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Amination is the process by which an amine group is introduced into an organic molecule. This type of reaction is important because organonitrogen compounds are pervasive.

Amination reactions[edit]

Enzymes that catalyse this reaction are termed aminases. Amination can occur in a number of ways including reaction with ammonia or another amine such as an alkylation, reductive amination and the Mannich reaction. For example, -COOH --> -CONH2.

Many alkyl amines are produced industrially by the amination of alcohols using ammonia in the presence of acid catalysts.[1]

In electrophilic amination, the amine as the nucleophile react with another the organic compound as the electrophile. This sense of reactivity may be reversed for some electron-deficient amines, including oxaziridines, hydroxylamines, oximes, and other N–O substrates. When the amine is used as an electrophile, the reaction is called electrophilic amination. Electron-rich organic substrates that may be used as nucleophiles for this process include carbanions and enolates.

In hydroamination, amines add to alkenes.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Karsten Eller, Erhard Henkes, Roland Rossbacher, Hartmut Höke "Amines, Aliphatic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_001
  2. ^ Liangbin Huang, Matthias Arndt, Käthe Gooßen, Heinrich Heydt, and Lukas J. Gooßen "Late Transition Metal-Catalyzed Hydroamination and Hydroamidation" Chem. Rev., 2015, 115 (7), pp 2596–2697. doi:10.1021/cr300389u