Ammonia tepida

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Ammonia tepida
Temporal range: M Cretaceous - recent
Ammonia tepida.jpg
Live Ammonia tepida
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Rhizaria
Superphylum: Retaria
Phylum: Foraminifera
Order: Rotaliida
Superfamily: Rotalioidea
Family: Rotaliidae
Genus: Ammonia
Species: A. tepida
Binomial name
Ammonia tepida
Cushman, 1926

Ammonia beccarii var. tepida Cushman, 1926
Rotalia beccarii var. tepida Cushman, 1926
Streblus beccarii var. tepida (Cushman, 1926)

Ammonia tepida is a benthic foraminifer living in the sediment of brackish waters. It is very similar to Ammonia beccarii, but the latter lives on the surface of red algae.[2]


Ammonia tepida is found in the sediment of brackish waters worldwide. It is able to tolerate a wide range of temperatures and degrees of salinity, as well as to survive severe environmental conditions. As it is easy to keep in the laboratory, being able to reproduce both asexually and sexually without problem, it considered an ideal organism for laboratory studies.[3]

The diet of A. tepida consists mainly of other microorganisms. Algae form about 80–90% of its diet and the remaining is composed by bacteria.[4] Laboratory experiments showed that it may also prey on small animals, such as nematodes, copepods and mollusk larvae.[5]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Debenay, Jean-Pierre; Bénéteau, Eric; Zhang, Jijun; Stouff, Véronique; Geslin, Emmanuelle; Redois, Fabrice; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Marialsira (1998). "Ammonia beccarii and Ammonia tepida (Foraminifera): morphofunctional arguments for their distinction". Marine Micropaleontology. 34 (3-4): 235–244. doi:10.1016/S0377-8398(98)00010-3. ISSN 0377-8398. 
  3. ^ Munsel, D.; Kramar, U.; Dissard, D.; Nehrke, G.; Berner, Z.; Bijma, J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Neumann, T. (2010). "Heavy metal incorporation in foraminiferal calcite: results from multi-element enrichment culture experiments with Ammonia tepida". Biogeosciences. 7 (8): 2339–2350. doi:10.5194/bg-7-2339-2010. ISSN 1726-4189. open access publication - free to read
  4. ^ Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Dupuy, Christine; Richard, Pierre; Niquil, Nathalie (2008). "Bacterivory in the common foraminifer Ammonia tepida: Isotope tracer experiment and the controlling factors". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 359 (1): 55–61. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2008.02.018. ISSN 0022-0981. 
  5. ^ Dupuy, C.; Rossignol, L.; Geslin, E.; Pascal, P.-Y. (2010). "Predation of mudflat meio-macrofaunal metazoans by a calcareous foraminifer, Ammonia tepida (Cushman, 1926)". The Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 40 (4): 305–312. doi:10.2113/gsjfr.40.4.305. ISSN 0096-1191. 

Further reading[edit]

Ruiz, Francisco; Gonzalez-Regalado, Maria Luz; Abad, Manuel; Munoz, Juan Manuel; Pino, Rafael (October 2007). "New applications of the Poisson distribution in micropalaeontology: relationships between environmental variables and the Ammonia tepida distribution in the south-western Spanish estuaries". Terra Nova. 19 (5): 372. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3121.2007.00761.x. Retrieved 12 February 2015.