Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi
General A. A. Niazi.jpg
Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (1915-2004)
Governor of East Pakistan
In office
14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971
President Yahya Khan
Prime Minister Nurul Amin
Preceded by Abdul Motaleb Malik
Succeeded by Office disestablished
Commander of Eastern Command
In office
4 April 1971 – 16 December 1971
Lieutenant Rear-Admiral Mohammad Shariff
Preceded by Lt.Gen Tikka Khan
Succeeded by Chief of Army Staff of Bangladesh Army
Personal details
Born Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi
1915
Mianwali, Punjab, British India
(Present-day Pakistan)
Died 1 February 2004
(aged 89 or 90)
Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Resting place Military Graveyard in Lahore
Citizenship  Pakistan 1947–2004
British Raj British India (1915-1947)
Alma mater Indian Military Academy
Command and Staff College
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s) Tiger
Jackal of Bengal
(In Pakistan)[1]
Service/branch  Pakistan Army (1947–71)
British Raj Red Ensign.svg British Indian Army (1937–47)
Years of service 1937–71
Rank US-O9 insignia.svg OF-8 PakistanArmy.svg Lieutenant-General (S/No. PA-477)
(stripped of his rank)
Unit 4/7 Rajput Regiment
Commands GOC 10th Infantry Division
GOC 8th Infantry Division
4th Para Brigade
Battles/wars

World War II

Indo-Pakistani war of 1965
Bangladesh Liberation War
Awards Military Cross.jpg Military cross BAR.svg Military Cross
Official Army Release of the Hilal-i-Ju'rat.jpg Hilal-Jurat Ribbon.gif Hilal-i-Jurat (withdrawn)

Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004), MC, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi, was a former three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan known for commanding the Eastern Command of Pakistan military in East Pakistan during the third war with India until surrendering on 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army.[2]

Niazi had the area responsibility of defending the borders of East Pakistan from India and held morally responsible by authors and critics within Pakistan's military for having surrendering the Eastern Command, consisting of ~93,000–95,000 men, to the Indian Army when the preparations underwent to lay siege on Dacca.:109–110[3]:170[4] Thus ending the liberation struggle led by the Bengali Mukti Bahini which also ended the war with India amid a unilateral ceasefire called by Pakistan in 1971.:2475[5]

After taken and held as war prisoner by Indian Army, he was repatriated to Pakistan on 30 April 1975 and was dishonored from his military service after confessing at the War Enquiry Commission led by Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman.:620[6] The War Commission leveled accusations against him of violating the human rights, supervising the smuggling and intentional war rapes as well as held him morally responsible of strategic and military failure during the course of the war.[7][8][9] Niazi, however, rejected the base allegations and sought for a military court-martial while insisting that he had acted according to the orders of the Army High Command in Islamabad, but the court-martial was never granted.[8] After the war, he remained active in national politics and supported the ultra-conservative agenda under the conservative alliance against Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's government in 1970s.[2]

In 1999, he authored the "Betrayal of East Pakistan where he provided his "own version of the events of that fateful year."[10] On 1 Febrauary 2004, General Niazi passed away in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan and was laid to rest in military graveyard in Lahore.[11]

Biography[edit]

Early life and British Indian Army career[edit]

Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi was born in 1915 in a small village, Balo Khel, located on the east bank of the Indus River in Mianwali, Punjab, British India.:12[4] He hailed from a Punjabi Pathan family and was an ethnic Pathan who belonged to a Niazi tribe.[12][13] After educating from a local school in Mianwali, he joined the British Indian Army as an "Y cadet" in 1932 and selected for an emergency commission as he had passed out from the Officers Training School in Bangalore.:12[4]

He gained commissioned as 2nd Lt. in 1937 into the 4/7 Rajput Regiment which was then-part of the 161st Infantry Brigade led by the Brigadier D.F.W. Warren.:12[4]:230–231[14] Prior to the start of the World War II, his military commission was subjected to continuous change in the army and was only issued temporary service numbers by his British superiors.:12[4]

World War II and Burma campaigns[edit]

On 11 June 1942, Lt. Niazi was stationed in the Kekrim Hills located in regions of Assam-Manipur to participate in the Burma front.[12] That spring, he was part of the 14th Army of the British Army and the British Indian Army commanded by General Slim.[12]

During this period, the 14th Army had halted the offense against the Japanese Imperial Army at the Battle of Imphal and elsewhere in bitterly fought battles along the Burma front.[12] His valor of actions were commendable and General Slim described his gallantry in a lengthy report to General Headquarters, India, about his judgment of the best course of action.[12] They agreed on Niazi's skill in completely surprising the enemy, his leadership, coolness under fire, and his ability to change tactics, create diversions, extricate his wounded and withdraw his men.[12] At the Burmese front in 1944, Lt. Niazi impressed his superior officers when he commanded a platoon that initiated an offense against the Japanese Imperial Army at the Bauthi-Daung tunnels.[12]

Lt. Niazi's gallantry had impressed his British commanders in the GHQ India and they wanted to award him the Distinguished Service Order, but his rank was not high enough for such a decoration.[12] During the campaign, Brigadier D.F.W. Warren, commanding officer of the 161st Infantry Division of the British Army, gave Niazi the soubriquet "Tiger" for his part in a ferocious fight with the Japanese.[12] After the conflict, the British Government decorated Lt. Niazi with the Military Cross for leadership, judgement, quick thinking and calmness under pressure in action along the border with Burma.[12] On July 11, 1944, his military commission was confirmed as permanent and the new service number was issued as ICO-906.:12[4]

On 15 December 1944, Lord Wavell, Viceroy of India, flew to Imphal and knighted General Slim and his corps commanders Stopford, Scoones, and Christison in the presence of Lord Mountbatten.[15] Only two British Indian Army officers were chosen to be decorated at that ceremony— one was Lt. Niazi and the other was Major Sam Manekshaw of the Frontier Force Regiment.[15]

After the World War II in 1945, he was promoted as army captain and sent to attend the Command and Staff College in Quetta which he graduated with a staff course degree under then-Lt. Col. Yahya Khan.:12[4]

Staff and war appointments in Pakistan Army[edit]

In 1947, the United Kingdom announced their intention of partitioning the British India amid the failure of the cabinet mission in 1946. After the creation of Pakistan on August 1947, Major Niazi decided to opt for Pakistan and joined the newly established Pakistan Army where his S/No was redesigned as PA–477 by the Ministry of Defence of Pakistan.:12[4] He continued serving at the Command and Staff College in Quetta and briefly completed his tenure as an instructor.:24[16]

His career in the army progressed well and continue to climb up to the army grades 1950s as he was decorated with the Sitara-i-Khidmat (lit. Service Star) for his contribution and service with the army.[17] In 1960–64, he was promoted as Brigadier and offered discussion on infiltration tactics at the Command and Staff College.[14] Subsequently, he published an article on infiltration and promoted talks on military-supported local rebellion against the enemy.[14]

Brigadier Niazi went on to participate in the second war with India in 1965 as he went commanding the paratrooper brigade stationed in Sialkot.:2[18] Initially, he commanded the 5th Paratrooper of the Punjab Regiment directing military operations in Indian-held Kashmir but later assumed the command of armoured brigade in Sialkot sector where he gained public notability when he participated in the famous tank battle against the Indian Army which halted the Indian Army troop rotation.:6–7[19] His role in a tank battle led him to be decorated with the Hilal-e-Jurat by the President of Pakistan.:6–7[19]

His leadership credentials led him to be appointed martial law administrator of both Karachi and Lahore to maintain control of law in the cities of West Pakistan in 1966–67.[20] In 1968, he was promoted as Major-General and made GOC of the 8th Infantry Division, stationed in Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan.:89–90[21] In 1969, Major-General Niazi was made GOC of 10th Infantry Division, stationed in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.:91[21] In 1971, he was promoted to three-star assignment and promoted as Lieutenant-General, initially appointed Commander of the IV Corps in Lahore.:91[21]

East Pakistan[edit]

Eastern Command in 1971 war[edit]

General Niazi's strategy of defending the India-East Pakistan border by deploying the troops at the border.

Lieutenant-General Niazi volunteered for the transfer to East Pakistan when Lieutenant-General Bahadur Sher Khan declined to the post despite being appointed.[2] There were two more generals who had also refused their postings in East and General Niazi said "yes" without necessarily realizing the risks involved and how to counter them.[2]

After General Tikka Khan had initiated the military crackdown on March 1971, many general officers had declined to be stationed in East despite being appointed and Lieutenant-General Niazi arrived in Dhaka on 4 April 1971 to assume the Eastern Command from Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan.:xxx[22] Furthermore, the violent crackdown at the Dhaka University against the intellectuals had turned the East Pakistani people hostile towards the Pakistani military, which made it too tough for General Niazi to overcome the situation.:35–40[23] On April 10/11 1971, he headed a meeting of his senior commanders to assessed the situation but, according to the eye-witnesses, he used abusive language aimed at the Bengali rebels that surprised the attendees.:xxx[22] From May through August 1971, the Indian Army trained Mukti Bahini led series of counter guerrilla campaigns against the Eastern Command stationed, and General Niazi began taking countermeasures against the Bengali rebellions.:xxxi[24] By June 1971, he sent the reports on the rebellion and noted that 30,000 insurgents were hurriedly trained by India at the India-East Pakistan border.:xxxi[24] On August 1971, General Niazi formulated a plan to defend the borders from the advancing Indian Army based on a "fortress concept" which mean converting the border towns and villages into the stronghold.:108[25]

By September 1971, he was appointed martial law administrator in order to provide his support to Governor Dr. Abdul Motaleb Malik who appointed a civilian cabinet.:138–139[26] About the committed atrocities, General Niazi had reportedly told Major Siddique Salik, his military secretary, that "we will have to account every single rape and killing when back in (West) Pakistan. God never spares the Tyrant.":167[27]:content[28]

The Government of East Pakistan appointed General Niazi as GOC-in-C of the Eastern Command, and Major-General Rao Farman Ali as their military adviser for East Pakistan Rifles and East Pakistan Coast Guard.:138–139[26] On October 1971, he created and deployed 2 ad-hoc divisions to strengthened the defence of the East from further infiltration.:108[25]

On October 1971, Niazi lost contacts with the Army GHQ and was virtually independent of controlling the Eastern Command from the central government in Islamabad.:108[29] On November 1971, General Abdul Hamid Khan, the Chief of Staff, warned him of an eminent Indian attack on East advised him to redeploy the Eastern Command on a tactical and political base ground but this was not need implemented due to shortage of time.:303–304[30] In a public message, General Niazi was praised by Abdul Hamid Khan saying:"The whole nation is proud of you and you have their full support".:229[31]

No further orders and clarity was issued in regards to the orders as General Niazi had been caught unaware that the Indian Army planned out to launch a full assault on East Pakistan.:303[30] On 3 December 1971, the Pakistan Air Force launched the pre-emptive strikes on Indian Air Force bases that officially led to start of the third war with India.:304[30] According to author Sagar, General Niazi, surprisingly, was not aware of of such attack and had no prior knowledge about such attack.:304[30]

Surrendering of Eastern Command[edit]

Lieutenant-General Niazi signing the Instrument of Surrender under the gaze of India's Lt. Gen. J.S. Aurora, on 16 Dec' 1971 in Dhaka.

When Indian Army soldiers crossed the borders and charged towards the Dacca, General Niazi panicked when he came to realise the real nature of Indian strategy and became frantically nervous when Indian Army successfully penetrated the defence of the East.:304[30] According to the testimonies provided by Major-General Farman Ali, Niazi's morale collapsed as early as 7 December and cried fanatically over the progress report presented to the Governor Abdul Motaleb.[32] He ultimately blamed Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan of turning the East Pakistanis hostile towards the Government of Pakistan and the creation of the Mukti Bahini.:142[33] Major accusations were also directed toward Lieutenant-General Yaqub Ali Khan, Admiral S.M. Ahsen and Major-General Ali for aggravating the crises but General Niazi had to bore most responsibility for all that happened in the East.:627[34][self-published source?]

General Niazi, alongside with his deputy Rear-Admiral Mohammad Shariff, nervously tried reassessing the situation to hold the Indian Army's penetration by directing joint army-navy operations with no sucess.[35][36] The Pakistani military combat units found themselves involved in a guerrilla war with the Mukti Bahini led under Atul Osmani, and were unprepared and untrained for such warfare.[37]

On 9 December, the Indian government accepted the sovereignty of Bangladesh and extended its diplomatic mission to Provisional Government of Bangladesh.:16[38] This eventually led Governor Abdul Motaleb to resign from his post and took refuge with his entire cabinet at the Red Cross shelter at Dhaka Hotel Intercontinental on 14 December.[17]

General Niazi eventually took control of the civilian government and was reportedly received a telegram on 16 December 1971 from President Yahya Khan: "You have fought a heroic battle against overwhelming odds. The nation is proud of you ... You have now reached a stage where further resistance is no longer humanly possible nor will it serve any useful purpose ... You should now take all necessary measures to stop the fighting and preserve the lives of armed forces personnel, all those from West Pakistan and all loyal elements".:73–74[4]

During this time, the Special Branch of East Pakistan Police notified Governor Niazi of the joint Indo-Bengali siege of Dhaka as the Eastern Command led by Lieutenant-General Jagjit Singh Aurora began encircling Dhaka.:[39] Governor Niazi appealed for a conditional ceasefire to Lieutenant-General Jagjit Singh Aurora which called for transferring power to elected government but without the surrender of the Eastern Command led by General Niazi.:[39] This offer was rejected by Indian Army's Chief of Army Staff General Sam Manekshaw but Manekshaw set a deadline for surrender, and President Yahya Khan considered it as "illegitimate.:64[15] [39] Niazi appealed for a cease-fire, but Manekshaw set a deadline for surrender, failing which Dhaka would come under siege. Niazi [15]

Subsequently, the Indian Army began encircling the Dacca and Lieutenant-General Jagjit Singh Aurora sent a message through Major-General Rafael Jacob that issued an ultimatum to surrender in "30-minutes" time window on 16 December 1971.[40] Lieutenant-General Niazi agreed to surrender and sent a message to General Manekshaw despite many army officers declined to obey although they were legally bound.[41] The Indian Army commanders, Lieutenant General Sagat Singh, Lieutenant General J.S. Aurora, and Major-General Rafael Farj Jacob arrived on Dhaka via helicopter with the surrender documents.[40]

The meeting took place at Ramna Race Course in Dhaka at 16:31 Hrs PST on 16 December 1971, and General Niazi signed the Instrument of Surrender with the J.S. Aurora in the presence of Pakistani military and Indian army commanders that nearly surrendered ~95,000 personnel of the Eastern Command to Indian Army.[42]

War prisoner, repartition, and politics[edit]

Following the surrender, the Indian Army's Military Police flew General Niazi and Admiral Shariff from Dhaka International Airport to Calcutta via Caribou aircraft.:155–156[4] They were transported from the military staff cars, and held at Fort William.:155[4] Admiral Shariff was among the first senior ranking who were repatriated to Pakistan under the agreement signed in New Delhi between Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Niazi was symbolically repatriated to Pakistan from the Wagha point in Lahore and was handed over to Lieutenant-General Abdul Hameed Khan on 30 April 1975.:620[6]

When he was repatriated to Pakistan, Niazi came to believe himself that he would be treated as a war hero but was shocked to see when he was treated as war criminal by the concerning general public in the country.:170[4]

He was barred from addressing the media and immediately taken under the custody of Military Police who shifted him via helicopter to the Lahore Cantonment where he was detained despite his strong protests.:170[4] He was immediately dismissed from his military commission and war honors were withdrawn from him.:49[43] Subsequently, he was placed in solitary confinement for sometime, though he was later released.:285[44] Being the last to return supported his reputation as a "soldier's general", but did not shield him from the scorn he faced in Pakistan, where he was blamed for the surrender. Bhutto discharged Niazi after stripping him of his military rank, the pension usually accorded to retired soldiers, and his military decorations.[42]

He was also denied his military pension and medical benefits, though he lodged a strong complain against revoking of his pension.:49[45] In 1980s, the Ministry of Defence quietly changed the status of "dismissal" to "retirement" but did not restore his rank.:620[46] The change of order allowed Niazi to seek military pensions and medical assistance benefits enjoyed by the retired military personnel.:620[46]

Niazi remained active in the national politics in 1970s and supported the ultraconservative agenda on a conservative platform against Pakistan Peoples Party.[2] In 1977, he was again detained by the police when the martial law was enforced and seeked retirement from the politics.[47]

War Enquiry Commission[edit]

In 1972, Niazi was summoned and confessed at the War Enquiry Commission led by Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman and the Supreme Court of Pakistan on the events involving the secession of East Pakistan on April 1975.:79[48] The War Commission leveled accusations against him of several kinds of moral, ethical, and professional misconduct during his tenure in the East Pakistan. The War Commission opined that General Niazi personally indulged and supervised the smuggling of betel leaf and imported Paan, using the official aircraft, from East Pakistan to Pakistan.:xcx[49] The War Commission also noted his habit of making "dirty jokes" in the army that he would tell the junior officers.:xcx[49] Many senior officers, including Rao Farman Ali, held him accountable for the committed atrocities and mass rapes committed under his command who recounted their memories.[50]

The War Commission severely indicted him of monetary corruption and moral turpitude while noting his bullying of junior officers who would resists his orders.:contents[51] General Niazi tried placing the blames on President Yahya, General Tikka, Major-General Rao, Admiral S.M. Ahsan, and Lieutenant-General Yaqub Ali Khan but the War Commission dismissed his claims by critically noting that "[General] Niazi was a Supreme Commander of the Eastern Command, and that [General] Niazi was responsible for all that happened in the East.":452[34][self-published source?] Though he showed no regrets or qualms of conscience while confessing, Niazi refused to accept the responsibility of break-up of the country and squarely blamed President Yahya Khan for it.:contents[52]The War Commission endorsed his claims that President Yahya was to blame but noted that Niazi was the Commander who lost the East.:contents[52]

The War Commission also conducted inquiries when Niazi was also accused of making "side deals" in order to garnered money during his time as GOC in Sialkot and as a martial law administrator in Lahore.:147[53]

The War Commission recommended field court martial to be held by the Judge Advocate General that would induct Niazi of most serious breaches of military disciplines and military code of honor and additional 15 charges.:185[32] However, no such court-martial took place but, nonetheless, he was politically maligned and inducted with the war crimes taken place in East Pakistan throughout his lifetime.:xxi[54] Niazi did not accepted the War Commission's inquiries and fact-findings, believing that the War Commission had no understanding of the military matters.:68-70[55] Niazi claimed that a court-martial would have besmeared the names of those who later rose to great heights, and that he was being used as a scapegoat.:68-70[55]

In 1998, he authored a book, "The Betrayal of East Pakistan" which was seen by critics as a mea culpa than a sober record of the events that led to 16 December 1971.[2]In 2004, he appeared in Views On News and interviewed by Dr. Shahid Masood at the ARY News shortly before his death.[56]

Death and Legacy[edit]

After giving interview to ARY News, Niazi passed away on 1 February 2004 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.[2] He was buried in Military Graveyard in Lahore.[2]

Niazi's legacy was described as a mixture of the foolhardy and the ruthless. He was also noted for making audacious statements like: "Dacca will fall only over my dead body".[2] According to Pakistani author, Akbar S. Ahmed, he had even hatched a far-fetched plan to "cross into India and march up the Ganges and capture Delhi and thus link up with Pakistan."[57]

This he called the "Niazi corridor theory" explaining "It was a corridor that the Quaid-e-Azam demanded and I will obtain it by force of arms".[58] In a plan he presented to the central government in June 1971, he stated in his own words that "I would capture Agartala and a big chunk of Assam, and develop multiple thrusts into Indian Bengal. We would cripple the economy of Calcutta by blowing up bridges and sinking boats and ships in Hooghly River and create panic amongst the civilians. One air raid on Calcutta would set a sea of humanity in motion to get out of Calcutta”.[58][59] A journalist from Dawn had observed him thus: When I last met him on 30 September 1971, at his force headquarters in Kurmitola, he was full of beans.[2]

From the mass of evidence coming before the War Enquiry Commission from witnesses, both civil and military, there is little doubt that Niazi came to acquire a bad reputation in sex matters, and this reputation has been consistent during his postings in Sialkot, Lahore and East Pakistan. :contents pages[60]The allegations regarding his indulgence in the export of Pan by using or abusing his position in the Eastern Command and as Zonal Martial Law Administrator also prima facie appear to be well-founded.[61]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hamid Mir (26 March 2010). "Apology Day for Pakistanis". The Daily Star. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Siddiqi, PA, Brigadier A. R. (13 February 2004). "Gen A. A. K. (Tiger) Niazi: an appraisal". DAWN. Islamabad. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  3. ^ Joura, J. S. (2011). "§Into BSF and Back in Assam". A Blessed Life (googlebooks). New Delhi [in]: Sanbun Publishers. ISBN 9788170103851. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bhattacharya, Brigadier Samir (2014). NOTHING BUT!. India: Partridge Publishing. ISBN 9781482817201. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  5. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2010). "The Cold War and the Nuclear Age, 1945-2008". A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East [6 volumes]: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East (googlebools). Denver, CO, [u.s.]: ABC-CLIO. p. 3056. ISBN 9781851096725. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  6. ^ a b News Review on South Asia and Indian Ocean. Institute for Defence Studies & Analyses. 1983. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  7. ^ "Genocide in Bangladesh, 1971. Gendercide Watch". Gendercide.org. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  8. ^ a b Mir, Hamid (16 December 2014). "Forty-three years of denial". The Indian Express. Islamabad, Pakistan: The Indian Express, Hamid Mir. The Indian Express, Hamid Mir. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  9. ^ Ahmed, Khalid (7 July 2012). "'Genetic engineering' in East Pakistan - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. Islamabad, Pakistan: Khaled Ahmed, Express Tribune. Express Tribune, 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  10. ^ Khan., Niazi, Amir Abdullah (1999). The betrayal of East Pakistan. Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, Karachi University. ISBN 0195792750. 
  11. ^ Jaffor Ullah, A H (6 February 2004). "The Daily Star Web EditionVol. 4 Num 247". archive.thedailystar.net (247). New Orleans, Orlando, U.S.: Daily Star, AH Jafforullah. Daily Star. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Lieutenant-General A. A. K. Niazi". Times. London. 11 March 2004. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2011. 
  13. ^ "General A A K Niazi". www.mianwalionline.com. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c Fair, C. Christine (2014). Fighting to the End: The Pakistan Army's Way of War (google books). Oxford, U.K: Oxford University Press. p. 308. ISBN 9780199892709. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  15. ^ a b c d Bose, Sarmila (15 November 2010). "Sarmila Bose on events of 1971". The Times of Bombay. Retrieved 9 July 2011. [dead link]
  16. ^ Sehgal, Ikram ul-Majeed. Defence Journal. Ikram ul-Majeed Sehgal. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  17. ^ a b BD Government, BD Government. "BANGABHABAN - The President House of Bangladesh". bangabhaban.gov.bd. BD Government. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  18. ^ Singh, Lt Gen Harbakhsh. War Despatches: Indo–Pak Conflict 1965. Lancer Publishers LLC. pp. 9–. ISBN 9781935501596. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  19. ^ a b war correspondents, et.al (1982). Asia Week: A.A.K. Niazi- The Man who Lost East Pakistan. Asiaweek Limited. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  20. ^ "The Rediff Interview with Lt Gen A A Khan Niazi". Rediff. 2 February 2004. 
  21. ^ a b c Wahab, A. T. M. Abdul (2004). Mukti Bahini wins victory: Pak military oligarchy divides Pakistan in 1971. Michigan, U.S.: Columbia Prokashani. ISBN 9789847130446. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  22. ^ a b Cardozo, Ian (2016). In Quest of Freedom: The War of 1971 - Personal Accounts by Soldiers from India and Bangladesh. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 46–. ISBN 9789386141668. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  23. ^ De, Sibopada (2005). Illegal migrations and the North-East : a study of migrants from Bangladesh. New Delhi: Published for Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies by Anamika Publishers & Distributors. p. 207. ISBN 8179750906. 
  24. ^ a b Gates, Scott; Roy, Kaushik (2016). Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Routledge. pp. 145–. ISBN 9781317005407. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  25. ^ a b Barua, Pradeep (2013). The Military Effectiveness of Post-Colonial States. BRILL. pp. 109–. ISBN 9004249117. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  26. ^ a b Rizvi, H. (2000). Military, State and Society in Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 138–. ISBN 9780230599048. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  27. ^ Sālik, PA, Brigadier Ṣiddīq (1979). Witness To Surrender. Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, University of Karachi. p. 264. ISBN 9788170621089. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  28. ^ Sinh, Ramdhir (2013). A Talent for War: The Military Biography of Lt Gen Sagat Singh. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. pp. 182–. ISBN 9789382573739. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  29. ^ Jackson, Robert (1978). South Asian Crisis: India — Pakistan — Bangla Desh. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 108–. ISBN 9781349041633. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  30. ^ a b c d e Sagar, Krishna Chandra (1997). The War of the Twins. Northern Book Centre. pp. 304–. ISBN 9788172110826. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  31. ^ Sisson, Richard; Rose, Leo E. (1991). War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh. University of California Press. pp. 229–. ISBN 9780520076655. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  32. ^ a b Jones, Owen Bennett (2002). Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. Yale University Press. pp. 183–. ISBN 0300101473. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  33. ^ Gerlach, Christian. Extremely Violent Societies: Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139493512. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  34. ^ a b Nabi, Dr Nuran (2010). Bullets of '71: A Freedom Fighter's Story. AuthorHouse. pp. 627–. ISBN 9781452043838. 
  35. ^ Malik, Major-General Tajammul Hussain. "The Surrender". Major-General Tajammul Hussain Malik, GOC of 203 Mountain Division. Retrieved 21 December 2011. 
  36. ^ "History: A SOVIET INTELLIGENCE OPERATIVE ON BANGLADESH WAR". History. Soviet History. 16 March 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  37. ^ Raja, Dewan Mohammad Tasawwar (2010). O General My General (Life and Works of General M A G Osmany). The Osmany Memorial Trust. pp. 35–109. ISBN 978-984-8866-18-4. 
  38. ^ Preston, Ian. A Political Chronology of Central, South and East Asia. Psychology Press. ISBN 9781857431148. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  39. ^ a b c Kapur, Paul. Jihad as Grand Strategy: Islamist Militancy, National Security, and the Pakistani State. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190611828. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  40. ^ a b Sengupta, Ramananda. "1971 War: 'I will give you 30 minutes'". Sify. Sify, Sengupta. Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  41. ^ "Fall of Dhaka 1971". Story Of Pakistan. Story Of Pakistan. 4 June 2002. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  42. ^ a b Orton, Anna (2010). India's Borderland Disputes: China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Epitome Books. p. 117. ISBN 978-93-80297-15-6. 
  43. ^ Sehgal, Ikram ul-Majeed (2002). Defence Journal. Ikram ul-Majeed Sehgal. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  44. ^ Kortenaar, Neil Ten. Self, Nation, Text in Salman Rushdie's "Midnight's Children". McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. ISBN 9780773526211. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  45. ^ Sehgal, Ikram ul-Majeed. Defence Journal. Ikram ul-Majeed Sehgal. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  46. ^ a b News Review on South Asia and Indian Ocean. Institute for Defence Studies & Analyses. 1980s. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  47. ^ Kak, B. L. (1979). Z. A. Bhutto: Notes from the Death Cell. Rādhā Krishna Press. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  48. ^ D'Costa, Bina. Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9780415565660. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  49. ^ a b Abbas, Hassan. Pakistan's Drift into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror. Routledge. ISBN 9781317463276. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  50. ^ Sattar, Babar (23 December 2013). "Bigoted and smug". DAWN.COM. Dawn, Sattar. Dawn newspapers. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  51. ^ Singh, Maj Gen (retd) Randhir (1999). A Talent for War: The Military Biography of Lt Gen Sagat Singh. New Delhi: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789382652236. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  52. ^ a b Cloughley, Brian. A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9781631440397. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  53. ^ Kohli, S.N. (1989). We dared : maritime operations in the 1971 Indo-Pak War. New Delhi: Lancer International. ISBN 8170620635. 
  54. ^ Tripathi, Salil. The Colonel Who Would Not Repent: The Bangladesh War and Its Unquiet Legacy. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300221022. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  55. ^ a b Faruqui, Ahmad. Rethinking the National Security of Pakistan: The Price of Strategic Myopia. Ashgate. ISBN 9780754614975. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  56. ^ "TV SHOWS". Dr. Shahid Masood. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  57. ^ Rosser, Yvette. "Abuse of History in Pakistan: Bangladesh to Kargil". Pakistan Facts. Archived from the original on 17 March 2006. 
  58. ^ a b The Betrayal of East Pakistan. A.A.K Niazi
  59. ^ Online snippets of Niazi's comments
  60. ^ Mookherjee, Nayanika. The Spectral Wound: Sexual Violence, Public Memories, and the Bangladesh War of 1971. Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822375227. 
  61. ^ [1]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
VAdm Mohammad Shariff
Unified Commander of Eastern Military High Command
14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971
Succeeded by
Office abolished
Political offices
Preceded by
Abdul Motaleb Malik
Governor of East Pakistan
14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971
Succeeded by
Office abolished