɪɡ/ or /rɪˈnɛɡ/.
Richelieu /ˈrɪʃəljɜː/ (1) /ˈrɪʃəl/
(2) /ˈrɪʃəlj/
The original French pronunciation is [ʁiʃ(ə)ljø].
Rioja /riˈɒkə/ /riˈhɑː/  
risotto /rɪˈzɒt/ (1) /rɪˈsɔːt/
(2) /rɪˈst/
(3) /rɪˈzt/
 
Roquefort /ˈrɒkfɔːr/ /ˈrkfərt/ The original French pronunciation is [ʁɔkfɔʁ].
Salzburg /ˈsæltsbɜːrɡ/ /ˈsɔːlzbɜːrɡ/ The original German pronunciation is [ˈzaltsbʊʁk].
Santander (1) /ˌsæntənˈdɛər/
(2) /ˌsæntænˈdɛər/
/ˌsɑːntɑːnˈdɛər/  
Schleswig-Holstein /ˌʃlzvɪɡ ˈhɒlstn/ /ˌʃlɛswɪɡ ˈhlstn/  
Silesia (1) /sˈlsiə/
(2) /sˈlziə/
(1) /sɪˈlʃə/
(2) /sɪˈlʒə/
 
slough /sl/ /slʌf/ sense "bog"; in metaphorical sense "gloom", the BrE pronunciation is common in AmE. Homograph "cast off skin" is /slʌf/ everywhere.
StavangerA2 (1) /stəˈvæŋər/
(2) /stæˈvæŋər/
(1) /stɑːˈvɑːŋər/
(2) /stəˈvɑːŋər/
The original Norwegian pronunciation is [stɑˈvɑ̀ŋːər]. The BrE pronunciation /stəˈvæŋər/ is common and also occurs in AmE.
Taranto /təˈrænt/ (1) /ˈtɑːrənt/
(2) /ˈtɑːrɑːnt/
The original Italian pronunciation is [ˈtaːranto].
tourniquet /ˈtʊərnɪk/ (1) /ˈtʊərnɪkɪt/
(2) /ˈtɜːrnɪkɪt/
 
Trondheim /ˈtrɒndhm/ /ˈtrɒnhm/ The Urban East Norwegian pronunciation of this word is [ˈtrɔ̂nː(h)æɪm].
Tunisia /tjˈnɪziə/ /tjˈnʒə/  
turquoiseA2 (1) /ˈtɜːrkwɔɪz/
(2) /ˈtɜːrkwɑːz/
/ˈtɜːrkɔɪz/  
Van Gogh (1) /ˌvæn ˈɡɒx/
(2) /ˌvæn ˈɡɒf/
/ˌvæn ˈɡ/ The original Dutch pronunciation is [vɑŋˈɣɔx].
vaseA2[nb 117][134][135] /vɑːz/ (1) /vs/
(2) /vz/
 
Z (the letter) /zɛd/ /z/ The spelling of this letter as a word corresponds to the pronunciation: thus Commonwealth (including, Canada) zed and U.S. zee.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ BrE /ˈdbɑːkəl/ (now rare) or more commonly /dɪˈbɑːkəl/, AmE /dɪˈbækəl/
  2. ^ The last vowel is often reduced in BrE. AmE only reduces the middle one.
  3. ^ BrE /məˈstɑːʃ/, AmE /ˈmʌstæʃ/
  4. ^ The British is typically /rɪˈnsəns/ and the American /ˈrɛnəsɑːns/ or even /rɛnəˈsɑːns/
  5. ^ BrE /rɪˈvæli/, AmE /ˈrɛvəli/
  6. ^ For "dam (barrier)": AmE /ˈbɑːrɪ/
  7. ^ BrE /ˈbɛr/, AmE /bəˈr/ (listen)
  8. ^ BrE /ˈbfɒ̃/, AmE /bˈfɑːnt/
  9. ^ BrE (1) /ˈbrʃər/ (2) /brɒˈʃʊər/ AmE /brˈʃʊər/ (listen)
  10. ^ BrE (1) /ˈbʊf/ (2) /ˈbʌf/
  11. ^ BrE (1) /ˈbʌsti/ (2) /ˈbʊsti/ AmE /ˌbstiˈ/ corset
  12. ^ BrE /ˈkælvədɒs/ AmE /ˌkælvəˈds, ˌkɑːlvəˈ-/
  13. ^ BrE (1) /ˈdbr/ (2) /ˈdɛbr/
  14. ^ BrE (1) /ˈfɪlɪt/ (2) /ˈfɪl/ AmE /fɪˈl/
  15. ^ BrE /ˈflɒmb/
  16. ^ BrE also /ˈɡærɪ/, esp. for "petrol garage"/"gas station"[7]
  17. ^ BrE /ˈlɑːm/, AmE /læˈm/
  18. ^ BrE /ˈlænʒəri/, AmE /ˌlɒnʒəˈr/
  19. ^ AmE /pæˈstl/
  20. ^ BrE /ˈpæt/, AmE /pɑːˈt, pæ-/
  21. ^ BrE /ˈpɒ̃sjɒ̃/, AmE /pɒnˈsjn/ lodging
  22. ^ BrE /ˈprɒtəʒ/ AmE (1) /ˈprtəʒ/ (2) /ˌprtəˈʒ/
  23. ^ BrE /ˈsɔːrb/ AmE (1) /ˈsɔːrbɪt/ (2) /sɔːrˈb/
  24. ^ UK: /ˈɑːrɡænd/, US: /ɑːrˈɡɑːnd/, French: [aʁɡɑ̃]
  25. ^ UK: /ˈævɪnjɒ̃/, US: /ˌævɪnˈjn/, French: [aviɲɔ̃]
  26. ^ UK: /ˈbvwɑːr/, US: /bˈvwɑːr/, French: [bovwaʁ]
  27. ^ UK: /ˈbz/, US: /bˈz/, French: [bizɛ]
  28. ^ UK: /ˈkæl/, US: /kæˈl/, French: [kalɛ]
  29. ^ UK: /ˈkɑːrti/, US: /ˌkɑːrtiˈ, -ˈtj/, French: [kaʁtje]
  30. ^ UK: /ˈʃɑːrdən/, US: /ˌʃɑːrdəˈn/, French: [ʃaʁdɔnɛ]
  31. ^ UK: /ˈʃɒpæ̃/, US: /ʃˈpæn/, French: [ʃɔpɛ̃]
  32. ^ BrE (1) /ˈsɪtrən/ (2) /ˈsɪtrən/ AmE (1) /ˌsɪtrˈɛn/ (2) /ˈsɪtrn/ French: [sitʁɔɛn]
  33. ^ UK: /ˈdɡɑː/, US: /dˈɡɑː/, French: [dəɡɑ]
  34. ^ UK: /ˈdɛpɑːrdjɜː/, US: /ˌdɛpɑːrˈdj/, French: [dəpaʁdjø]
  35. ^ UK: /ˈdʒɒ̃/, US: /dˈʒn/, French: [diʒɔ̃]
  36. ^ UK: /ˈdjmɑː, dʊˈmɑː/, US: /dˈmɑː/, French: [dyma]
  37. ^ UK: /ˈflbɛər/, US: /flˈbɛər/, French: [flobɛʁ]
  38. ^ UK: /ˈɛrɑːrd/, US: /əˈrɑːrd/, French: [ʒeʁaʁ]
  39. ^ UK: /ˈlɒ̃/, US: /liˈn/, French: [ljɔ̃]
  40. ^ UK: /ˈmæn/, US: /mæˈn, məˈ-/, French: [manɛ]
  41. ^ UK: /ˈmæsən/, US: /ˌmæsəˈn/, French: [masnɛ]
  42. ^ French: [mɔʁis, moʁis]
  43. ^ UK: /ˈmɪl/, US: /mɪˈl/
  44. ^ UK: /ˈmɒliɛər, ˈml-/, US: /mlˈjɛər/, French: [mɔljɛʁ]
  45. ^ UK: /ˈmɒn/, US: /mˈn, məˈ-/, French: [mɔnɛ]
  46. ^ UK: /ˈpɜːrpɪnjɒ̃/, US: /ˌpɛərpˈnjɒn/, French: [pɛʁpiɲɑ̃]
  47. ^ UK: /ˈpɜːʒ/, US: /pˈʒ/, French: [pøʒo]
  48. ^ UK: /ˈpæf/, US: /pˈɑːf/, French: [pjaf]
  49. ^ UK: /ˈpwɑːti/, US: /ˌpwɑːtiˈ, -ˈtj/, French: [pwatje]
  50. ^ UK: /ˈpsæ̃/, US: /pˈsæn/, French: [pusɛ̃]
  51. ^ UK: /ˈræbəl/, US: /ˌræbəˈl/, French: [ʁablɛ]
  52. ^ UK: /ˈrɛn/, US: /rəˈnɔːlt, -ˈn/, French: [ʁəno]
  53. ^ UK: /ˈræ̃b/, US: /ræmˈb/, French: [ʁɛ̃bo]
  54. ^ UK: /ˈrɒʒ/, US: /rˈʒ/
  55. ^ UK: /ˈrɒ̃, ˈrɒn/, US: /rˈɒ̃, rˈɒn/, French: [ʁwɑ̃]
  56. ^ UK: /ˈrs/, US: /rˈs/, French: [ʁuso]
  57. ^ UK: /ˈrsɪjɒn/, US: /ˌrsˈjn/, French: [ʁusijɔ̃]
  58. ^ UK: /ˈsæti, ˈsɑːti/, US: /sæˈt, sɑːˈt/, French: [sati]
  59. ^ UK: /ˈsɜːrɑː/, US: /sʊˈrɑː/, French: [sœʁa]
  60. ^ UK: /ˈθɔːr/, US: /θəˈr/
  61. ^ UK: /ˈvælwɑː/, US: /vælˈwɑː, vɑːlˈwɑː/, French: [valwa]
  62. ^ UK: /ˈvvr/, US: /vˈvr/, French: [vuvʁɛ]
  63. ^ UK: /ˈwɒt/, US: /wɒˈt/, French: [vato]
  64. ^ BrE /lˈ/, AmE /ˈl/
  65. ^ AmE /ˈmænz/
  66. ^ BrE /pɒ̃ˈʃɒ̃/, AmE /ˈpɛnənt/
  67. ^ BrE /ʃəˈlɒt/, AmE /ˈʃælət/
  68. ^ BrE /tæmˈbɑːl/, AmE /ˈtɪmbəl/
  69. ^ Only middle vowel reduced in the BrE pronunciations.
  70. ^ BrE /nˈʒɛər/, AmE /ˈnər/ Due to history with France, the country pronunciation in BrE is French [niʒɛʁ]. The country pronunciation in AmE is anglicized. Regardless of region, the river is pronounced /ˈnər/.
  71. ^ stress more usually on third syllable in British English
  72. ^ BrE /fiˈɒns/
  73. ^ Also /ˌtɜːriˈvɜːrst/
  74. ^ BrE /ˈbɜːrnərd/, AmE /bərˈnɑːrd/
  75. ^ BrE /ˈmɪɡə/, AmE /ˈmɛɡə/
  76. ^ BrE /ˈsʌbəltərn/, AmE /səˈbɔːltərn/
  77. ^ BrE /sərˈvkəl/
  78. ^ BrE (rare) /dɪˈfɪsɪt/
  79. ^ BrE /ɪnˈkwaɪəri/, AmE /ˈɪnkwəri/
  80. ^ AmE /ˈfrɪtəlɛri/
  81. ^ AmE (rare) /ˈɡʌfɔː/
  82. ^ BrE /ˌmɑːrʃˈmæl/, AmE /ˈmɑːrʃmɛl/
  83. ^ AmE /ˈmɛd(ʒ)əlɛri/
  84. ^ AmE /ˈmɪsəlni/
  85. ^ Britain follows the first-syllable American norm when "princess" is used as an honorific, directly prefixing someone's name.
  86. ^ BrE /skɪˈltəl/
  87. ^ BrE /jʊəˈrnəl/
  88. ^ BrE /vəˈnəl/
  89. ^ BrE /dɪsɪˈplɪnəri/, AmE /ˈdɪsɪplɪnɛri/
  90. ^ AmE also /ˈdɒsəl/
  91. ^ AmE also /ˈdməsəl/
  92. ^ AmE also /ˈfɛbrl, ˈfɛbrəl/
  93. ^ AmE also possibly /ˈsɛnl/
  94. ^ The 2007 update to the Oxford English Dictionary gives only /n/ for the British pronunciation of pristine.
  95. ^ Although the British pronunciation is still heard in American English, it may be in declining usage, being increasingly seen as incorrect, particularly among Nevadans and other Western Americans.
  96. ^ BrE also /sɪˈzæn/
  97. ^ AmE also /ˈɡælə/
  98. ^ AmE also /ˈstrætʌm/
  99. ^ AmE also /ˈdɑːljə/
  100. ^ BrE also /rɔːθ/ Scottish English /ræθ/
  101. ^ AmE also /ˈn(j)ki/
  102. ^ AmE also /ˌhiˈɛnɪk/
  103. ^ AmE also /ˈbɡətɑː/
  104. ^ AmE, either /ˈθs/ or /ˈɛθs/
  105. ^ AmE, either /ˈpθs/ or /ˈpæθs/
  106. ^ AmE also /rəˈspt/
  107. ^ BrE also /sɪˈnæps/
  108. ^ This word is listed due to possible statistical preferences.
  109. ^ AmE is as BrE except in military sense "advance at an angle"
  110. ^ AmE also /pɔːlˈmɔːl/
  111. ^ In BrE, the pronunciation /rt/ is a different word, spelt rout, meaning to defeat.
  112. ^ BrE also /ˈnʌɡɪt/
  113. ^ Actually the bolded here represents /ksj/ versus /kʃ/
  114. ^ Cordiality in AmE is /kɔːriˈælɪti/ and in BrE is /kɔːrdiˈælɪti/
  115. ^ The old English pronunciation with /v/ has to a large extent been replaced by /f/ due to the spelling latinization of Middle English "neveu". The preference breakdown in BrE is /f/ 79%, /v/ 21%.)[124]
  116. ^ Solder in AmE is /ˈsɒdər/ and in BrE is either /ˈsɒldər/ or /ˈsldər/.
  117. ^ British variant used sometimes in American English

References[edit]

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  22. ^ "Dumas (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012.
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  34. ^ "Poussin (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries.[dead link]
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  39. ^ "Rouen (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries.[dead link]
  40. ^ "Rousseau (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019.
  41. ^ "Roussillon(BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on October 9, 2017.
  42. ^ "Satie (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries.[dead link]
  43. ^ "Seurat (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries.[dead link]
  44. ^ "Thoreau (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on April 12, 2019.
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  47. ^ "Watteau (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on February 20, 2019.
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  49. ^ "cremate (AmE)". Merriam-Webster.
  50. ^ "striate (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012.
  51. ^ "vacate (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 6, 2012.
  52. ^ "migratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
  53. ^ "vibratory". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012.
  54. ^ "remonstrate (AmE)". Merriam-Webster.
  55. ^ "tergiversate". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries."tergiversate (AmE)". Merriam-Webster.
  56. ^ "celebratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
  57. ^ "compensatory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012.
  58. ^ "participatory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
  59. ^ "regulatory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on August 24, 2012.
  60. ^ "laboratory". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries."laboratory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries.
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  62. ^ "guffaw (AmE)". Merriam-Webster.
  63. ^ "spreadeagled (BrE)". Cambridge Dictionaries.
  64. ^ "Pakistan (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  65. ^ "obscurantism". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
  66. ^ "military (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012.
  67. ^ "inventory (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012.
  68. ^ "testimony". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
  69. ^ "innovative". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 6, 2012.
  70. ^ "library". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
  71. ^ "primary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
  72. ^ "rosemary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
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  77. ^ "projectile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on September 2, 2012.
  78. ^ "utile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on December 19, 2012.
  79. ^ "rutile (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012.
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  96. ^ "oestrus (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012.
  97. ^ "Haggai (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012.
  98. ^ "baroque (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012.
  99. ^ Wells 2000
  100. ^ "yoghurt (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012.
  101. ^ "codicil (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on August 21, 2012.
  102. ^ "privacy (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012.
  103. ^ "tricolour (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on April 6, 2013.
  104. ^ "been (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  105. ^ "boulevard". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  106. ^ "route (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  107. ^ "acorn". Merriam-Webster.
  108. ^ "melancholy (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  109. ^ "parallelepiped (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  110. ^ "template (AmE)". Merriam-Webster.
  111. ^ OED entry
  112. ^ "erudite (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  113. ^ "résumé (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  114. ^ "visa (AmE)". Merriam-Webster.
  115. ^ "sandwich (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  116. ^ "Dionysius (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  117. ^ "nausea (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  118. ^ "transient (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  119. ^ All instances of B2 in this row are supported by Lexico.
  120. ^ "celestial (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  121. ^ "consortium (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  122. ^ "sentient (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com."sentient (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries.
  123. ^ Jones, Daniel (1991). English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521425865.
  124. ^ Wells, John C. (1990). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Longman.
  125. ^ "chthonic (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012.
  126. ^ "herb (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  127. ^ "Knossos (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012.
  128. ^ "salve (AmE)". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  129. ^ "cosmos (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  130. ^ "mama (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012.
  131. ^ "phthisic (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  132. ^ "premature". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.
  133. ^ "provost (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  134. ^ "vase (main AmE, Collins BrE)". Dictionary.com.
  135. ^ "vase (AmE)". Merriam-Webster.

Further reading[edit]