Americans for Prosperity
|Predecessor||Citizens for a Sound Economy|
|Type||Nonprofit political advocacy group|
|2.3 million (2013)|
Chief Operating Officer
|Mission||"To mobilize citizens to advocate for policies that cut red tape and increase opportunity, put the brakes on government overspending, and get the economy working for hard workers– not special interests."|
Americans for Prosperity (AFP), founded in 2004, is a conservative political advocacy group in the United States. Receiving initial funding from businessmen and philanthropist brothers David H. Koch and Charles Koch, it is their primary political advocacy group. It is one of the most influential American conservative political advocacy organizations.
After the 2009 inauguration of President Barack Obama, AFP helped transform the Tea Party movement into a political force. It organized significant opposition to Obama administration initiatives such as global warming regulation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the expansion of Medicaid and economic stimulus. It helped turn back cap and trade, the major environmental proposal of Obama's first term. AFP advocated for limits on the collective bargaining rights of public-sector trade unions and for right-to-work laws, and it opposed raising the federal minimum wage. AFP played an active role in the achievement of the Republican majority in the House of Representatives in 2010 and in the Senate in 2014.
In the 2014 mid-term election cycle, AFP led all groups other than political action committees in spending on political television advertising. AFP's scope of operations has drawn comparisons to political parties. AFP, an educational social welfare organization, and the associated Americans for Prosperity Foundation, a public charity, are tax-exempt nonprofits. As a tax-exempt nonprofit, AFP is not legally required to disclose its donors. The extent of AFP's political activities while operating as a tax-exempt entity has raised concerns among some campaign finance watchdogs and Democrats regarding the transparency of its funding.
- 1 Background, founding, and growth
- 2 Leadership, structure and funding
- 3 Tea Party and 2010 midterm election
- 4 Labor law
- 5 Obama re-election
- 6 Programs and advocacy
- 7 Election-related activities
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Background, founding, and growth
Americans for Prosperity was founded in 2004 when internal rivalries caused a split in the conservative political advocacy group Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE), dividing it into Americans for Prosperity and FreedomWorks. AFP's founding was funded by businessmen and philanthropist brothers David H. Koch and Charles Koch, of Koch Industries, the second largest privately held company in the U.S. The Americans for Prosperity Foundation is the Koch brothers’ primary political advocacy group. According to a spokesperson from Koch Industries, the Koch companies do not direct the activities of AFP.
AFP's original stated mission was "educating citizens about economic policy and mobilizing citizens as advocates in the public policy process". Its current stated mission is "to mobilize citizens to advocate for policies that cut red tape and increase opportunity, put the brakes on government overspending, and get the economy working for hard workers– not special interests." It is focused on "fiscal responsibility," and in particular on cutting taxes, reducing regulation of business, and limiting the power of the courts. According to FactCheck.org, "AFP seeks to support free markets and entrepreneurship by advocating lower taxes and limited government spending and regulation". Its leaders view the organization as a counterbalance to the progressive movement's unions and activist organizations. According to NBC News, The New York Times and others, some of AFP's policy positions align with the business interests of the Koch brothers and Koch Industries, including its support for rescinding energy regulations and environmental restrictions, expanding domestic energy production, lowering taxes, and reducing government spending, especially Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid.
AFP had a staff of 116 employees in September 2012, and the next year it had chapters in 34 states and reported a membership of 2.3 million. In June 2014, it had 240 employees in 32 states. AFP has been active in national, state, and local elections. AFP registered to lobby in 2014. According to FactCheck.org, by 2011, AFP had "emerged as one of the most influential conservative issue advocacy groups on the national and state political scene". The Los Angeles Times said AFP performed roles typical of national and state political parties. ABC News said in August 2014 that AFP was "poised to be the most influential conservative group in the nation this year, and among the most influential and heaviest spending across the political spectrum this year and into the looming presidential race".
Leadership, structure and funding
Tim Phillips is president of both AFP and the AFP Foundation. AFP has been called both the political and educational arm of the AFP Foundation. AFP and the AFP Foundation share offices and staff.
New Jersey businesswoman Frayda Levin chairs the board of directors of AFP. Other directors include Pfotenhauer, executive vice president of Koch Industries Richard Fink, former Ann Arbor, Michigan mayor James E. Stephenson, former Reagan Budget Director James C. Miller, and North Carolina businessman Art Pope. Filing with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) as a 501(c)(4) nonprofit, tax-exempt, social welfare organization, contributions to AFP are not tax deducible. AFP is legally required to operate as non-partisan, it may not endorse or oppose political candidates, its primary purpose may not be political, it must be primarily engaged in social welfare activities, and no more than half of its expenditures may be political.
David H. Koch chairs the board of directors of the AFP Foundation. Other directors include Pfotenhauer, Fink, and economist Walter E. Williams. The AFP Foundation is an associate member of the State Policy Network, a national network of free-market oriented think tanks. As a 501(c)(3) non-profit, tax-exempt charity, contributions to the AFP Foundation are tax deducible, and such charities are largely prohibited from political activity.
Tax-exempt, nonprofit charitable organizations such as AFP are generally not required to disclose their contributors, in contrast with political action committees. Some campaign finance watchdogs and Democrats have criticized AFP for what they perceive to be its funding of political activities from undisclosed sources. For example, the Sunlight Foundation and others have accused non-disclosing political groups like AFP of filing for nonprofit status solely to invoke the right to hide their donors. President Obama, speaking at a Democratic National Committee fundraising dinner in August 2010, criticized AFP for its political spending and non-disclosure of donors. The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee filed a complaint with the IRS charging that the AFP Foundation had funded political advertisements in violation of the law applicable to the foundation's tax-exempt classification. AFP responded that the charges were without merit.
In 2010 and 2011, AFP reported to the IRS that it was not involved in political activities. Questioned by a reporter before the 2012 Wisconsin recall elections, AFP's Wisconsin director said AFP was educating the public and not engaging in political activity. In 2014, an AFP spokesperson said AFP had the right to keep its donors private, citing NAACP v. Alabama, a 1958 Supreme Court ruling that protected National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) donors from potential harassment. In 2014, AFP president Phillips said that protecting donors' identities was prudent given the Obama administration's ideology-based IRS targeting of citizens. The AFP Foundation said its supporters have received serious threats. In February 2015, a federal judge granted the Foundation's motion for a preliminary injunction staying California Attorney General Kamala Harris's request for the names and addresses of Foundation donors, pending resolution of the legality of the request.
While AFP does not disclose its funding sources, some supporters have acknowledged their contributions and investigative journalism has documented others. AFP has been funded by the Kochs and others.
At AFP's 2009 Defending the Dream summit, David Koch said he and his brother Charles provided the initial funding for AFP. In initial funding, David Koch was the top contributor to the founding of the AFP Foundation at $850,000. Several American companies also provided initial funding of the AFP Foundation, including $275,000 from State Farm Insurance and lesser amounts from 1-800 Contacts, medical products firm Johnson & Johnson, and carpet and flooring manufacturer Shaw Industries.
Later grants from the Koch family foundations include $1 million in 2008 to AFP from the David H. Koch Charitable Foundation and $3 million between 2005 and 2007 to the AFP Foundation from the Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation, controlled by Charles Koch. Other grants from Koch-related funding sources include $32.3 million in 2012 and $1.5 million in 2013 from Freedom Partners and $4.2 million through 2011 to the AFP Foundation from the Center to Protect Patient Rights.
Between 2003 and 2012, the AFP Foundation received $4.17 million from the John William Pope Foundation, chaired by AFP director Pope, the largest identifiable donor to the AFP Foundation. In 2011, the AFP Foundation received $3 million from the foundation of the family of billionaire Richard DeVos, the founder of Amway, making the DeVos family the second largest identifiable donor to the AFP Foundation. In 2010, AFP received half a million dollars from the Bradley Foundation. AFP received smaller grants in 2012 from tobacco company Reynolds American and in 2010 and 2012 from the American Petroleum Institute. The donor-advised fund Donors Trust granted $11 million to AFP between 2002 and 2010 and $7 million to the AFP Foundation in 2010.
Tea Party and 2010 midterm election
AFP supported the Tea Party movement by obtaining permits and supplying speakers for rallies. AFP helped organize and publicize a "Porkulus"-themed protest on the state capitol steps in Denver, Colorado on February 17, 2009, in conjunction with Obama signing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.:31 Within hours of CNBC on-air editor Rick Santelli's remarks on February 19, 2009, that criticized the Act and called for a "Chicago tea party," AFP registered and launched the website "TaxDayTeaParty.com," calling for protests against Obama.:32 AFP had a lead role in organizing Taxpayer Tea Party rallies in Sacramento, Austin, and Madison in April 2009. AFP was one of the leading organizers of the September 2009 Taxpayer March on Washington, also known as the "9/12 Tea Party," according to The Guardian. On April 16, 2011, former Republican vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin was the keynote speaker at an AFP annual tax day tea party rally at the state capitol in Madison, Wisconsin.
In the 2010 midterm elections, AFP played a major role in achieving a Republican majority in the U.S. House of Representatives. AFP supported tea party groups, purchased political advertisements, and sponsored a nationwide bus tour themed "November is Coming" to recruit organizers and canvassers. AFP helped Tea Party groups organize voter registration drives. An AFP website offered "Tea party Talking Points." The organization provided Tea Party activists with education on policy, training in methods, and lists of politicians to target. In October 2010, AFP sponsored a workshop on the political use of the internet at a Tea Party convention in Virginia. AFP said it spent $40 million on rallies, phone banks, and canvassing during the 2010 election cycle. Of the six freshman Republican members of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce in 2010, five benefited from AFP advertisements and grassroots activity.
David Weigel wrote in Slate that AFP "in the Tea Party era evolved into one of the most powerful conservative organizations in electoral politics." AFP and the Tea Party share many of the same principles. In 2010, AFP was one of the most influential organizations in the Tea Party movement, and the largest in terms of membership and spending. According to Bloomberg News, with AFP the Koch brothers "harnessed the Tea Party's energy in service of their own policy goals, including deregulation and lower taxes....As the Tea Party movement grew in the aftermath of Obama’s election, the Kochs positioned Americans for Prosperity as the Tea Party's staunchest ally".
AFP advocates for a reduction in public sector union benefits and pensions, in conjunction with curtailments of public sector collective bargaining rights. AFP has opposed raising the minimum wage.
Wisconsin collective bargaining
AFP's activities in Wisconsin developed the state into the nation's foremost conservative-progressive battleground, and AFP used tactics in Wisconsin that were applied in later campaigns.
AFP has been a major supporter of Republican Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker. In 2009 and 2010, AFP helped raise the statewide profile of Walker, then Milwaukee County county executive, by inviting him to address its rallies. In 2011, when Walker's agenda of reduced spending, cuts to union benefits, and limits on public-sector collective bargaining drew thousands in opposition to the streets around the state capitol in Madison, AFP bussed in hundreds to counter-protest. AFP spent $320,000 on television advertisements and sponsored a website and bus tour themed "Stand Against Spending, Stand With Walker", and spent a total of $7 million in support of Walker.
AFP spent $3 million in opposition to the recall campaign against Walker in 2011–2012 and sent 75 trained canvasers to Wisconsin. After the passage of Walker's signature legislation, the 2011 Wisconsin Act 10, which limited collective bargaining rights for most public employees, AFP ran advertisements and held town-hall meetings with the theme "It's Working Wisconsin!" Days before the recall election, AFP sponsored a ten-city bus tour themed "A Better Wisconsin." In the context of Walker's 2014 re-election campaign, AFP purchased television issue advertisements in support of Act 10.
Americans for Prosperity's Wisconsin campaign curtailing collective bargaining rights and turning back a recall demonstrated to AFP that similar efforts could succeed in Michigan. A top priority of AFP in Michigan was right-to-work legislation, which prohibited employers from deducting union dues from employee pay checks and prohibited labor contracts from excluding non-union members.
AFP had opposed Michigan Governor Rick Snyder, a Republican, on a number of issues, including the Detroit River International Crossing Bridge project, an expansion of Medicaid funded by the federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and a road bill which raised taxes. AFP coordinated support for right-to-work in Michigan. The AFP Foundation produced a 15-page booklet titled Unions: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: How forced unionization has harmed workers and Michigan. AFP's website urged members to gather at the state capital in Lansing on December 6, 2012, and some three hundred protestors showed up. AFP bussed in activists and offered supporters $25 gas cards, free lunch, and drinks. AFP reserved space and erected a large heated tent near the Capitol steps for supporters. On the morning of December 6, during a lame duck session of the Republican-controlled Michigan legislature, Snyder called a joint press conference with the legislative leadership to announce fast-track right-to-work legislation. The legislation passed both houses of the Michigan legislature that day, as protesters and counterprotesters demonstrated outside. Michigan state police responded. AFP said protesters tore down the AFP tent. No arrests were made. On December 10, President Obama visited Daimler AG's Detroit Diesel factory in Redford, Michigan, and told employees the legislation was about the "right to work for less money." Snyder signed the legislation on December 11. In 2014, Snyder ran for re-election and AFP posted an online advertisement praising his legislative record.
AFP ran an early television advertising campaign opposing Obama's re-election. An August 2012 ProPublica analysis of broadcast television political advertising purchases by category showed that two nonprofit organizations, AFP and Crossroads GPS, combined, outspent all other categories, including political parties, political action committees, super PACs, unions, and trade associations. While previously AFP had run issue advertising that opposed Obama's programs, in August 2012 the organization shifted to express advocacy, which explicitly called for his defeat. That month, AFP spent $25 million on television commercials against Obama. AFP said the goal of the commercials was to educate voters. AFP raised $140 million in the 2012 election cycle, and it spent $122 million, more than in all the previous eight years since its founding. The organization spent more than $33.5 million on television advertisements opposing Obama's re-election.
In 2011 and 2012, AFP spent $8.4 million in swing states on television advertisements denouncing a loan guarantee the Department of Energy had made to Solyndra, a manufacturer of solar panels. Solyndra was the first recipient of such a guarantee under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and the company went bankrupt. In January 2012 The Wall Street Journal said AFP's Solyndra campaign was "perhaps the biggest attack on Mr. Obama so far in the 2012 election campaign." AFP sent a bus on a nationwide tour condemning Obama's economic policies called the "Obama's Failing Agenda Tour."
In April 2011 in New Hampshire, AFP sponsored an informal gathering of five Republican presidential candidates, including Mitt Romney, Tim Pawlenty, Michele Bachmann, Rick Santorum, and Herman Cain. AFP offered tea party groups $2 for every new AFP member their volunteers signed up at polling places in the February 2012 Florida Republican primary. AFP employed methodologies developed in its efforts to thwart the recall of Wisconsin governor Scott Walker, including deploying a smartphone application called "Prosperity Knocks" to canvassers. AFP canvassers utilized "Themis," an online voter database of millions of Americans developed. AFP president Phillips said that AFP's canvassing support application offered field operatives the previous voting history of voters integrated with Census data and consumer data including purchases, magazine subscriptions, and favorite websites.
Programs and advocacy
Energy and environment
AFP supports oil and gas development and opposes regulation, including environmental restrictions. The AFP Foundation opposed President Obama's efforts to address global warming. AFP was important in creating the Tea Party movement and in encouraging the movement to focus on climate change. AFP helped defeat proposed U.S. legislation embracing cap and trade, a market-based approach to control pollution by providing economic incentives. In August 2009, Mother Jones magazine identified cap and trade as one of the key domestic policy goals of the Obama administration, and identified AFP as one of the most prominent groups in opposition.
In 2008, AFP circulated the No Climate Tax Pledge to government officials at the federal, state, and local levels, a pledge to oppose any legislation including spending relating to climate change unless it also included an equivalent amount of tax cuts. By July 2013, 411 lawmakers and candidates, including a quarter of U.S. Senators and more than a third of U.S. Representatives, primarily Republicans, had signed the pledge. Of the twelve Republicans on the House Energy and Commerce Committee in 2011, nine signed the pledge.
AFP held more than eighty events in opposition to cap and trade, including the nationwide Hot Air Tour, which involved floating hot air balloons in protest of what AFP described as "global warming alarmism." AFP raised a balloon in Phoenix, Arizona, in fall 2008 and also over Al Gore's house in Tennessee. AFP described cap and trade as “the largest excise tax in history.” AFP sponsored a Regulation Reality Tour to foment opposition to climate change legislation and federal regulation of carbon emissions. The tour involved fake "carbon cops" with badges in green Smart cars with flashing lights who wrote citations for "carbon crimes" like running a lawn mower. In 2011, AFP launched a Running on Empty website and national tour featuring a 14-foot inflatable gas pump intended to link rising gas prices to the Obama administration’s environmental regulations and to promote offshore drilling for oil. Long lines formed in several states in 2012 when AFP offered drivers gas discounted to the price in effect when Obama took office. In 2012, AFP campaigned against Republican political candidates who acknowledged the science of climate change.
AFP advocates for the construction of the proposed Keystone XL Pipeline. In February 2015, AFP organized supporters to telephone the White House urging Obama to sign legislation authorizing the project. AFP led an effort to repeal a federal tax credit for wind power. In Kansas, Ohio, North Carolina, and other states, AFP campaigned to overturn renewable portfolio standards, state laws that mandated a percentage of the state's electricity come from renewable resources. AFP announced plans to oppose Republican candidates who support a carbon tax in the 2016 presidential primaries.
Health care and 2014 midterm
AFP has described itself as the nation’s largest grassroots champion for health care freedom. In August 2009, Mother Jones magazine identified health care reform as one of the key domestic policy goals of the Obama administration, and identified AFP as one of the most prominent groups in opposition. AFP sponsored two other groups advocating against the Obama administration's proposed health care reform, Patients United Now and Patients First.
In May 2009, AFP launched Patients United Now, which opposed a single-payer health care system and a government-funded health insurance option. It purchased television advertisements warning of "government-controlled health care" or a "Washington takeover" of health care. In one Patients United Now television advertisement, a Canadian woman, Shona Holmes, said she could not get timely treatment in Canada and ultimately was treated in the U.S. Patients United Now staged more than three hundred rallies to oppose the Obama administration's proposed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA).
In summer 2009, Patients First sponsored a six-week "Hands Off My Health Care" bus tour. Hands Off My Health Care events included rallies protesting against the health care plan and collected signatures in an effort to raise awareness about free-market-based health care reforms. AFP held Hands Off My Health Care events in more than 250 cities, according to AFP president Phillips.
After the ACA became law, AFP worked for its repeal and campaigned to block states from accepting federal funds made available under the law to expand Medicaid. State legislators who supported Medicaid expansion were targeted, including Republican Virginia state senators Emmett Hanger and John Watkins. AFP bussed in volunteers to a hearing in the state capital and to call constituents, distribute flyers, and send mailings. AFP campaigned against Medicaid expansion in Michigan, Louisiana, and Nebraska and helped defeat Medicaid expansion in Florida. AFP president Phillips said AFP advocated for repeal of the ACA to keep the issue "in front of the public" and to use the threat of a presidential veto to portray Obama as "unwilling to take some reasonable commonsense reforms." Phillips told the New York Times that a broader goal of AFP's anti-ACA advertising spending was to present the ACA as a "social welfare boondoggle" which would foster opposition to spending on climate change. In March 2012, AFP, with support from the California-based Tea Party Express, organized a rally at the Capitol during the Supreme Court's oral arguments regarding the constitutionality of the ACA.
AFP played a major role in the 2014 midterm elections, helping Republicans achieve a majority in the U.S. Senate. AFP targeted legislators who had supported the ACA four years earlier. AFP's first campaign advertisement aired in September 2013, and by January 2014 the organization had spent $20 million, by May, $35 million, and by July, $44 million, amounts unprecedented so early in a political campaign cycle. Senators targeted Kay Hagan, Mary Landrieu, Mark Begich, and Jeanne Shaheen, all Democrats. In early 2014, AFP ran nationwide advertisements featuring stories about people whose health care, according to the ads, had been compromised by the ACA, whom AFP termed "ObamaCare victims."
Between January 1, 2013, and August 31, 2014, in the campaign to control the Senate, AFP aired more than 27,000 television advertisements, about one in every 16 ads. AFP was one of the leading spenders on political advertising in 2014. AFP lead all non-political action committees in terms of spending on television air time for political advertisements in the 2014 election cycle through April.
Fiscal policy advocacy
AFP advocates limited government. Within two days of Obama's inauguration in February, 2009, Americans for Prosperity launched a television advertising campaign and a website "nostimulus.com" which featured an online "No Stimulus" petition addressed to U.S. Senators, notifying them that the vote on Obama's first major legislative initiative, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, would be included in AFP's congressional rankings and urging a "no" vote. The petition characterized the Act as "dramatically increasing federal debt and spending...under the pretense of stimulus or recovery." Internet traffic overwhelmed the website.:109 In 2011, AFP opposed the extension of unemployment benefits, writing that unemployment benefits increase unemployment. In late 2012, AFP opposed a proposed federal relief bill after Hurricane Sandy, the second-costliest hurricane in United States history. AFP's New Jersey director questioned the federal government's role in natural disaster relief, saying it should be limited to the repair of federal buildings. AFP opposed smoking bans in Texas and Virginia.
"Government overspending is the greatest threat to economic prosperity," according to AFP. In 2013, AFP launched a “Spending Accountability Project” which supported letting the $85 billion in automatic cuts to federal spending required by the budget sequestration take effect. AFP opposed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, also known as the Ryan-Murray deal, which proposed $40 billion in spending in excess of the sequestration. AFP called the deal "not just bad policy, it is bad politics" and noted the loss of the "hard-won bipartisan spending limits set by the sequester."
AFP advocates for lower taxes. AFP opposed a 2006 cigarette tax hike in Indiana and helped fund the "No on 29" effort in opposition to California Proposition 29 (2012), which would have placed a $1 excise tax on tobacco products to fund smoking medical research and smoking cessation. In 2013 in Indiana AFP ran a television advertising campaign in support of Governor Mike Pence's ten percent state income tax cut. AFP advocates for the repeal of the estate tax, which they call the "death tax".
AFP advocates for free market solutions. In 2011, AFP sent mailings and funded radio advertisements criticizing the proposed construction of a Detroit River International Crossing bridge, a publicly financed project that would compete with the nearby privately owned Ambassador Bridge linking Detroit, Michigan, with Windsor, Ontario; AFP charged that the project would be a waste of taxpayer money if toll revenues did not cover debt service.
Other policy advocacy
AFP opposes consideration of race and economic class in the assignment of students to schools. According to AFP's North Carolina state director, in 2009 AFP did voter education and supplied volunteers in school board-elections in Wake County, North Carolina. Wake County includes the state capital, Raleigh, and has the 18th largest school district in the US. AFP supported a slate of candidates that opposed desegregation busing, which AFP has called "forced busing." AFP ran phone banks and canvassed in another school board election in Kenosha, Wisconsin in 2014. AFP helped organize rallies in favor of virtual and charter schools.
AFP is a member of the Internet Freedom Coalition, which opposes net neutrality. AFP's vice president for policy Phil Kerpen chaired the Coalition. AFP supported January 2014's federal appeals court ruling against the Federal Communication Commission's authority to enforce net neutrality. AFP urged Congress to legislatively pre-empt regulation of the internet.
In 2007, AFP began hosting a yearly Defending the American Dream Summit, now the second-largest annual gathering of conservatives in Washington, D.C. In conjunction with the July 2008 Netroots Nation conference in Austin, Texas, AFP hosted RightOnline, a conference of conservative bloggers and activists that aimed to develop conservative social media strategies, which become an annual event.
In August 2011, AFP mailed absentee voter applications to Democratic voters in at least two recall elections in Wisconsin that included a filing deadline two days after the election. The return envelopes were addressed to an "Absentee Ballot Application Processing Center" with the post office box number of Wisconsin Family Action, a pro-family group, rather than to the clerk's office. Responding to charges of voter suppression, AFP said the incorrect date was a "printing mistake" and was intended only for voters in the two districts where Democrats are set to face recalls on a later date. The state board of elections opened an investigation.
In 2013 in Virginia and 2014 in Arkansas, the AFP Foundation mailed "voter history report cards," which included the public-record voting history of both the addressee and its neighbors.
A 2014 television advertisement targeting Democratic U.S. Senate candidate Gary Peters of Michigan for his support of the Affordable Care Act featured leukemia patient Julie Boonstra, who said she could no longer afford the cost of her treatment after the ACA. The Washington Post reported that the advertisement had "significant factual errors and/or obvious contradictions." Boonstra would save at least $1,000 a year under the ACA, according to The Detroit News. AFP aired another television advertisement in which Boonstra said Peters was trying to silence her. AFP apologized for another television advertisement that criticized the ACA and Democratic Senator Mark Udall, a candidate for reelection, using images of a somber Obama and Udall from their visit to Aurora, Colorado, in the wake of the 2012 Aurora shooting.
In April 2014, AFP mailed voters in at least eight West Virginia counties material that may have led them to believe they were ineligible to vote in an upcoming primary election. The mailings, received just before the deadline to update voter registration, included registration cards and prepaid return envelopes addressed to county clerks, with a message cautioning voters that if they did not update their voter registration, they might lose their right to vote in the upcoming primary election. AFP's West Virginia director said the mailings were a non-partisan, get out the vote effort targeting unregistered voters.
In September 2014, AFP was investigated by the state board of elections of North Carolina after the state Democratic Party filed a complaint regarding an AFP voter registration mailing labelled “official application form” containing inaccurate information including an incorrect filing deadline five days before the actual deadline. AFP stated the mistakes in the North Carolina mailings were "administrative errors."
- Beckel, Michael (November 14, 2013). "Americans For Prosperity Spent Record Cash In 2012". The Huffington Post. Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- "About Americans for Prosperity: Our Mission". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- "Americans for Prosperity". FactCheck.org. 2014-06-16. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
- "Americans for Prosperity". FactCheck.org. October 10, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- Mayer, Jane (August 30, 2010). "Covert Operations: The billionaire brothers who are waging a war against Obama". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
- Pilkington, Ed (September 18, 2009). "Republicans steal Barack Obama's internet campaigning tricks". The Guardian. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- Theda Skocpol; Vanessa Williamson (2012). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-0-19-983263-7.
- Zernike, Kate (October 19, 2010). "Secretive Republican Donors Are Planning Ahead". New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- Hamburger, Tom; Kathleen Hennessey; Neela Banerjee (2011-02-06). "Koch brothers now at heart of GOP power". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
- Cohen, Rick (September 15, 2010). "The Starfish and the Tea Party, Part II". Nonprofit Quarterly (Institute for Nonprofit News). Retrieved June 18, 2015.
The Koch family does show up as a major funder of another of the national Tea Party infrastructure, Americans for Prosperity.
- Roberts, Robert North; Hammond, Scott John; Sulfaro, Valerie A. (2012). "Americans for Prosperity". Presidential Campaigns, Slogans, Issues, and Platforms: The Complete Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313380938. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
Americans for Prosperity Foundation (AFP) is an antitaxation advocacy group founded in 2004 and financed by David and Charles Koch, the billionaire brothers who own Koch Industries of Wichita, Kansas.
- Vogel, Kenneth P. (May 9, 2014). "Koch brothers’ Americans for Prosperity plans $125 million spending spree". Politico. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
The Koch brothers’ main political arm intends to spend more than $125 million this year on an aggressive ground, air and data operation benefiting conservatives, according to a memo distributed to major donors and sources familiar with the group. The projected budget for Americans for Prosperity would be unprecedented for a private political group in a midterm, and would likely rival even the spending of the Republican and Democratic parties’ congressional campaign arms.
- Goldman, Andrew (July 25, 2010). "The Billionaire's Party: David Koch is New York’s second-richest man, a celebrated patron of the arts, and the tea party’s wallet". New York magazine. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
AFPF is now Koch’s primary political-advocacy group.Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Wallet" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Beckel, Michael (September 4, 2014). "The Kochs’ Political Ad Machine". Slate. Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
In all, Americans for Prosperity, the Koch brothers’ flagship political operation, alone has aired more than 27,000 ads in a combined nine battleground states, according to Kantar Media/CMAG.
- Kroll, Andy (November 6, 2014). "2014: The Year of Koch". Mother Jones. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
The Koch brothers' flagship organization, Americans for Prosperity, had an equally stellar Election Day.
- "About Americans for Prosperity". Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- Meyer, D. S. and A. Pullum. "The Tea Party and the Dilemmas of Conservative Populism," in Understanding the Tea Party Movement, edited by D. S. Meyer and N. Van Dyke. (London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2014), p 89.
- Roarty, Alex (June 12, 2014). "Americans for Prosperity Is Just Getting Started". National Journal. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Caldwell, Leigh Ann (January 15, 2015). "Koch-backed Group Vows To Hold GOP's Feet To The Fire". NBC News. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
Americans for Prosperity, which spent more than $100 million in the 2014 election in efforts to help elect Republicans, is vowing to hold Republicans accountable now that they have control of both bodies of Congress. The group, financed largely by conservative entrepreneurs Charles and David Koch, promised Thursday at the National Press Club to expand its reach and influence in 2015 by pushing its core legislative policies of repealing the Affordable Care Act, rolling back energy regulations, expanding domestic energy production, reducing taxes and reining in government spending, especially Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid - all efforts that would financially benefit the Koch brothers' sprawling business entities.
- Hulse, Carl; Parker, Ashley (March 20, 2014). "Koch Group, Spending Freely, Hones Attack on Government". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
The Kochs, with billions in holdings in energy, transportation and manufacturing, have a significant interest in seeing that future government regulation is limited.
- Fang, Lee (January 25, 2015). "Americans for Prosperity’s legislative agenda is just Koch Industries’ corporate wish list". Salon. Republic Report. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
Americans for Prosperity, the grassroots organizing group founded by billionaire industrialists Charles and David Koch, spent $125 million in the midterm elections last year. Now, they’re calling in their chips. At the National Press Club yesterday, AFP president Tim Phillips and several officers with the group laid out their agenda. The group is calling for legalizing crude oil exports, a repeal of the estate tax, approval of the Keystone XL pipeline, blocking any hike in the gas tax, a tax holiday on corporate profits earned overseas, blocking the EPA’s new rules on carbon emissions from coal-burning power plants, and a repeal of the Affordable Care Act, along with a specific focus on the medical device tax. The announcement was touted by NPR as a “conservative agenda for Congress.” But it’s also a near mirror image of Koch Industries’ lobbying agenda. Koch Industries — the petrochemical, manufacturing and commodity speculating conglomerate owned by David and Charles — is not only a financier of political campaigns, but leads one of the most active lobbying teams in Washington, a big part of why the company has been such a financial success.
- Meyer, David S.; Pullum, Amanda (2014). "The Tea Party and the Dilemmas of Conservative Populism". Understanding the Tea Party Movement. Ashgate Publishing. p. 86. in Nella Van Dyke and David S Meyer, eds., * Describes AFP as one of several groups “established before Obama’s election and funded by very wealthy sponsors who sought both to promote an ideological vision and to protect a financial interest. As Jane Mayer’s profile of the billionaire Koch brothers (2010) notes, the promotion of a conservative ideology with hundred of millions of dollars serves business concerns worth many times that. Moreover, she notes, the Koch brothers had accepted the input of big government initiatives when they were helpful to the business.”
- Skocpol, Theda; Williamson, Vanessa (January 2, 2012). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-19-983263-7. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
Using the Tea Party as backdrop, Americans for Prosperity is trying to reshape public discussions and attract widespread conservative support for ultra-free-market ideas about slashing taxes and business regulation and radically restructuring social expenditure programs.
- Van Dyke, Nella; Meyer, David S (March 1, 2014). Understanding the Tea Party Movement. Ashgate Publishing. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-4094-6522-5. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
When faced with the charge that the Tea Party movement really represents only the interests of its generous benefactors, the Koch brothers, Tea Partiers like to cite George Soros, the billionaire currency speculator who has bankrolled political efforts for civil liberties generally. The easy equivalence is deceptive; it’s hard to see how decriminalizing drugs, for example, serves Soros’s business interests in the way relaxing environmental regulations supports the Kochs’ businesses; the scope and scale of the Tea Party’s dependence on large capital may indeed be unique.
- Sonmez, Felicia (August 26, 2010). "Who is Americans for Prosperity?". Washington Post. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
AFP's previous president, Nancy Pfotenhauer, left to become an adviser to Sen. John McCain's (R-Ariz.) presidential bid. (Pfotenhauer had previously worked as a lobbyist for Koch Industries.)
- Fallin, Amanda; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A. (February 8, 2013). "‘To quarterback behind the scenes, third-party efforts’: the tobacco industry and the Tea Party". Tobacco Control. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- Rutenberg, Jim (October 17, 2014). "How Billionaire Oligarchs Are Becoming Their Own Political Parties". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
The Kochs hired Phillips in 2005 to make Americans for Prosperity into a force that could defeat liberalism and elect true free-market conservatives
- Peter Wallsten; Tom Hamburger (September 20, 2012). "Conservative groups reaching new levels of sophistication in mobilizing voters". Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- Gold, Matea (June 18, 2014). "An expanding Koch network aims to spend $300 million to shape Senate fight and 2016". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- Wilson, Reid (July 18, 2014). "Americans for Prosperity to add offices in 2 new states". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Bland, Scott (March 20, 2014). "Americans for Prosperity Now Going After Democratic Governors". National Journal. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Smith, Deneen (March 24, 2014). "Americans for Prosperity throws its weight into Kenosha Unified School Board race". Kenosha News. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- Adler, Ben (January 21, 2011). "Weak Tea Party Connection to Wake County, N.C., School Board". Newsweek. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- Wilson, Megan R. (February 19, 2014). "Americans for Prosperity registers to lobby". The Hill. Retrieved May 17, 2015.
- Kroll, Andy (September 3, 2012). "Americans for Prosperity Chief: We Don't Know If $27 Million in Anti-Obama Ads Has Any Effect". Mother Jones. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
AFP is one of the most powerful political players in national conservative politics.
- Hamburger, Tom; Hennessey, Kathleen; Banerjee, Neela (February 6, 2011). "Koch brothers now at heart of GOP power". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Good, Chris (August 29, 2014). "No Strategy". The Note. ABC News. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Lipton, Eric (February 21, 2011). "Billionaire Brothers' Money Plays Role in Wisconsin Dispute". New York Times. p. A16. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Abowd, Paul (June 21, 2012). "Nonprofit profile: Americans for Prosperity". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- Clifton, Eli (November 3, 2014). "Who Else Is in the Koch Brothers Billionaire Donor Club?". The Nation. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Confessore, Nicholas (August 30, 2014). "Kochs’ Network Wrestles With Expectations for Presidential Primaries". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
- "Directors". Americans for Prosperity. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
- Sturgis, Sue (March 8, 2012). "INSTITUTE INDEX: The money behind Americans for Prosperity". Institute for Southern Studies. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
- Novak, Viveca; Maguire, Robert (March 5, 2012). "Koch-Connected Group Shows Holes in Disclosure Requirements". Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- Ballhaus, Rebecca (September 25, 2014). "Mystery Money: Your Guide to Campaign Finance in 2014". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- Pilkington, Ed (October 18, 2012). "Koch-backed activists use power of data in bid to oust Obama from White House". The Guardian. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
Classified a non-profit "social welfare" organisation, AFP is legally obliged to project itself as a non-partisan campaign that neither endorses nor opposes candidates for public office.
- Luo, Michael; Strom, Stephanie (September 21, 2010). "Donor Names Remain Secret As Rules Shift". New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
They include 501(c)(4) “social welfare” organizations, like Crossroads, which has been the top spender on Senate races, and Americans for Prosperity, another pro-Republican group that has been the leader on the House side; 501(c)(5) labor unions, which have been supporting Democrats; and 501(c)(6) trade associations, like the United States Chamber of Commerce, which has been spending heavily in support of Republicans. Charities organized under Section 501(c)(3) are largely prohibited from political activity because they offer their donors tax deductibility....The elections commission could, theoretically, step in and rule that groups like Crossroads GPS should register as political committees, which would force them to disclose their donors.
- Gold, Matea (February 12, 2014). "IRS plan to curb politically active groups is threatened by opposition from both sides". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
- McGrath Goodman, Leah (September 30, 2014). "As Dark Money Floods U.S. Elections, Regulators Turn a Blind Eye". Newsweek. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- Kroll, Andy; Schulman, Daniel (February 5, 2014). "The Koch Brothers Left a Confidential Document at Their Donor Conference". Mother Jones. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "Board of Directors". Americans for Prosperity Foundation. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
- Kopan, Tal (November 13, 2013). "Report: Think tanks tied to Kochs". Politico. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- "Directory SPN Members". State Policy Network. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Drutman, Lee (July 16, 2012). "Dark money in the 2012 elections (so far)". Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- Novak, Viveca (July 19, 2012). "Midwestern Bank PAC Funds Kochs’ Americans for Prosperity". Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- Lichtblau, Eric (March 6, 2012). "Cato Institute Is Caught in a Rift Over Its Direction". New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Engler, Alex (September 25, 2012). "Dark Money Organizations Change Strategies to Keep Donors Secret". Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- Johnson, Eliana (September 2, 2014). "Obama’s Bête Noire". National Review. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
As the 2010 midterms approached, President Obama warned his supporters about groups with “harmless-sounding names like Americans for Prosperity.” “They don’t want you to know who the Americans for Prosperity are, because they’re thinking about the next election,” he said.
- Inskeep, Steve (September 17, 2010). "Is the Tea Party Really A Grassroots Movement?". NPR. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
Right now, all around this country, there are groups with harmless-sounding names like Americans for Prosperity, who are running millions of dollars of ads against Democratic candidates all across the country. And they don't have to say who exactly the Americans for Prosperity are. You don't know if it a foreign-controlled corporation. You don't know if it's a big oil company or a big bank.
- Parti, Tarini (May 13, 2013). "Koch-backed group links itself to IRS scandal". Politico. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
In 2010, Obama called out Americans for Prosperity and similar groups for their spending activities without financial disclosure. “Right now all around this country there are groups with harmless-sounding names like Americans for Prosperity, who are running millions of dollars of ads against Democratic candidates all across the country,” Obama said at an Aug. 2010 fundraiser. “And they don’t have to say who exactly the Americans for Prosperity are,” he added. “You don’t know if it’s a foreign-controlled corporation. You don’t know if it’s a big oil company, or a big bank. You don’t know if it’s a insurance company that wants to see some of the provisions in health reform repealed because it’s good for their bottom line, even if it’s not good for the American people.”
- Lichtblau, Eric (August 27, 2010). "Group Is Accused on Tax Exemption". New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Schouten, Fredreka (August 27, 2010). "Democrats file IRS complaint against Americans for Prosperity". USA Today. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- Lehmann, Evan (October 12, 2011). "As Anti-Climate Group's Activities Rise, So Do Questions About Its Secret Finances". The New York Times. ClimateWire. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Kroll, Andy (May 28, 2012). "Americans for Prosperity: Our Pro-Walker Bus Tour Has Nothing to Do With Recall". Mother Jones. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Foley, Micheal (May 23, 2012). "Americans For Prosperity Bus Tour to Stop in Hudson on June 1". Patch Media. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
We're not dealing with any candidates, political parties or ongoing races," Hilgemann said. "We're just educating folks on the importance of the reforms.
- Maddow, Rachel (May 30, 2012). "AFP fails the straight-face test". The Rachel Maddow Show (MSNBC). Retrieved May 29, 2015.
“We’re not dealing with any candidates, political parties, or ongoing races”
- Alpert, Bruce (September 6, 2014). "Americans for Prosperity on why it keeps donors secret and SEC won't appeal Stanford ruling: On the Hill". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "AFP’s Tim Phillips on Harry Reid, GOP Senate Chances and Disclosing Donors". The Wall Street Journal. August 11, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- "Tim Phillips". Newsmakers (C-SPAN). August 8, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- Confessore, Nicholas (October 10, 2014). "Secret Money Fueling a Flood of Political Ads". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
“Given the record of this administration in using regulatory agencies like the I.R.S. in a retaliatory fashion, then it’s understandable that there’s concern about disclosure from a lot of individuals,” said Tim Phillips, the president of Americans for Prosperity, a conservative organization that combines field efforts with large advertising campaigns.
- Pettersson, Edvard. "Koch Group Gets to Keep Donors Secret in California Lawsuit". Bloomberg. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- Americans for Prosperity v. Kamala Harris (California Central District Court February 23, 2015). Text
- Pilkington, Ed (October 13, 2010). "Americans For Prosperity sponsors Tea Party workshop". The Guardian (London). Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Overby, Peter (February 25, 2011). "Billionaire Brothers In Spotlight In Wis. Union Battle". NPR. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
The Koch brothers provided the seed money for Americans for Prosperity a decade ago — and more than $1 million overall.
- Overby, Peter (February 19, 2010). "Who's Raising Money For Tea Party Movement?". National Public radio.
"Five years ago my brother Charles and I provided the funds to start the Americans for Prosperity. And it's beyond my wildest dreams how the AFP has grown into this enormous organization," David Koch said
- Lessin, Tia and Deal, Carl (2013). Citizen Koch (Motion picture).
- Seitz-Wald, Alex (September 24, 2013). "David Koch Seeded Major Tea-Party Group, Private Donor List Reveals". National Journal. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
But a donor list filed with the IRS labeled "not open for public inspection" from 2003, the year of AFP's first filing, lists David Koch as by far the single largest contributor to its foundation, donating $850,000...Following Koch on the AFP Foundation donor list are a number of corporations, including State Farm, which gave $275,000, 1-800-Contacts, which donated $80,000, and Johnson & Johnson and Shaw Industries, which each gave $50,000.
- Levy, Pema (September 24, 2013). "Money In Politics: The Companies Behind David Koch’s Americans For Prosperity". International Business Times. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
David Koch was the top contributor, providing $850,000. But a number of major American companies also gave hundreds of thousands to the upstart conservative group. At the top of the corporate list is insurance giant State Farm, which gave $275,000, followed by much smaller donations from 1-800-Contacts, which gave $80,000, and Johnson & Johnson and Shaw Industries, which each gave $50,000.
- Smith, Joanna (August 1, 2009). "Big money fuels health battle; U.S. attack ad linked to brothers who spend a fortune lobbying for libertarian agenda". Toronto Star (Toronto, Ontario). p. A6. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
Charles Koch is a director at the Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation, which is a major benefactor of the Americans for Prosperity Foundation. According to IRS documents, the Lambe foundation gave a total of just over $3.17 million in grants to the Americans for Prosperity Foundation from 2005 to 2007 to cover general operating costs.
- Allen, Mike; Vandehei, Jim (September 11, 2013). "Exclusive: The Koch brothers' secret bank". Politico. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
The group, Freedom Partners, and its president, Marc Short, serve as an outlet for the ideas and funds of the mysterious Koch brothers
- Blumenthal, Paul (September 18, 2014), Koch Central Bank Freedom Partners Distributed Millions In Dark Money In 2013, Huffington Post, retrieved April 22, 2015,
Freedom Partners Chamber of Commerce, the central hub of the political empire of the billionaire brothers Charles and David Koch, reported raising $57.5 million in 2013 and disbursing $41.7 million to organizations in the Koch network.Freedom Partners, founded under the radar in 2011, emerged in 2012 as the main bank for Koch-related political operations.
- Confessore, Nicholas (September 13, 2013). "Tax Filings Hint at Extent Of Koch Brothers' Reach". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
Freedom Partners, as the group is now known, is playing a bigger role for the Kochs as the brothers seek a tighter rein over the advocacy groups and political organizations that their donor network finances and expand their involvement in Republican political causes.
- Maguire, Robert; Novak, Viveca (15 November 2013). "Americans for Prosperity Helped Churn Koch-Linked Money". opensecrets.org. Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
In previous years, AFP has been the beneficiary of grants from CPPR, to the tune of $4.2 million
- Severson, Kim (December 11, 2012). "G.O.P.’s Full Control in Long-Moderate North Carolina May Leave Lasting Stamp". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Hansen-Bundy, Benjy; Kroll, Andy (January 2014). "The Family That Gives Together". Mother Jones. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Levinthal, Dave (May 30, 2013). "Tobacco giant funded conservative nonprofit". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
- Salant, Jonathan D (March 29, 2012). "Chevron, Merck Disclose Funding to 2010 Attack-Ad Groups". Bloomberg News. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Patel, Julie (November 20, 2013). "'Dark money' groups give big to similar nonprofits". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Beckel, Michael (November 14, 2013). "Koch-backed nonprofit spent record cash in 2012". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
- Beckel, Michael (November 10, 2014). "Koch-backed nonprofit raised $44 million in 2013". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
- Abowd, Paul (February 14, 2013). "Koch-funded charity passes money to free-market think tanks in states". NBC News. Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
- Goldenberg, Suzanne (February 14, 2013). "How Donors Trust distributed millions to anti-climate groups". The Guardian. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Weigel, David (May 11, 2010). "Koch Industries distances itself from tea parties". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- Fang, Lee (2013). The Machine: A Field Guide to the Resurgent Right. New York: The New Press. ISBN 9781595586391.
- Hogberg, David (February 20, 2015). "Anti-Stimulus Protests Sprout-Up". Investor's Business Daily. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- Kromm, Chris (October 12, 2010). "Art Pope and the Corporate Takeover of Democracy". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- Schultz, Zac (April 16, 2011). "Sarah Palin Travels To Madison". Madison, Wisconsin: WMTV. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- "Conservative Group Pushes to Enlist Thousands After Obama Suggests It's Foreign Influenced". Fox News. August 12, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Weigel, David (March 1, 2012). "Behind the Cato-Koch Kerfuffle". Slate. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Welch, Chris (June 4, 2012). "Crunch time for recall volunteers". CNN. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- Snow Hopkins, Christopher; Mahanta, Siddhartha; Poulson, Theresa (February 4, 2010). "12 Tea Party Players To Watch; A List Of Some Of The Most Influential And Talked-About Groups In The Grassroots Uprising". National Journal. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "The top national players in the tea party". The Washington Post. September 26, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
Fresh off big primary wins, national tea party groups are refocusing their energy on November. A guide to five groups that influence the movement
- Bykowicz, Julie (February 17, 2015). "Scott Walker Is King of Kochworld". Bloomberg News. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Cooper, Michael; Greenhouse, Steven (February 27, 2011). "Unions debate what to give to save bargaining". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Fram, Alan (April 30, 2014). "Senate Republicans block Democratic push to raise minimum wage". PBS NewsHour. PBS. Associated Press. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Kaplan, Rebecca (April 30, 2014). "Minimum wage bill dies in Senate". CBS News. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Roarty, Alex (June 16, 2014). "A Conservative Juggernaut's Long Game". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
- Zernike, Kate (March 5, 2011). "Wisconsin's Legacy of Labor Battles". The New York Times.
- "Wisconsin gov. caught in prank by caller posing as donor". USA Today. Associated Press. February 23, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Stern, Andrew (February 26, 2011). "Analysis: Koch brothers a force in anti-union effort". Reuters. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Erickson, Doug; Seely, Ron (March 7, 2011). "Pro-Walker bus tour ends in Madison as protests at Capitol continue". Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Hirschkorn, Phil; Cordes, Nancy (June 7, 2012). "A record amount of money spent on Wisconsin recall". CBS News. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Kertscher, Tom (June 20, 2012). "Billionaire Koch brothers gave $8 million to Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker recall campaign, Dem chair says". PolitiFact. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
- Kaufman, Dan (May 24, 2012). "How Did Wisconsin Become the Most Politically Divisive Place in America?". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
- Spicuzza, Mary (February 20, 2012). "On Politics: David Koch: 'We've spent a lot of money in Wisconsin. We're going to spend more.'". Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
- Glauber, Bill (March 9, 2012). "Capitol rally to mark one year since Act 10". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- Beard, John (May 27, 2014). "Americans for Prosperity spending big in new ad touting Walker". Madison, Wisconsin: WGEM-TV. WKOW.
- Johnson, Shawn (May 27, 2014). "Americans For Prosperity Buys Airtime For New Political Ad". Wisconsin Public Radio. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Rucker, Philip (December 7, 2012). "In Michigan, heart of organized labor, Republicans push to limit union power". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 3, 2015.
- Fang, Lee (December 8, 2012). "Pro–'Right to Work' Groups In Michigan Outspend Union Counterparts". The Nation. Retrieved May 3, 2015.
- Gardner, Greg (December 6, 2012). "Koch Brothers' Americans for Prosperity are leading the charge for Snyder's 'Right to Work' bill". Lansing State Journal. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved May 3, 2015.
- Kroll, Andy (December 11, 2012). "Americans for Prosperity Lures Michigan Right-to-Work Fans With Gas Cards, Free Food". Mother Jones. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Billups, Andrea (December 6, 2012). "Protesters swarm as Michigan pushes right-to-work measure". The Washington Times. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
- Sargent, Greg (February 27, 2014). "How Americans for Prosperity’s Obamacare attacks could backfire on GOP". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Nichols, John (December 6, 2012). "GOP, Koch Brothers Sneak Attack Guts Labor Rights in Michigan". The Nation. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Oosting, Jonathan (December 11, 2012). "Michigan right to work: Tensions rise as Americans For Prosperity tent falls outside Capitol". Booth Newspapers. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- "Michigan legislators defy unions, OK right-to-work". Fox News. Associated Press. December 7, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Montopoli, Brian (December 10, 2012). "Obama takes on union fight in Michigan". CBS News. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Riley, Theresa (December 11, 2012). "How Michigan’s Right-To-Work Law Came to Be". Moyers & Company (Public Affairs Television). Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- Montopoli, Brian (December 11, 2012). "Right-to-work signed into law in Michigan". CBS News. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Oosting, Jonathan (November 1, 2014). "Michigan Political Points: Americans for Prosperity touts common ground with Gov. Rick Snyder". Booth Newspapers. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Boorstin, Julia (November 8, 2011). "Record Political Ad Spending Powered by Special Interests". CNBC. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Parker, Ashley (July 27, 2014). "Outside Money Drives a Deluge of Political Ads". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Barker, Kim (August 13, 2012). "Two Dark Money Groups Outspending All Super PACs Combined". ProPublica. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
Two conservative nonprofits, Crossroads GPS and Americans for Prosperity, have poured almost $60 million into TV ads to influence the presidential race so far, outgunning all super PACs put together, new spending estimates show.
- Mason, Melanie (August 7, 2012). "By urging Obama's defeat, Koch group keeps donors hidden". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
- Gold, Matea (August 24, 2012). "Americans for Prosperity steps up campaign against Obama". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
- Ashkenas, Jeremy; Ericson, Matthew; Parlapiano, Alicia; Willis, Derek (2012). "Non-profit: Americans for Prosperity". The New York Times.
- Schouten, Fredreka (August 23, 2012). "Koch brothers' non-profit hits the ground in swing states". USA Today. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Bathon, Michael (October 17, 2012). "Solyndra Lenders Ahead of Government Won't Recover Fully". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- Mullins, Brody (January 14, 2012). "Americans for Prosperity to Air Ads Slamming Obama's Ties to Solyndra". Washington Wire (The Wall Street Journal). Retrieved July 22, 2015.
One of the largest of these independent conservative groups, an organization called Americans for Prosperity, will launch next week what is perhaps the biggest attack on Mr. Obama so far in the 2012 election campaign. Beginning Monday, Americans for Prosperity will air ads criticizing the president’s handling of Solyndra, the solar-energy firm that went bankrupt after receiving grants from the government.
- Richert, Catharine (September 25, 2012). "Wealthy outside political groups find a home in Minnesota". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- O'Connor, Emma (October 9, 2012). "Pay Like It’s 2009! Illinois Gas Station Offers Pre-Obama Gas Prices; The nationwide "Obama’s Failing Agenda Tour" is offering drivers cheap 2009 gas prices to protest the President's energy policies". Time. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Farnam, T. W. (October 1, 2012). "Americans for Prosperity puts big money on legislative races in Arkansas". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Holland, Steve (April 29, 2011). "Republicans jockey for position in New Hampshire". Reuters.
- O'Brien, Michael (May 2, 2011). "Romney will sit out first Republican presidential debate". The Hill (newspaper). Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Mencimer, Stephanie (January 30, 2012). "Koch-Funded Group Paying Tea Partiers to Collect Voters' Personal Info". Mother Jones. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Vogel, Kenneth P. (October 10, 2011). "Karl Rove vs. the Koch brothers". Politico. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Fish, Sandra (August 12, 2014). "Americans for Prosperity: Koch brothers’ advocacy gets local in Colorado". Al Jazeera. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
AFP — and the Kochs — are strong supporters of oil and gas development and strong opponents of regulation, especially environmental restrictions.
- Dennison, Mike (May 30, 2009). "Montana Republicans join fight against Obama health care reforms". Missoulian (Missoula, Montana). p. A1.
- Dryzek, John S.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Schlosberg, David (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society. Oxford University Press. p. 154. ISBN 9780199683420.
- Holmberg, Eric; Fernandez Campbell, Alexia (July 1, 2013). "Koch: Climate pledge strategy continues to grow". Investigative Reporting Workshop,. American University School of Communication. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Buchwalter, Ben; Gloudeman, Nikki (August 19, 2009). "Town Hall Protests: Astroturf 2.0?". Mother Jones. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Rothschild, Scott (July 22, 2008). "Group against taxes seeks pledges from candidates". Lawrence Journal-World (Lawrence, Kansas). Retrieved May 18, 2015.
- Mayer, Jane (July 1, 2007). "Koch Pledge Tied to Congressional Climate Inaction". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Andrew Ross, Bird on Fire: Lessons From the World's Least Sustainable City (New York: Oxford University Press: 2011), page 152)
- Broder, John M. (October 20, 2010). "Climate Change Doubt Is Tea Party Article of Faith". New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Parenti, Christian (April 15, 2010). "The Case for EPA Action". The Nation. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Bartels, Lynn (August 24, 2011). "Big Oil drama returns to Colorado; left, right argue about energy and Grandma". The Denver Post. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- Smith, Ben (June 6, 2011). "Right aims to pin pump pain on W.H.". Politico. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- "Political Stunt Offers Gas at $1.84 Per Gallon". NBC News. October 16, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- Allen, Jeremy (October 1, 2012). "Hundreds line up for $1.84 gas at Mt. Morris Township gas station as part of political attention-getter". Booth Newspapers. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Allen, Jeremy. "Americans for Prosperity directors say $1.84 gas 'was a successful event,' more planned". Booth Newspapers. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Davenport, Coral (December 5, 2013). "Large Companies Prepared to Pay Price on Carbon". The New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- Barron-Lopez, Laura (February 13, 2015). "Americans for Prosperity launch push for White House to sign Keystone bill". The Hill. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- Katz, Jonathan M. (September 19, 2014). "A Kansas twister: Wind energy politics complicate governor’s race". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- Hamburger, Tom (December 8, 2014). "Conservative groups seek limits during lame duck on wind energy subsidies". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
- Halper, Evan (April 14, 2014). "Koch brothers, big utilities attack solar, green energy policies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Niquette, Mark (May 20, 2014). "Ohio Poised to Break From U.S. Push for Renewable Energy". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Gallucci, Maria (May 6, 2015). "Renewable Energy: Kansas Gov Brownback Pushes Plan To Weaken State Mandate; Texas, North Carolina Advance Similar Bills". International Business Times. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Tracy, Ryan (July 17, 2013). "Green-Energy Mandates Find Improbable Allies". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Davenport, Coral (October 30, 2014). "Why Republicans Keep Telling Everyone They're Not Scientists". New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
- Lazarus, David (2009-08-09). "Healthcare debate framed by fear-mongering ads". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-10-21.
- Marlowe, Lara (November 12, 2011). "The billionaire brothers bankrolling the get-Obama-out campaign". The Irish Times (Dublin, Ireland). Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- Eggen, Dan (August 31, 2009). "Bus Tour, Campaign-Style Events to Promote Health-Care Reform". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- "Group protests Obama's push for health care reform". Time Warner Cable News. July 22, 2009. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- "Americans for Prosperity protest the President's health care plan". Wilmington, North Carolina: WECT. August 7, 2009.
- Phillips, Tim (February 29, 2012). "President Obama's health care law is unraveling". The Daily Caller. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (October 18, 2013). "States Are Focus of Effort to Foil Health Care Law". New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- Dionne Jr., E.J. (March 23, 2014). "The next health-care debate". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Sargent, Greg (March 21, 2014). "The real goal of all those anti-Obamacare ads". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Pear, Robert (March 9, 2012). "White House Works to Shape Debate Over Health Law". New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- Bland, Scott (March 15, 2015). "Americans for Prosperity President: GOP Budget Could 'Blow Their Majority Up'". National Journal. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- Schouten, Fredreka (September 19, 2013). "Koch-backed group launches new attack on health care law". USA Today. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Hulse, Carl (January 15, 2014). "Ads Attacking Health Law Stagger Outspent Democrats". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Reston, Maeve (May 20, 2014). "$10-million ad campaign joins 'avalanche' of anti-Obamacare ads". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Woods, Ashley (February 20, 2014). "Obamacare Attack Ad May Actually Expose Obamacare Success Story". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- "New AFP ad: ObamaCare victim Not Backing Down from Shameful Peters Tactics". Americans for Prosperity. March 4, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Beckel, Michael (September 4, 2014). "GOP’s Senate hopes energized by Koch network ad blitz". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Reston, Maeve (October 25, 2014). "In key election states, conservative groups build a ground game". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- "Dark Money Spending Three Times More Than at Same Time in 2012 Cycle, CRP Testifies". Center for Responsive Politics. April 30, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
- Wyatt, Edward (April 6, 2010). "US court curbs FCC authority on Web traffic". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- "‘No Stimulus’ Petition Illustrates Public Anger Over Plan". The Wall Street Journal. February 9, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Weiner, Rachel (March 13, 2009). "Americans For Prosperity: "No Stimulus" Petition Circulated". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Kerpen, Phil; Berkland, Adam (December 5, 2011). "It's Time for Congress to Stop Paying People Not to Work". Fox News. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Given, Casey (December 10, 2013). "The Economic Follies of Extending Unemployment Insurance". Americans for Prosperity. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Klein, Naomi (2014). This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-9738-4.
- Fang, Lee (December 22, 2012). "David Koch Now Taking Aim at Hurricane Sandy Victims". The Nation. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- "Americans for Prosperity NJ Director Disagrees with $60B Sandy Aid, Changes to Gun Control Laws". NJTV. December 17, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- Mack, Kristen (March 14, 2007). "Smoking ban debate renewed in Texas House". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Kumar, Anita (February 5, 2009). "Legislators Targeted On Smoking Ban". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Emerling, Gary (March 2, 2009). "Smoking ban battle could flare anew". The Washington Times. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Kavoussi, Bonnie (March 4, 2013). "Americans For Prosperity: Sequestration Will Help Economy". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Phillips, Tim (February 28, 2013). "Sequestration will restore balance: Opposing view". USA Today. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Farnam, T.W. (February 14, 2013). "Americans for Prosperity campaigns to let the sequester take effect in March". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Gold, Matea (February 28, 2013). "Conservative groups urge GOP to let budget cuts go forward". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Matthews, Laura (December 12, 2013). "House Passes Bipartisan Budget Deal". International Business Times. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- Burlij, Terence (December 11, 2013). "Budget deal breaks through partisan gridlock". PBS NewsHour (PBS).
- "All Taxpayers Pay When Politicians Raise Tobacco Taxes for Bigger Government, Says Americans for Prosperity". KOTV-DT. November 17, 2006. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- North, John (May 11, 2012). "Proposition 29 could raise $735M; Opponents question fund use". Sacramento, California. ABC News. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Dolan, Kerry A. (June 5, 2012). "Billionaires (Including Mike Bloomberg) Vs. Big Tobacco In California Ballot Measure To Boost Cigarette Tax". Forbes. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Carroll, Rory (June 4, 2012). "Tobacco companies blitz airwaves to block California tax on cigarettes". The Guardian. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Smith, Brandon (March 7, 2013). "Tea Party Group Advocating For Pence Tax Cut". WTIU. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- Harbin Hanson, Christine (August 8, 2014). "The House should vote to kill the death tax". The Hill. Americans for Prosperity. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
- White, Joseph B. (October 10, 2011). "Is Span Plan a Bridge Too Far?". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Christoff, Chris (September 16, 2011). "Detroit Span Owner Keeps Canada Crossing With Koch Aid". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
- Nocera, Joe (July 14, 2014). "Helping Big Companies Compete". The New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- Eric Bradner. "2014's sleeper issue: A bank nobody's heard of". POLITICO.
- Phillips, Tim (June 15, 2014). "End Corporate Welfare? Start With the Ex-Im Bank". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- Weisman, Jonathan (March 9, 2015). "Tea Party Divided by Export-Import Bank". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2015.
- McCrummen, Stephanie (January 12, 2011). "Republican school board in N.C. backed by tea party abolishes integration policy". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- Kroll, Andy (August 15, 2011). "How the Koch Brothers Backed Public-School Segregation". Mother Jones. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- Sturgis, Sue (August 17, 2011). "Americans for Prosperity wants to revise history of role in N.C. school re-segregation fight". Institute for Southern Studies. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- Mayer, Jane (October 10, 2011). "State for Sale". The New Yorker. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- Fang, Lee (November 16, 2011). "How Online Learning Companies Bought America's Schools". The Nation. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- John Letzing. "Net neutrality under fire from conservative group". MarketWatch.
- "RELEASE: Internet Freedom Coalition Opposes the Left’s Campaign to Regulate the Internet". Internet Freedom Coalition. April 26, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- "Coalition Members". Internet Freedom Coalition. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Jones, Kuper (January 22, 2014). "Net Neutrality Court Ruling". Americans for Prosperity. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- Byers, Alex (May 16, 2014). "What happens next on net neutrality". Politico. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- Dry, Rachel (October 1, 2007). "An insider's guide to the upcoming week". The Washington Post. p. A.2.
It's the first "Defending the American Dream Summit," put on by the Americans for Prosperity Foundation, and Mitt Romney, Rudy Giuliani, John McCain, Fred Thompson, Sam Brownback and Ron Paul are to speak.
- Parker, Ashley (January 20, 2015). "‘Koch Primary’ Tests Hopefuls In the G.O.P.". New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Vargas, Jose Antonio (July 18, 2008). "In Texas, the Right Boots Up to Gain Strength Online". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 17, 2009.
- Schatz, Amy (July 18, 2008). "In Online Politicking, Republicans Play Catch-Up". The Wall Street Journal.
- Dupuy, Tina (June 18, 2011). "Conservative Fun with Andrew Breitbart et al. at Right Online". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- Gallagher, John (June 7, 2011). "Conservative group: Fake eviction notices were 'meant to startle people'". Detroit Free Press (Gannett). Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- Catanese, David (2011-08-01). "AFP Wisconsin ballots have late return date". Politico. Retrieved 2012-05-03.
- Opoien, Jessica (August 2, 2011). "Unofficial absentee ballot mailings raise voter intimidation issues in Wisconsin recall elections". Isthmus. Madison, Wisconsin. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- Sargent, Greg (August 5, 2011). "Americans for Prosperity sent misleading absentee ballot far more widely than previously known". Washington Post. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- Catanese, David (August 2, 2011). "Americans for Prosperity: Wrong date a 'printing mistake'". Politico. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Roth, Zachary (September 29, 2014). "Koch group investigated for faulty mailers". MSNBC. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- McConnell, Jim (November 20, 2013). "Voter-shaming tactics spark angry backlash". Chesterfield Observer (Chesterfield County, Virginia). Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Monfort, Ashley (November 8, 2013). "Public voter report card upsets eastern Henrico neighborhood". Richmond, Virginia: NBC. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Casey, Dan (November 6, 2013). "Voting effort could border on bullying". The Roanoke Times (Roanoke, Virginia).
- Brantley, Max (October 22, 2014). "Koch group mailing a 'voter history report card'". Arkansas Times.
- "Cancer patient defends ObamaCare criticism after Dem goes after ad". Fox News. February 24, 2014.
- Kessler, Glenn (February 20, 2014). "A hard-hitting anti-Obamacare ad makes a claim that doesn’t add up". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- Schultz, Marisa (March 11, 2014). "Policy for patient in ad $1K cheaper". The Detroit News.
- Klug, Fritz (March 16, 2014). "Michigan Delegation: Julie Boonstra, star of Americans for Prosperity ad, to pay less after Affordable Care Act". MLive Media Group. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- Hulse, Carl (March 3, 2014). "Conservative Group Counters Criticism of Ad Against Health Law". New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- Whitaker, Morgan (April 23, 2014). "Conservative group under fire for latest anti-Obamacare ad". MSNBC. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- Nyden, Paul J. (April 22, 2014). "Voters getting misleading info from group, Tennant says". The Charleston Gazette. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Albright, Amanda (September 25, 2014). "NC residents mailed incorrect voter registration information". The News & Observer (Raleigh, North Carolina). Retrieved March 22, 2015.
- Bonner, Lynn (September 29, 2014). "NC elections board investigating AFP's error-filled mailer to voters". The News & Observer (Raleigh, North Carolina). Retrieved March 22, 2015.
- Albright, Amanda (September 26, 2014). "AFP says administrative errors behind mistakes in voter registration forms". The News & Observer (Raleigh, North Carolina). Retrieved March 22, 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Americans for Prosperity.|
- Americans for Prosperity website
- Americans for Prosperity Foundation website
- Tax information on Americans for Prosperity, Pro Publica
- Tax information on Americans for Prosperity Foundation, Pro Publica
- Nicholas Confessore, "Rand Paul and Wealthy Libertarians Connect as He Weighs Running," The New York Times, April 24, 2014 (profile article on [[Frayda Levin)]