enzymology, an amidase ( EC 18.104.22.168, acylamidase, acylase (misleading), amidohydrolase (ambiguous), deaminase (ambiguous), fatty acylamidase, N-acetylaminohydrolase (ambiguous)) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an amide:
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are monocarboxylic acid amide and H, whereas its two 2O products are monocarboxylate and NH. 3
This enzyme belongs to the family of
hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in linear amides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acylamide amidohydrolase. Other names in common use include acylamidase, acylase, amidohydrolase, deaminase, fatty acylamidase, and N-acetylaminohydrolase. This enzyme participates in 6 metabolic pathways: urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups, phenylalanine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, cyanoamino acid metabolism, benzoate degradation via coa ligation, and styrene degradation.
Amidases contain a
conserved stretch of approximately 130 amino acids known as the AS sequence. They are widespread, being found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. AS enzymes catalyse the hydrolysis of amide bonds (CO-NH2), although the family has diverged widely with regard to substrate specificity and function. Nonetheless, these enzymes maintain a core alpha/beta/alpha structure, where the topologies of the N- and C-terminal halves are similar. AS enzymes characteristically have a highly conserved C-terminal region rich in serine and glycine residues, but devoid of aspartic acid and histidine residues, therefore they differ from classical serine hydrolases. These enzymes possess a unique, highly conserved Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad used for amide hydrolysis, although the catalytic mechanism for acyl-enzyme intermediate formation can differ between enzymes. [1 ]
Examples of AS signature-containing enzymes include:
Subunit A of Glu-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase,
a [4 ] heterotrimeric enzyme that catalyses the formation of Gln-tRNA(Gln) by the transamidation of misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln) via amidolysis of glutamine.
Structural studies [ edit ]
As of late 2007, two
structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 2PLQ and 2UXY.
References [ edit ]
^ a b ValiÃ±a AL, Mazumder-Shivakumar D, Bruice TC (December 2004). "Probing the Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad mechanism of peptide amidase: computational studies of the ground state, transition state, and intermediate". Biochemistry 43 (50): 15657–72. doi: 10.1021/bi049025r. PMID 15595822.
^ Wei BQ, Mikkelsen TS, McKinney MK, Lander ES, Cravatt BF (December 2006). "A second fatty acid amide hydrolase with variable distribution among placental mammals". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (48): 36569–78. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M606646200. PMID 17015445.
^ Shin S, Lee TH, Ha NC, Koo HM, Kim SY, Lee HS, Kim YS, Oh BH (June 2002). "Structure of malonamidase E2 reveals a novelSer-cisSer-Lys catalytic triad in a new serine hydrolase fold that is prevalent in nature". EMBO J. 21 (11): 2509–16. doi: 10.1093/emboj/21.11.2509. PMC 126024. PMID 12032064.
^ Kwak JH, Shin K, Woo JS, Kim MK, Kim SI, Eom SH, Hong KW (December 2002). "Expression, purification, and crystallization of glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) specific amidotransferase from Bacillus stearothermophilus". Mol. Cells 14 (3): 374–81. PMID 12521300.
Further reading [ edit ]
Bray HG, James SP, Raffan IM, Ryman BE and Thorpe WV (1949). "The fate of certain organic acids and amides in the rabbit. 7. An amidase of rabbit liver". Biochem. J. 44: 618–625.
Bray HG, James SP, Thorpe WV and Wasdell MR (1950). "The fate of certain organic acids and amides in the rabbit. 11 Further observations on the hydrolysis of amides by tissue extracts". Biochem. J. 47: 294–299.
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR000120