Cottages in Amesbury
|Population||10,724 (in 2011)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Fire||Dorset and Wiltshire|
Amesbury (//) is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, England. It is most famous for the prehistoric monument of Stonehenge which is in its parish, and for the discovery of the Amesbury Archer – dubbed the King of Stonehenge in the press – in 2002. It has been confirmed by archaeologists that it is the oldest occupied settlement in Great Britain, having been first settled around 8820 BC.
The parish includes the hamlets of Ratfyn and West Amesbury, and most of Boscombe Down military airfield.
Amesbury is located in southern Wiltshire, 7 miles (11 km) north-northeast of Salisbury on the A345. It sits in the River Avon valley on the southern fringes of Salisbury Plain and has historically been considered an important river crossing area on the road from London to Warminster and Exeter. This has continued into the present with the building of the A303 across the Avon next to the town. Originally the town developed around the water meadows next to several bends in the river, but in time has spread onto the valley hillsides and absorbed part of the military airfield at Boscombe Down.
|Climate data for Boscombe Down 126m amsl (1991–2020)|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.1
|Average low °C (°F)||2.2
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||92.3
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||14.6||12.3||11.1||8.5||9.5||7.0||6.4||10.1||9.1||12.9||14.0||13.6||129.1|
Ancient and medieval history
The land around Amesbury has been settled since prehistoric times, evidenced by the monument of Stonehenge. Other finds in the parish point to large-scale prehistoric structures and settlements in the whole area, including Bluestonehenge at West Amesbury, the numerous other monuments around Stonehenge, the discovery of a Neolithic village in the neighbouring parish of Durrington by the Stonehenge Riverside Project, and continuing excavations at Boscombe Down where Wessex Archaeology found the Amesbury Archer and Boscombe Bowmen. They are now on display at Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum. Amesbury is recognized as the oldest continuously occupied UK settlement.
During the Iron Age a large hill fort now known as Vespasian's Camp was built alongside the Avenue and overlooking the River Avon. The fort could easily have catered for up to 1000 people, and was probably surrounded by smaller settlements and farming communities.
Roman remains are poorly documented at Amesbury, but excavations have revealed Roman structures in the Stonehenge landscape, and Wessex Archaeology have discovered a large Roman graveyard in the area of the Amesbury Archer burial. It is likely that there was a large Romano-British settlement overlooking the River Avon at this point.
It has been suggested that the name of Amesbury is derived from Ambrosius Aurelianus, leader of Romano-British resistance to Saxon invasions in the 5th century. If this is the case he is likely to have used the hill fort as a stronghold. It is possible that an order of monks established a monastery in the area that was destroyed by the Saxons before they settled the area in the 7th century. Amesbury is also associated with the Arthurian legend: the convent to which Guinevere retired was said to have been the one at Amesbury.
In 979 AD a Benedictine abbey, the Abbey of St Mary and St Melor, was founded on what may have been the site of a previous monastery by Dowager Queen Ælfthryth. In 1177 the abbey was dissolved by Henry II and replaced with a double priory of the Fontevraud order. Eleanor of Provence was buried in the priory on 11 September 1291. At some point in time it seems likely that the church became the parish church, and it is possible that this is why it was spared destruction in 1540 when, as part of the reformation, the priory and all other associated buildings were destroyed.
After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Amesbury became a secular estate and was given to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford by the Crown. The Seymour family held Amesbury estate until 1675 and had several grand homes built, including Kent and Diana houses, and a new mansion in 1660. It was designed for Lord Hertford (d. 1660) by John Webb in neo-classical style.
The estate subsequently passed to the Bruce family, and then to Lord Carleton, who bequeathed it to his nephew Charles Douglas, 3rd Duke of Queensberry. The grounds include a Chinese summer house commissioned by the Duke of Queensbury, and designed by Sir William Chambers. The estate remained in the Queensberry family until 1824. It is believed that at some point in the early 19th century, William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry planted the Nile Clumps to commemorate Admiral Nelson, and had the hill-fort landscaped as part of the grounds around the mansion.
In 1824 the Antrobus family acquired the estate and it remained in their hands until 1915 when, after the last heir was killed in France, Lord Antrobus sold the grounds – including Stonehenge – to private bidders. The mansion remained in their hands until 1979. The mansion is now operating as a nursing home. 
In 1677, John Rose, gentleman, founded two schools at Amesbury, a grammar school for teaching grammar, writing, and ciphering to twenty children born in the parish, and an "English school" to prepare twenty children of poor parents for the grammar school. By a decree in Chancery of 1831, the freedom of the grammar school was extended to children of "mechanics, artisans, and small tradesmen". The grammar school was closed in 1899, and the children were transferred to a National School.
With the establishment of the military Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment at Boscombe Down in 1939, Amesbury began to expand. As it sits on the A303 commuter belt, Amesbury has seen substantial developments on the land between the old town centre and Boscombe Down. Several new housing estates have been completed, and the most recent one – Archers Gate – has taken its name from the discovery of the Amesbury Archer. At the Boscombe Down junction of the A303 a new mixed business development known as Solstice Park has been built and plans have been submitted for a Regional Distribution Centre for a major retailer.
On 30 June 2018, two British nationals were poisoned using Novichok nerve agents before being found unconscious at a property in Amesbury. The poisonings are currently under further investigation. Almost four months prior to the Amesbury attack, the same nerve agents were used in the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in nearby Salisbury.
At the 2011 Census the population of the civil parish was 10,724. For the Amesbury Community Area the mid-2011 population was estimated to be 33,660 (this is a wide area stretching to Tilshead, Larkhill and Figheldean in the north; Cholderton in the east; the Winterbournes, the Woodfords and Great Wishford in the south; and Wylye in the west).
Amesbury is 6 miles (10 km) from the nearest station at Grateley on the London to Salisbury line. The town's own station, Amesbury railway station, was closed in 1963 along with the rest of the Bulford Camp Railway.
Amesbury Bus Station closed in January 2014 along with the station in nearby Salisbury as a cost-cutting measure, but Salisbury Reds services still stop in the town. Stagecoach and Salisbury Reds jointly operate a frequent Salisbury-Amesbury-Tidworth-Andover service, and National Express provide a service to London. Salisbury Reds also operate the X4 Salisbury-Amesbury-Larkhill and the X5 Salisbury-Amesbury-Swindon.
Amesbury Methodist Church was built in 1900, replacing an 1816 chapel. Christ the King Catholic church opened in 1985, replacing a 1933 building on a different site. Amesbury Baptist Church was built in 1997.
The mansion known as Amesbury Abbey is Grade I listed. It was built in 1834–1840 by architect Thomas Hopper for Sir Edmund Antrobus and replaced a house built in 1661 by John Webb for the 2nd Duke of Somerset.
Amesbury has a secondary school – The Stonehenge School – and four primary schools:
- Amesbury Archer Primary School
- Amesbury Church of England Voluntary Controlled Primary School
- Christ The King Catholic Primary School
- King's Gate Primary School
Sport and leisure
In popular culture
Although Stonehenge falls within the parish of Amesbury, the town does not directly benefit from the monument's fame. However, Amesbury has appeared in the public eye on its own merits in the past.
In 2002, the discovery of the richest Bronze Age burial site yet found in Britain was made at Amesbury. The remains of two men of apparently aristocratic rank were accompanied by over 100 objects including arrowheads, copper knives and the earliest worked gold in the country. The occupant of the more richly furnished grave has become known as the "Amesbury Archer".
The town is linked to the Arthurian legend as it is popularly believed that Guinevere retired to the original convent at Amesbury after leaving Arthur. Legend holds that she is buried in the grounds of the former Abbey.
From 3–5 May 1965, The Beatles stayed at The Antrobus Hotel during the filming of Help! on Salisbury Plain. The Antrobus Hotel and the former Plaza Cinema were both used as locations for the filming of a BBC Miss Marple mystery.
- Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites
- William Carpenter (Rhode Island colonist) – An Amesbury resident who settled in America in the 1630s.
- "Wiltshire Community History - Census". Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Brown, Mark (1 May 2014). "Britain's oldest settlement is Amesbury not Thatcham, say scientists". Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Chandler & Goodhugh, p. 1
- "Boscombe Down Climate Period: 1991–2020". Meteoclimat. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
- Wessex Archaeology The Amesbury Archer: Background Archived 15 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "Amesbury in Wiltshire confirmed as oldest UK settlement". BBC News. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- Chandler & Goodhugh, p. 3
- "Wessex Archaeology: Boscombe Down Graves". Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2008.
- "Wessex Archaeology: Boscombe Down Settlement". Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2008.
- Applebaum, Shimon (1983). "A note on Ambrosius Aurelianus". Britannia. 14: 245–246. doi:10.2307/526352.
- Elfinspell: Amesbury Monastery
- Chandler & Goodhugh, p. 16
- British History Online: Houses of Benedictine nuns: Amesbury
- Wiltshire County Council – Church Information
- Catholic Encyclopaedia: Order and Abbey of Fontevrault
- Chandler & Goodhugh, p. 24
- Wiltshire County Council – Community History
- "Our heritage". Amesbury Abbey Group.
- "Amesbury – Rose's Schools" in Public Charities: Analytical digest of the Reports made by the Commissioners of inquiry into charities. Digest of schools and charities for education (W. Clowes & Son, 1842), p. 127
- Wiltshire Community History Timeline for Date 1899 at wiltshire.gov.uk, accessed 14 July 2016
- Amesbury Town Council Minutes Archived 18 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Amesbury Novichok poisoning: Couple exposed to nerve agent". BBC News. 5 July 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
- "Amesbury Community Area - Census / Population". Joint Strategic Assessments for Wiltshire. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 30 August 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "Amesbury Community Area". Joint Strategic Assessments for Wiltshire. Wiltshire Council. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "Welcome Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine." Avient. Retrieved on 8 August 2011. "With head office in Harare, Zimbabwe, Avient has two further offices; one in continental Europe and the other in the United Kingdom."
- "Contact Us Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine." (Direct link to frame Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine) Avient Aviation. Retrieved on 8 August 2011. "UNITED KINGDOM Units 6 & 7, Minton Distribution Park, London Road, Amesbury, Wiltshire, SP4 7RT. United Kingdom"
- "Salisbury and Amesbury bus stations to close". BBC News: Wiltshire. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "8 Bus Route & Timetable: Salisbury - Andover". Stagecoach. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- Historic England. "Church of St Mary and St Melor, Amesbury (1182066)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "Church of St. Mary and St. Melor, Amesbury". Wiltshire Community History. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "Upper Avon Methodist Church, Amesbury". Wiltshire Community History. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "Amesbury Methodist Church". Salisbury Methodist Circuit. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "Christ the King Roman Catholic Church, Amesbury". Wiltshire Community History. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "Christ the King". Archived from the original on 23 August 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "Amesbury Baptist Centre". Wiltshire Community History. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "Amesbury Baptist Church". Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Historic England. "Amesbury Abbey (1131079)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Historic England. "Diana's House (1131053)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Historic England. "Kent House (1131093)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Historic England. "West Amesbury House (1318515)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "King's Gate Primary School". Retrieved 18 December 2020.
- Young, Christopher; Chadburn, Amanda; Bedu, Isabelle (July 2008). "Stonehenge World Heritage Site Management Plan". UNESCO: 62.
- Time Travel Britain: Amesbury
- "The Antrobus Hotel". Archived from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- Chandler, John and Goodhugh, Peter (1989) Amesbury: history and description of a south Wiltshire town. Amesbury Society ISBN 0-9506643-2-4
- Crowley, D. A.; Pugh and Stevenson (2003) A History of Amesbury, Bulford and Durrington. ISBN 0-86080-444-5
- Crowley, D. A. (ed.) (1995) Victoria County History - Wiltshire; vol. 15: Amesbury Hundred, Branch and Dole Hundred. Oxford: Oxford University Press
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