Amischotolype

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Amischotolype
Amischotolpe cf monosperma HabitusInflorescences BotGardBln0906.JPG
Amischotolype monosperma in cultivation at the Botanical Garden in Berlin
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Commelinales
Family: Commelinaceae
Subfamily: Commelinoideae
Tribe: Tradescantineae
Genus: Amischotolype
Hassk., 1863[1]
Type species
A. glabrata
Hassk.
Synonyms[2]

Forrestia A.Rich. 1834 not Raf. 1806

Amischotolype is a genus of perennial monocotyledonous flowering plants in the dayflower family. It is found in Central Africa and from India through Southeast Asia to New Guinea,[2][3][4] with the great majority or species found in Asia.[5]

The name is derived from the Ancient Greek words αμισχος, meaning 'unstalked', and τολυπη, meaning 'tangle'.[1] The genus is characterised by its rather compact inflorescences which are composed on two or more cincinni that pierce through the base of the leaf sheath, and also by its seeds that are embedded in red arils. Flowers are actinomorphic, and anthers release their pollen either through a pore at the tip or slits down the sides. They are typically encountered in forest understories. The closely related genus Porandra, which consists of three Asian species, is considered by Robert Faden, a leading authority on the family, to be "doubtfully distinct" from Amischotolype.[3] Analysis of DNA sequences has shown that Amischotolype is most closely related to the genus Coleotrype, while these two are in turn most closely related to the genus Cyanotis plus its very close relative Belosynapsis. These four genera form a clade that is found only in the Old World, while all of its immediate ancestors are present only in the New World.[4][6]

Species[2]
  1. Amischotolype barbarossa Duist. - Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra
  2. Amischotolype divaricata Duist. - Indochina, Sumatra
  3. Amischotolype dolichandra Duist. - Assam
  4. Amischotolype glabrata Hassk. - Himalayas, southern China, Tibet, Indochina, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, western Indonesia
  5. Amischotolype gracilis (Ridl.) I.M.Turner - Borneo, Malaya, Sumatra
  6. Amischotolype griffithii (C.B.Clarke) I.M.Turner - Malaya, Riau Islands
  7. Amischotolype hirsuta (Hallier f.) Duist. - Borneo, Sumatra
  8. Amischotolype hispida (A.Rich.) D.Y.Hong - Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines, Maluku, New Guinea
  9. Amischotolype hookeri (Hassk.) H.Hara - Nepal, Bangladesh, Assam, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh
  10. Amischotolype irritans (Ridl.) I.M.Turner - Thailand, Sumatra, Malaya
  11. Amischotolype laxiflora (Merr.) Faden - Borneo, Sulawesi
  12. Amischotolype leiocarpa (Hallier f.) Duist. - Borneo
  13. Amischotolype lobata Duist. - Borneo
  14. Amischotolype marginata (Blume) Hassk - Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines
  15. Amischotolype mollissima (Blume) Hassk - Java, Sumatra
  16. Amischotolype monosperma (C.B.Clarke) I.M.Turner - Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo
  17. Amischotolype parvifructa Duist. - Cameron Highlands of Malaysia
  18. Amischotolype pedicellata Duist. - Borneo
  19. Amischotolype rostrata (Hassk.) Duist. - Java, Sumatra, Maluku
  20. Amischotolype sphagnorrhiza Cowley - Brunei, Sarawak
  21. Amischotolype strigosa Duist. - Sumatra
  22. Amischotolype tenuis (C.B.Clarke) R.S.Rao - Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Zaire
  23. Amischotolype welzeniana Duist. - Myanmar, Thailand

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hasskarl, J.K. (1863). "Adumbrationes Commelinacearum quarundam, quas in Africae orientalis littore, Mozambique reperit Prof. Peters et amplius in hujus opere "Reise etc." descripsit". Flora (in Latin). 46 (25): 385–393. 
  2. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ a b Faden, Robert B. (1998), "Commelinaceae", in Kubitzki, Klaus, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, 4, Berlin: Springer, pp. 109–128, ISBN 3-540-64061-4 
  4. ^ a b Hong, Deyuan; DeFillipps, Robert A. (2000), "Amischotolype", in Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P.H.; Hong, D.Y., Flora of China, 24, Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, p. 23 
  5. ^ Duistermaat, H. (2012). A taxonomic revision of Amischotolype (Commelinaceae) in Asia. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 64: 51-131.
  6. ^ Evans, Timothy M.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.; Faden, Robert B.; Givnish, Thomas J. (2003), "Phylogenetic Relationships in the Commelinaceae: II. A Cladistic Analysis of rbcL Sequences and Morphology", Systematic Botany, 28 (2): 270–292