Structurally, local anesthetics consist of three molecular components:
The chemical linkage between the lipophilic part and the intermediate chain can be of the amide-type or the ester-type, and is the general basis for the current classification of local anesthetics.
Amino esters, in reference to anesthetic agents, are rapidly metabolized in the plasma by butyrlcholinesterase to para-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, then excreted in the urine. This suggests their very short half lives. Allergy is more likely to occur with ester-type agents, as opposed to amide-type.
Amino ester-type include:
- University of Texas Med School, Pharmacology Syllabus.
- Katzung. 10th edition. Chapter 26.
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