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Temporal range:
Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous to Holocene 149.5–0 Ma or 120–0 Ma[1][2][3]
Archelon ischyros
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Cryptodira
Clade: Americhelydia
Crawford et al., 2014

Americhelydia is a clade of turtles that consists of sea turtles, snapping turtles, the Central American river turtle and mud turtles, supported by several lines of molecular work.[4][5][6] Prior to these studies some morphological and developmental work have considered sea turtles to be basal members of Cryptodira and kinosternids related to the trionychians in the clade Trionychoidea.[7][8] Americhelydia and Testudinoidea, both clades within Durocryptodira (hardshell turtles), split a part during the early Creataceous.[9][10]


  1. ^ Joyce, W. G., Parham, J. F., Lyson, T. R., Warnock, R. C., & Donoghue, P. C. (2013). A divergence dating analysis of turtles using fossil calibrations: an example of best practices. Journal of Paleontology, 87(04), 612-634.
  2. ^ "Protostegidae". The Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  3. ^ Edwin A. Cadena and James F. Parham (2015). "Oldest known marine turtle? A new protostegid from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia". PaleoBios. 32 (1): 1–42.
  4. ^ Chandler, C. H., & Janzen, F. J. (2009). The phylogenetic position of the snapping turtles (Chelydridae) based on nucleotide sequence data. Copeia, 2009(2), 209-213.
  5. ^ Barley, A. J., Spinks, P. Q., Thomson, R. C., & Shaffer, H. B. (2010). Fourteen nuclear genes provide phylogenetic resolution for difficult nodes in the turtle tree of life. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55(3), 1189-1194.
  6. ^ Crawford, N. G., Parham, J. F., Sellas, A. B., Faircloth, B. C., Glenn, T. C., Papenfuss, T. J., ... & Simison, W. B. (2015). A phylogenomic analysis of turtles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 83, 250-257.
  7. ^ Joyce, W. G. (2007). Phylogenetic relationships of Mesozoic turtles. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 48(1), 3-102.
  8. ^ Werneburg, I., & Sánchez-Villagra, M. R. (2009). Timing of organogenesis support basal position of turtles in the amniote tree of life. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9(1), 82.
  9. ^ Pereira, Anieli G.; Sterli, Juliana; Moreira, Filipe R.R.; Schrago, Carlos G. (August 2017). "Multilocus phylogeny and statistical biogeography clarify the evolutionary history of major lineages of turtles". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 113: 59–66. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2017.05.008. ISSN 1055-7903.
  10. ^ Joyce, Walter G.; Rabi, Márton; Clark, James M.; Xu, Xing (2016-10-28). "A toothed turtle from the Late Jurassic of China and the global biogeographic history of turtles". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 16 (1). doi:10.1186/s12862-016-0762-5. ISSN 1471-2148.